Abstract

Using an extensive database of in situ observations we present a model that estimates the particle backscattering coefficient as a function of the total chlorophyll concentration in the open-ocean (Case-1 waters). The parameters of the model include a constant background component and the chlorophyll-specific backscattering coefficients associated with small (<20μm) and large (>20μm) phytoplankton. The new model performed with similar accuracy when compared with a traditional power-law function, with the additional benefit of providing information on the role of phytoplankton size. The observed spectral-dependency (γ) of model parameters was consistent with past observations, such that γ associated with the small phytoplankton population was higher than that of large phytoplankton. Furthermore, γ associated with the constant background component suggests this component is likely attributed to submicron particles. We envisage that the model would be useful for improving Case-1 ocean-colour models, assimilating light into multi-phytoplankton ecosystem models and improving estimates of phytoplankton size structure from remote sensing.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

V. Martinez-Vicente, G. Tilstone, S. Sathyendranath, P. I. Miller, and S. B. Groom, “Contributions of phytoplankton and bacteria to the optical backscattering coefficient over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.445, 37–51 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (9)

C. D. Mobley, “Fast calculations for ocean ecosystem and inverse models,” Opt. Express19(20), 18927–18944 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hirata, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, R. J. W. Brewin, J. Aiken, R. Barlow, K. Suzuki, T. Isada, E. Howell, T. Hashioha, M. Noguchi-Aita, and Y. Yamanaka, “Synoptic relationships between surface Chlorophyll-a and diagnostic pigments specific to phytoplankton functional types,” Biogeosci.8, 311–327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. J. W. Brewin, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, S. Lavender, D. Raitsos, T. Hirata, J. Uitz, E. Devred, A. Bricaud, A. Ciotti, and B. Gentili, “An intercomparison of bio-optical techniques for detecting dominant phytoplankton size class from satellite remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ.115, 325–3159 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Fujiwara, T. Hirawake, K. Suzuki, and S-I. Saitoh, “Remote Sensing of size structure of phytoplankton communities using optical properties of the Chukchi and Bering Sea shelf region,” Biogeosci.8, 3567–3580 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujii, E. Boss, and F. Chai “The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: a case study,” Biogeosci.4, 817–835 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, C. Courties, L. Prieur, M. Pujo-Pay, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, and T. Moutin, “Inferring phytoplankton carbon and eco-physiological rates from diel cycles of spectral particulate beam-attenuation coefficient,” Biogeosci.8, 3423–3439 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr.56(3), 955–973 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. J. W. Brewin, E. Devred, S. Sathyendranath, S. J. Lavender, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “Model of phytoplankton absorption based on three size classes,” Appl. Opt.50(22), 4535–4549 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Devred, S. Sathyendranath, V. Stuart, and T. Platt, “A three component classification of phytoplankton absorption spectra: Applications to ocean-colour data,” Remote Sens. Environ.115(9), 2255–2266 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (8)

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Global variability of phytoplankton functional types from space: assessment via the particle size distribution,” Biogeosci.7, 3239–3257 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Whitmire, W. S. Pegau, L. Karp-Boss, E. Boss, and T. J. Cowles, “Spectral backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton cultures,” Opt. Express18, 15073–15093 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Loisel, B. Lubac, D. Dessailly, L. Duforet-Gaurier, and V. Vantrepotte, “Effect of inherent optical properties variability on the chlorophyll retrieved from ocean color remote sensing: an in situ approach,” Opt. Express18(20), 20949–20959 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Westberry, G. Dall’Olmo, M. J. Behrenfeld, and T. Moutin, “Coherence of particulate beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in diverse open ocean environments,” Opt. Express18(15), 15419–15425 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Hirata, S. Lavender, R. M. Barciela, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “A three-component model of phytoplankton size class for the Atlantic Ocean,” Ecol. Model.221, 1472–1483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Mouw and J. Yoder, “Optical determination of phytoplankton size composition from global SeaWiFS imagery,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]115, C12018 (2010),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Marinov, S. C. Doney, and I. D. Lima, “Response of ocean phytoplankton community structure to climate change over the 21st century: partitioning the effects of nutrients, temperature and light,” Biogeosci.7, 3941–3959 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, S. Shang, C. Hu, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, Y. Li, and B. Lubac, “Time series of bio-optical properties in a subtrophical gyre: Implications for the evaluation of interannual trends of biogeochemical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]115, C09012, (2010)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (7)

D. McKee, M. Chami, I. Brown, V. Sanjuan Calzado, D. Doxaran, and A. Cunningham, “Role of measurement uncertainties in observed variability in the spectral backscattering ratio: a case study in mineral-rich coastal waters,” Appl. Opt.48(24), 4663–4675 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Werdell, “Global bio-optical algorithms for ocean color satellite applications,” EOS Trans. AGU90(1), (2009),
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang and L. Hu, “Estimating scattering of pure water from density fluctuation of the refractive index,” Opt. Express17, 1671–1678 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, L. Hu, and M.-X. He, “Scattering by pure seawater: Effect of salinity,” Opt. Express17, 5698–5710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bernard, T. A. Probyn, and A. Quirantes, “Simulating the optical properties of phytoplankton cells using a two-layer spherical geometry,” Biogeosci. Discuss.6, 1497–1563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosci.6(6), 947–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]114, CO9015 (2009),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosci.5, 495–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosci.5, 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Hirata, J. Aiken, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, and T. J. Smyth, “An absorption model to derive phytoplankton size classes from satellite ocean colour,” Remote Sens. Environ.112(6), 3153–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Brown, Y. Huot, P. J. Werdell, B. Gentili, and H. Claustre, “The origin and global distribution of second order variability in satellite ocean color and its potential applications to algorithm development,” Remote Sens. Environ.112, 4186–4203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosci.4, 1041–1068 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Boss, R. Collier, G. Larson, K. Fennel, and S. W. Pegau, “Measurements of spectral optical properties and their relation to biogeochemical variables and processes in Crater Lake, Crater Lake National Park, OR,” Hydrobiologia574(1), 149–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (9)

T. J. Smyth, G. F. Moore, T. Hirata, and J. Aiken, “Semianalytical model for the derivation of ocean color inherent optical properties: description, implementation, and performance assessment,” Appl. Opt.45(31), 8116–8131 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, H. Loisel, and F. M. Bréon, “A species-dependent bio-optical model of case 1 water for the global ocean color processing,” Deep Sea Res. Part I53, 917–925 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Dierssen, R. M. Kudela, J. P. Ryan, and R. C. Zimmerman, “Red and black tides: Quantitative analysis of water-leaving radiance and perceived color for phytoplankton, colored dissolved organic matter, and suspended sediments,” Limnol. Oceanogr.51(6), 2646–2659 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Stramska, D. Stramski, S. Kaczmarek, D. B. Allison, and J. Schwarz, “Seasonal and regional differentiation of bio-optical properties within the north polar Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]111, C08003, (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Devred, S. Sathyendranath, V. Stuart, H. Mass, O. Ulloa, and T. Platt, “A two-component model of phytoplankton absorption in the open ocean: Theory and applications,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]111, C03011 (2006),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: An assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]111, CO8005 (2006),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Loisel, J. M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]111, C09024 (2006),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Ciotti and A. Bricaud, “Retrievals of a size parameter for phytoplankton and spectral light absorption by coloured detrital matter from water-leaving radiances at SeaWiFS channels in a continental shelf off Brazil,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods4, 237–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee and C. Hu, “Global distribution of Case-1 waters: An analysis from SeaWiFS measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ.101, 270–276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles19, GB1006 (2005),
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, “Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt.44, 1667–1680 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in situ bio-optical data set for ocean colour algorithm development and satellite data production validation,” Remote Sens. Environ.98, 122–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

J. C. Blackford, J. I. Allen, and F. J. Gilbert, “Ecosystem dynamics at six contrasting sites: a generic modelling study,” J. Marine Syst.52, 191–215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. L. Guillard, and W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res.26(2), 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, L. Watts, E. Devred, T. Platt, C. Caverhill, and H. Mass, “Discrimination of diatoms from other phytoplankton using ocean-colour data,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.272, 59–68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and K. Oubelkheir, “Natural variability of phytoplanktonic absorption in oceanic waters: Influence of the size structure of algal populations,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]109, C11010 (2004),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

M. Stramska, D. Stramski, R. Hapter, S. Kaczmarek, and J. Stoń, “Bio-optical relationships and ocean color algorithms for the north polar region of the Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]108, C53143 (2003),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Aumont, E. Maier-Reimer, S. Blain, and P. Monfray, “An ecosystem model of the global ocean including Fe, Si, P colimitations,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles17(2), 1060 (2003),
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2001 (4)

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, and G. Mitchell, “A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the Southern Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]106, 7125–7138 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sathyendranath, V. Stuart, G. Cota, H. Mass, and T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote. Sens.22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Vidussi, H. Claustre, B. B. Manca, A. Luchetta, and J. C. Marty, “Phytoplankton pigment distribution in relation to upper thermocline circulation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during winter,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]106, 19939–19956 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. M. Ciotti, J. J. Cullen, and M. R. Lewis, “A semi-analytical model of the influence of phytoplankton community structure on the relationship between light attenuation and ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]104, C11559–1578 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with the chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: Analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[PubMed]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

V. A. Lutz, S. Sathyendranath, and E. J. H. Head, “Absorption coefficient of phytoplankton: Regional variations in the North Atlantic,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.135, 197–213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: Analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Cleveland, “Regional models for phytoplankton absorption as a function of chlorophyll a concentration,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]100, 13333–13344 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

Y-H. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters,” Deep Sea Res.39(11/12), 1835–1855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

A. Morel and Y-H. Ahn, “Optics of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates: A tentative assessment of their scattering role in oceanic waters compared to those of bacterial and algal cells,” J. Mar. Res.49, 177–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Light and Marine Photosynthesis: A Spectral Model with Geochemical and Climatological Implications,” Prog. Oceanogr.26, 263–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr.28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and S. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmospheres]93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[PubMed]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]93, 749–768 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Ulloa, S. Sathyendranath, and T. Platt, “Effect of the particle-size distribution on the backscattering ratio in seawater,” Appl. Opt.33(30), 7070–7076 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. Morel, “Chlorophyll-specific scattering coefficient of phytoplankton. A simplified theoretical approach,” Deep Sea Res.34(7), 1093–1105 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

L. Prieur and S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr.26, 617–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr.22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, Y-H.

Y-H. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters,” Deep Sea Res.39(11/12), 1835–1855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and Y-H. Ahn, “Optics of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates: A tentative assessment of their scattering role in oceanic waters compared to those of bacterial and algal cells,” J. Mar. Res.49, 177–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Aiken, J.

T. Hirata, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, R. J. W. Brewin, J. Aiken, R. Barlow, K. Suzuki, T. Isada, E. Howell, T. Hashioha, M. Noguchi-Aita, and Y. Yamanaka, “Synoptic relationships between surface Chlorophyll-a and diagnostic pigments specific to phytoplankton functional types,” Biogeosci.8, 311–327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Hirata, J. Aiken, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, and T. J. Smyth, “An absorption model to derive phytoplankton size classes from satellite ocean colour,” Remote Sens. Environ.112(6), 3153–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Smyth, G. F. Moore, T. Hirata, and J. Aiken, “Semianalytical model for the derivation of ocean color inherent optical properties: description, implementation, and performance assessment,” Appl. Opt.45(31), 8116–8131 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allali, K.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with the chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: Analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, J. I.

J. C. Blackford, J. I. Allen, and F. J. Gilbert, “Ecosystem dynamics at six contrasting sites: a generic modelling study,” J. Marine Syst.52, 191–215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Allison, D. B.

M. Stramska, D. Stramski, S. Kaczmarek, D. B. Allison, and J. Schwarz, “Seasonal and regional differentiation of bio-optical properties within the north polar Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]111, C08003, (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alvain, S.

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, H. Loisel, and F. M. Bréon, “A species-dependent bio-optical model of case 1 water for the global ocean color processing,” Deep Sea Res. Part I53, 917–925 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr.56(3), 955–973 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R.

Z. P. Lee, S. Shang, C. Hu, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, Y. Li, and B. Lubac, “Time series of bio-optical properties in a subtrophical gyre: Implications for the evaluation of interannual trends of biogeochemical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]115, C09012, (2010)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnone, R. A.

Aumont, O.

O. Aumont, E. Maier-Reimer, S. Blain, and P. Monfray, “An ecosystem model of the global ocean including Fe, Si, P colimitations,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles17(2), 1060 (2003),
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosci.5, 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with the chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: Analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: Analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailey, S. W.

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in situ bio-optical data set for ocean colour algorithm development and satellite data production validation,” Remote Sens. Environ.98, 122–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “The SeaWiFS Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS): Current architecture and implementation,” Tech. Rep., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 45.

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and S. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmospheres]93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[PubMed]

Balch, W. M.

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. L. Guillard, and W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res.26(2), 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barciela, R. M.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Hirata, S. Lavender, R. M. Barciela, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “A three-component model of phytoplankton size class for the Atlantic Ocean,” Ecol. Model.221, 1472–1483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, R.

T. Hirata, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, R. J. W. Brewin, J. Aiken, R. Barlow, K. Suzuki, T. Isada, E. Howell, T. Hashioha, M. Noguchi-Aita, and Y. Yamanaka, “Synoptic relationships between surface Chlorophyll-a and diagnostic pigments specific to phytoplankton functional types,” Biogeosci.8, 311–327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Behrenfeld, M. J.

G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, C. Courties, L. Prieur, M. Pujo-Pay, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, and T. Moutin, “Inferring phytoplankton carbon and eco-physiological rates from diel cycles of spectral particulate beam-attenuation coefficient,” Biogeosci.8, 3423–3439 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Westberry, G. Dall’Olmo, M. J. Behrenfeld, and T. Moutin, “Coherence of particulate beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in diverse open ocean environments,” Opt. Express18(15), 15419–15425 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosci.6(6), 947–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles19, GB1006 (2005),
[CrossRef]

Bernard, S.

S. Bernard, T. A. Probyn, and A. Quirantes, “Simulating the optical properties of phytoplankton cells using a two-layer spherical geometry,” Biogeosci. Discuss.6, 1497–1563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blackford, J. C.

J. C. Blackford, J. I. Allen, and F. J. Gilbert, “Ecosystem dynamics at six contrasting sites: a generic modelling study,” J. Marine Syst.52, 191–215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blain, S.

O. Aumont, E. Maier-Reimer, S. Blain, and P. Monfray, “An ecosystem model of the global ocean including Fe, Si, P colimitations,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles17(2), 1060 (2003),
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, C. Courties, L. Prieur, M. Pujo-Pay, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, and T. Moutin, “Inferring phytoplankton carbon and eco-physiological rates from diel cycles of spectral particulate beam-attenuation coefficient,” Biogeosci.8, 3423–3439 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujii, E. Boss, and F. Chai “The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: a case study,” Biogeosci.4, 817–835 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Whitmire, W. S. Pegau, L. Karp-Boss, E. Boss, and T. J. Cowles, “Spectral backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton cultures,” Opt. Express18, 15073–15093 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosci.6(6), 947–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles19, GB1006 (2005),
[CrossRef]

Boss, E. S.

E. S. Boss, R. Collier, G. Larson, K. Fennel, and S. W. Pegau, “Measurements of spectral optical properties and their relation to biogeochemical variables and processes in Crater Lake, Crater Lake National Park, OR,” Hydrobiologia574(1), 149–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bréon, F. M.

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, H. Loisel, and F. M. Bréon, “A species-dependent bio-optical model of case 1 water for the global ocean color processing,” Deep Sea Res. Part I53, 917–925 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brewin, R. J. W.

T. Hirata, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, R. J. W. Brewin, J. Aiken, R. Barlow, K. Suzuki, T. Isada, E. Howell, T. Hashioha, M. Noguchi-Aita, and Y. Yamanaka, “Synoptic relationships between surface Chlorophyll-a and diagnostic pigments specific to phytoplankton functional types,” Biogeosci.8, 311–327 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. J. W. Brewin, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, S. Lavender, D. Raitsos, T. Hirata, J. Uitz, E. Devred, A. Bricaud, A. Ciotti, and B. Gentili, “An intercomparison of bio-optical techniques for detecting dominant phytoplankton size class from satellite remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ.115, 325–3159 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. J. W. Brewin, E. Devred, S. Sathyendranath, S. J. Lavender, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “Model of phytoplankton absorption based on three size classes,” Appl. Opt.50(22), 4535–4549 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Hirata, S. Lavender, R. M. Barciela, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “A three-component model of phytoplankton size class for the Atlantic Ocean,” Ecol. Model.221, 1472–1483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

R. J. W. Brewin, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, S. Lavender, D. Raitsos, T. Hirata, J. Uitz, E. Devred, A. Bricaud, A. Ciotti, and B. Gentili, “An intercomparison of bio-optical techniques for detecting dominant phytoplankton size class from satellite remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ.115, 325–3159 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Ciotti and A. Bricaud, “Retrievals of a size parameter for phytoplankton and spectral light absorption by coloured detrital matter from water-leaving radiances at SeaWiFS channels in a continental shelf off Brazil,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods4, 237–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and K. Oubelkheir, “Natural variability of phytoplanktonic absorption in oceanic waters: Influence of the size structure of algal populations,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]109, C11010 (2004),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with the chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: Analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: Analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y-H. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters,” Deep Sea Res.39(11/12), 1835–1855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. A.

C. A. Brown, Y. Huot, P. J. Werdell, B. Gentili, and H. Claustre, “The origin and global distribution of second order variability in satellite ocean color and its potential applications to algorithm development,” Remote Sens. Environ.112, 4186–4203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. W.

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. W. Brown, R. R. L. Guillard, and W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res.26(2), 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, I.

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and S. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmospheres]93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[PubMed]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and S. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmospheres]93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[PubMed]

Carder, K. L.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt.41, 5755–5772 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. [Oceans]103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[PubMed]

Caverhill, C.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Watts, E. Devred, T. Platt, C. Caverhill, and H. Mass, “Discrimination of diatoms from other phytoplankton using ocean-colour data,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.272, 59–68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chai, F.

M. Fujii, E. Boss, and F. Chai “The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: a case study,” Biogeosci.4, 817–835 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chami, M.

Ciotti, A.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The geographic distribution of the bbp(λ) and chlorophyll data used in this study. Light grey pixels represent cloud or high sun-zenith angles for the May 2006 SeaWiFS composite and dark grey pixels represent Case-2 waters as classified according to Lee and Hu [2].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Flow chart illustrating the procedures used to partition the data into the four databases (A–D) and develop and validate the model.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The particle backscattering coefficient (bbp) as a function of the chlorophyll concentration (C) for samples in database A and B. Database A is plotted at 470 nm (a) and 526 nm (b), with models parameterised to database A superimposed. Database B is plotted at 470 nm (c) and 526 nm (d) with models parameterised to the database A superimposed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The pigment model of Brewin et al. [38] (parameters recomputed from [28], see Table 1) plotted alongside size-specific fractional contributions to total chlorophyll estimated from independent HPLC data (576 samples) used in this study [36, 38, 64]. F1, F2 and F3 denote the fractions of pico-, nano- and micro-phytoplankton in total chlorophyll. Note that for the fractions, δ and Δ are provided in linear space and all HPLC samples in cruises other than NOMAD are taken from the top 10 m of the water column. NOMAD samples are from version 2.0 in Case-1 waters [2] and all coincident data in NOMAD Version 1.3.h (used for the parameterisation of Eq. (8) and (9)) were removed.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Histograms showing log10 residuals between model estimates of bbp and database B below 0.05 mg m−3 chlorophyll for 470 nm and 526 nm (N refers to the number of samples).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The particle backscattering coefficient (bbp) as a function of the chlorophyll concentration (C) for samples in database C (satellite data). Models of Sathyendranath et al. [16] and Huot et al. [24] are also shown in (b) and (d) for comparison.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) and (b) show the spectral dependency in model parameters (Eq. (21)) for database A and D. (c) shows the fractional contribution of each component population to bbp(470) for a given chlorophyll concentration estimated using Eq. (22) for both database A and D, coloured shading represents a model ensemble calculated by varying model parameters between 95% confidence intervals (Table 3), in every possible permutation. (d) shows estimated γ using Eq. (21) as a function of chlorophyll, as well as the minimum and maximum of the model ensemble.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameter values obtained from fitting Eq. (8) and (9) to pigment data in Brewin et al. [28] and from fitting Eq. (6), (12), (13) and (14) to database A.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Results from the statistical tests between models and database A, B and C. All statistical tests were performed in log10 space.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Parameter values applicable to Eq. (21) and (22), obtained from fitting Eq. (14)(20) to database A and D.

Equations (22)

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R ( λ ) = G b b ( λ ) a ( λ ) + b b ( λ ) ,
a ( λ ) = a w ( λ ) + a p h ( λ ) + a d g ( λ ) ,
b b ( λ ) = b b w ( λ ) + b b p ( λ ) ,
Δ = [ 1 N i = 1 N ( [ X i , E ( 1 N j = 1 N X j , E ) ] [ X i , M ( 1 N k = 1 N X k , M ) ] ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
δ = 1 N i = 1 N ( X i , E X i , M ) .
b b p ( λ ) = α ( λ ) C β ( λ ) ,
b b p ( λ ) = i = 1 3 b b p , i * ( λ ) C i ,
C 1 = C 1 m [ 1 exp ( S 1 C ) ] ,
C 1 , 2 = C 1 , 2 m [ 1 exp ( S 1 , 2 C ) ] ,
C 2 = C 1 , 2 C 1 ,
C 3 = C C 1 , 2 .
b b p ( λ ) = b b p , 1 * ( λ ) { C 1 m [ 1 exp ( S 1 C ) ] } + b b p , 2 * ( λ ) { C 1 , 2 m [ 1 exp ( S 1 , 2 C ) ] C 1 m [ 1 exp ( S 1 C ) ] } + b b p , 3 * ( λ ) { C C 1 , 2 m [ 1 exp ( S 1 , 2 C ) ] } .
b b p ( λ ) = b b p , 1 * ( λ ) { C 1 m [ 1 exp ( S 1 C ) ] } + b b p , 2 * ( λ ) { C 1 , 2 m [ 1 exp ( S 1 , 2 C ) ] C 1 m [ 1 exp ( S 1 C ) ] } + b b p , 3 * ( λ ) { C C 1 , 2 m [ 1 exp ( S 1 , 2 C ) ] } + b b p k ( λ ) ,
b b p ( λ ) = C 1 , 2 m [ b b p , 1 , 2 * ( λ ) b b p , 3 * ( λ ) ] [ 1 exp ( S 1 , 2 C ) ] + b b p , 3 * ( λ ) C + b b p k ( λ ) .
b b p , 1 , 2 * ( λ ) = b b p , 1 , 2 * ( λ 0 ) ( λ / λ 0 ) γ 1 , 2 ,
b b p , 3 * ( λ ) = b b p , 3 * ( λ 0 ) ( λ / λ 0 ) γ 3 ,
b b p k ( λ ) = b b p k ( λ 0 ) ( λ / λ 0 ) γ k .
γ 1 , 2 = log [ b b p , 1 , 2 * ( λ 1 ) / b b p , 1 , 2 * ( λ 2 ) ] log [ λ 1 / λ 2 ] ,
γ 3 = log [ b b p , 3 * ( λ 1 ) / b b p , 3 * ( λ 2 ) ] log [ λ 1 / λ 2 ] ,
γ k = log [ b b p k ( λ 1 ) / b b p k ( λ 2 ) ] log [ λ 1 / λ 2 ] ,
b b p ( λ ) = b b p , 1 , 2 * ( λ 0 ) ( λ / λ 0 ) γ 1 , 2 { C 1 , 2 m [ 1 exp ( S 1 , 2 C ) ] } + b b p , 3 * ( λ 0 ) ( λ / λ 0 ) γ 3 { C C 1 , 2 m [ 1 exp ( S 1 , 2 C ) ] } + b b p k ( λ 0 ) ( λ / λ 0 ) γ k .
b b p ( λ ) = b b p , 1 , 2 * ( λ 0 ) ( λ / λ 0 ) γ 1 , 2 C 1 , 2 m [ 1 exp ( S 1 , 2 C ) ] + b b p , 3 * ( λ 0 ) { C C 1 , 2 m [ 1 exp ( S 1 , 2 C ) ] } + b b p k ( λ 0 ) ( λ / λ 0 ) γ k .

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