Abstract

We demonstrate new technique for generation of programmable-pitch, wideband frequency combs with low phase noise. The comb generation was achieved using cavity-less, multistage mixer driven by two tunable continuous-wave pump seeds. The approach relies on phase-correlated continuous-wave pumps in order to cancel spectral linewidth broadening inherent to parametric comb generation. Parametric combs with over 200-nm bandwidth were obtained and characterized with respect to phase noise scaling to demonstrate linewidth preservation over 100 generated tones.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

2011

B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Wavelength multicasting via frequency comb generation in a bandwidth-enhanced fiber optical parametric mixer,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(23), 3515–3522 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Stable and efficient generation of high repetition rate (>160 GHz) subpicosecond optical pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(9), 540–542 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express18(3), 2884–2893 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, “The evolving optical frequency comb,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(11), B51–B60 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

C.-S. Brès, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Wavelength multicasting of 320Gb/s channel in self-seeded parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(14), 1002–1004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picqué, “Fourier transform spectroscopy with a laser frequency comb,” Nat. Photonics3(2), 99–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, “Single-atom optical clock with high accuracy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 020801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Kéfélian, R. Gabet, and P. Gallion, “Characteristics of the phase noise correlation of injection locked lasers for RF signal generation and transmission,” Opt. Quantum Electron.38(4-6), 467–478 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Horak and W. H. Loh, “On the delayed self-heterodyne interferometric technique for determining the linewidth of fiber lasers,” Opt. Express14(9), 3923–3928 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R. Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar, and C. Headley, “Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump parametric architectures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(5), 673–675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys.75(1), 325–342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency measurement: 40 years of technology revolutions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 1136–1144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, and S. Yamamoto, “Optical pulse generation by electrooptic-modulation method and its application to integrated ultrashort pulse generators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 1325–1331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. Zhou, R. Hui, and N. Caponio, “Spectral linewidth and frequency chirp of four-wave mixing components in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(3), 434–436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1982

R. Lang, “Injection locking properties of a semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(6), 976–983 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, “Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum,” Electron. Lett.16(16), 630–631 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1973

C. Buczek, R. J. Freiberg, and M. L. Skolnick, “Laser injection locking,” Proc. IEEE61(10), 1411–1431 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Alic, N.

E. Myslivets, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Generation of wideband frequency combs by continuous-wave seeding of multistage mixers with synthesized dispersion,” Opt. Express20(3), 3331–3344 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Wavelength multicasting via frequency comb generation in a bandwidth-enhanced fiber optical parametric mixer,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(23), 3515–3522 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Brès, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Wavelength multicasting of 320Gb/s channel in self-seeded parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(14), 1002–1004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express18(3), 2884–2893 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aparicio, J. M.

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Araujo-Hauck, C.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, J.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ben Ezra, S.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, “Single-atom optical clock with high accuracy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 020801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogris, A.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express18(3), 2884–2893 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonk, R.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brar, K.

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R. Chraplyvy, C. G. Jorgensen, K. Brar, and C. Headley, “Selective suppression of idler spectral broadening in two-pump parametric architectures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(5), 673–675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bres, C.-S.

E. Myslivets, C. Lundström, J. M. Aparicio, S. Moro, A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, N. Alic, P. A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “Spatial equalization of zero dispersion wavelength profiles in nonlinear fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(24), 1807–1809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brès, C.-S.

C.-S. Brès, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Wavelength multicasting of 320Gb/s channel in self-seeded parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(14), 1002–1004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buczek, C.

C. Buczek, R. J. Freiberg, and M. L. Skolnick, “Laser injection locking,” Proc. IEEE61(10), 1411–1431 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Caponio, N.

J. Zhou, R. Hui, and N. Caponio, “Spectral linewidth and frequency chirp of four-wave mixing components in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(3), 434–436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Centanni, J. C.

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T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
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R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Stable and efficient generation of high repetition rate (>160 GHz) subpicosecond optical pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(9), 540–542 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
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T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 425–429 (2011).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of linewidth scaling in a two-pump seeded parametric comb with (a) un-correlated and (b) correlated pump phases.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of parametric comb generation seeded by (a) two injection locked CW lasers with fully correlated phase relations and 200 GHz and 400 GHz frequency pitches, and (b) two free-running seed injection locked CW lasers with un-correlated phase relation and 400 GHz frequency pitch. ML: master laser, SL: slave laser, PM: phase modulator, PS: phase shifter, POBF: programmable optical bandpass filter, PC: polarization controller, BPF: bandpass filter, WDM: wavelength division multiplexer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of characterized (a) linewidths and (b) RIN spectra of the master ECL, free-running DFB laser and injection locked DFB laser, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical spectrum of the generated 200-GHz spaced parametric comb with marked seeding wavelengths and measured comb lines.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical spectrum of the generated 400-GHz spaced parametric comb with marked seeding wavelengths and measured comb lines.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured output comb-line spectra measured by self-heterodyne detection (in linear scale) of different setups: 400-GHz spaced comb with (a) un-correlated and (b) correlated pump phases, and (c) 200-GHz comb with correlated pumps. Insets of Figs. (b) and (c) show zoomed-in spectra. The linewidth scaling ratios (compared to the seeding laser) of different setups (400-GHz combs with and without injection locking, respectively) are shown in (d) as a function of the comb-line order.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparisons of measured comb-line spectra with 200- and 400-GHz frequency pitches at the same comb-line orders.

Equations (1)

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θ P 1 = θ P 2 + θ 0 ,

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