Abstract

Radial breathing oscillation of 2-D arrayed GaN nanorods was successfully excited in rods with different diameters by using femtosecond transient reflectivity measurement. Through analyzing thus measured diameter dependent oscillation frequency, we discovered that modification of the mechanical property appeared in the 2-D arrayed piezoelectric GaN nanorods, fabricated on top of a bulk substrate, when the rod diameter was on the order of or less than 50 nm. Our measurement observed a much reduced elastic stiffness constant (C11) of 193 ± 24 GPa in 35nm diameter nanorods, compared with the 365 ± 2 GPa in bulk GaN. This size-reduction induced mechanical modification would be a critical factor to be considered for future sensing and energy applications. Our study also provides a new spectroscopic method to explore the size-reduction-induced softening effect through the measurement of the radial breathing oscillations.

© 2012 OSA

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  23. Z. Wang, X. Zu, L. Yang, F. Gao, and W. J. Weber, “Molecular dynamics simulation on the buckling behavior of GaN nanowires under uniaxial compression,” Physica E 40(3), 561–566 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (5)

K.-Q. Peng and S.-T. Lee, “Silicon Nanowires for Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(2), 198–215 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Heo, W. Guo, and P. Bhattacharya, “Monolithic single GaN nanowire laser with photonic crystal microcavity on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bernal, R. Agrawal, B. Peng, K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, and H. D. Espinosa, “Effect of growth orientation and diameter on the elasticity of GaN nanowires. A combined in situ TEM and atomistic modeling investigation,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 548–555 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Brown, A. I. Baca, K. A. Bertness, D. A. Dikin, R. S. Ruoff, and V. M. Bright, “Tensile measurement of single crystal gallium nitride nanowires on MEMS test stages,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 166(2), 177–186 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Amziane, L. Belliard, F. Decremps, and B. Perrin, “Ultrafast acoustic resonance spectroscopy of gold nanostructures: Towards a generation of tunable transverse waves,” Phys. Rev. B 83(1), 014102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

S. O. Mariager, D. Khakhulin, H. T. Lemke, K. S. Kjaer, L. Guerin, L. Nuccio, C. B. Sørensen, M. M. Nielsen, and R. Feidenhans’l, “Direct observation of acoustic oscillations in InAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2461–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-T. Huang, J. Song, W. F. Lee, Y. Ding, Z. Gao, Y. Hao, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “GaN nanowire arrays for high-output Nanogenerators,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(13), 4766–4771 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

R. Agrawal, B. Peng, and H. D. Espinosa, “Experimental-computational investigation of ZnO nanowires strength and fracture,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4177–4183 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 569–576 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

H. Lange, M. Mohr, M. Artemyev, U. Woggon, and C. Thomsen, “Direct observation of the radial breathing mode in CdSe Nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4614–4617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, Y.-R. Wu, H. H. Yen, J. R. Chen, C. C. Kao, H. W. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, W. Y. Yeh, and S. C. Wang, “Strain relaxation induced microphotoluminescence characteristics of a single InGaN-based nanopillar fabricated by focused ion beam milling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Robillard, A. Devos, I. Roch-Jeune, and P. A. Mante, “Collective acoustic modes in various two-dimensional crystals by ultrafast acoustics: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 78(6), 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, X. Zu, L. Yang, F. Gao, and W. J. Weber, “Molecular dynamics simulation on the buckling behavior of GaN nanowires under uniaxial compression,” Physica E 40(3), 561–566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

A. Gulans and I. Tale, “Ab initio calculation of wurtzite-type GaN nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 4(3), 1197–1200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Henry, K. Kim, Z. Ren, C. Yerino, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Directed growth of horizontally aligned gallium nitride nanowires for nanoelectromechanical resonator arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3315–3319 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Guillon, P. Langot, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, A. S. Kirakosyan, T. V. Shahbazyan, T. Cardinal, and M. Treguer, “Coherent acoustic vibration of metal nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 138–142 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, I. Stevenson, R. Pouy, L. Wang, D. N. McIlroy, T. Pounds, M. G. Norton, and D. E. Aston, “Mechanical elasticity of vapour-liquid-solid grown GaN nanowires,” Nanotechnology 18(13), 135708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

C.-Y. Nam, P. Jaroenapibal, D. Tham, D. E. Luzzi, S. Evoy, and J. E. Fischer, “Diameter-dependent electromechanical properties of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(2), 153–158 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

D. Zhaung and J. H. Edgar, “Wet etching of GaN, AlN, and SiC: a review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 48(1), 1–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Liang, M. Upmanyu, and H. Huang, “Size-dependent elasticity of nanowires: Nonlinear effects,” Phys. Rev. B 71(24), 241403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Hu, X. Wang, G. V. Hartland, P. Mulvaney, J. P. Juste, and J. E. Sader, “Vibrational response of nanorods to ultrafast laser induced heating: theoretical and experimental analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(48), 14925–14933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Chu, J.-Y. Tsai, H.-W. Huang, T.-H. Hsueh, C.-F. Lin, and S.-C. Wang, “Gallium nitride nanorods fabricated by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 8B), L910–L912 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yagi, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, “Brillouin scattering study of gallium nitride: elastic stiffness constants,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9(1), 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Polian, M. Grimsditch, and I. Grzegory, “Elastic constants of gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(6), 3343–3344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, R.

R. A. Bernal, R. Agrawal, B. Peng, K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, and H. D. Espinosa, “Effect of growth orientation and diameter on the elasticity of GaN nanowires. A combined in situ TEM and atomistic modeling investigation,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 548–555 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Agrawal, B. Peng, and H. D. Espinosa, “Experimental-computational investigation of ZnO nanowires strength and fracture,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4177–4183 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amziane, A.

A. Amziane, L. Belliard, F. Decremps, and B. Perrin, “Ultrafast acoustic resonance spectroscopy of gold nanostructures: Towards a generation of tunable transverse waves,” Phys. Rev. B 83(1), 014102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Artemyev, M.

H. Lange, M. Mohr, M. Artemyev, U. Woggon, and C. Thomsen, “Direct observation of the radial breathing mode in CdSe Nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4614–4617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aston, D. E.

Y. Chen, I. Stevenson, R. Pouy, L. Wang, D. N. McIlroy, T. Pounds, M. G. Norton, and D. E. Aston, “Mechanical elasticity of vapour-liquid-solid grown GaN nanowires,” Nanotechnology 18(13), 135708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azuhata, T.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yagi, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, “Brillouin scattering study of gallium nitride: elastic stiffness constants,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9(1), 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baca, A. I.

J. J. Brown, A. I. Baca, K. A. Bertness, D. A. Dikin, R. S. Ruoff, and V. M. Bright, “Tensile measurement of single crystal gallium nitride nanowires on MEMS test stages,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 166(2), 177–186 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Belliard, L.

A. Amziane, L. Belliard, F. Decremps, and B. Perrin, “Ultrafast acoustic resonance spectroscopy of gold nanostructures: Towards a generation of tunable transverse waves,” Phys. Rev. B 83(1), 014102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bernal, R. A.

R. A. Bernal, R. Agrawal, B. Peng, K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, and H. D. Espinosa, “Effect of growth orientation and diameter on the elasticity of GaN nanowires. A combined in situ TEM and atomistic modeling investigation,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 548–555 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertness, K. A.

R. A. Bernal, R. Agrawal, B. Peng, K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, and H. D. Espinosa, “Effect of growth orientation and diameter on the elasticity of GaN nanowires. A combined in situ TEM and atomistic modeling investigation,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 548–555 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Brown, A. I. Baca, K. A. Bertness, D. A. Dikin, R. S. Ruoff, and V. M. Bright, “Tensile measurement of single crystal gallium nitride nanowires on MEMS test stages,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 166(2), 177–186 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, P.

J. Heo, W. Guo, and P. Bhattacharya, “Monolithic single GaN nanowire laser with photonic crystal microcavity on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bright, V. M.

J. J. Brown, A. I. Baca, K. A. Bertness, D. A. Dikin, R. S. Ruoff, and V. M. Bright, “Tensile measurement of single crystal gallium nitride nanowires on MEMS test stages,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 166(2), 177–186 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. J.

J. J. Brown, A. I. Baca, K. A. Bertness, D. A. Dikin, R. S. Ruoff, and V. M. Bright, “Tensile measurement of single crystal gallium nitride nanowires on MEMS test stages,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 166(2), 177–186 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cardinal, T.

C. Guillon, P. Langot, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, A. S. Kirakosyan, T. V. Shahbazyan, T. Cardinal, and M. Treguer, “Coherent acoustic vibration of metal nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 138–142 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J. R.

P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, Y.-R. Wu, H. H. Yen, J. R. Chen, C. C. Kao, H. W. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, W. Y. Yeh, and S. C. Wang, “Strain relaxation induced microphotoluminescence characteristics of a single InGaN-based nanopillar fabricated by focused ion beam milling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. J.

C.-T. Huang, J. Song, W. F. Lee, Y. Ding, Z. Gao, Y. Hao, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “GaN nanowire arrays for high-output Nanogenerators,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(13), 4766–4771 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, I. Stevenson, R. Pouy, L. Wang, D. N. McIlroy, T. Pounds, M. G. Norton, and D. E. Aston, “Mechanical elasticity of vapour-liquid-solid grown GaN nanowires,” Nanotechnology 18(13), 135708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chichibu, S.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yagi, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, “Brillouin scattering study of gallium nitride: elastic stiffness constants,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9(1), 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. H.

P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, Y.-R. Wu, H. H. Yen, J. R. Chen, C. C. Kao, H. W. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, W. Y. Yeh, and S. C. Wang, “Strain relaxation induced microphotoluminescence characteristics of a single InGaN-based nanopillar fabricated by focused ion beam milling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chu, C.-F.

C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Chu, J.-Y. Tsai, H.-W. Huang, T.-H. Hsueh, C.-F. Lin, and S.-C. Wang, “Gallium nitride nanorods fabricated by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 8B), L910–L912 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davydov, A. V.

R. A. Bernal, R. Agrawal, B. Peng, K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, and H. D. Espinosa, “Effect of growth orientation and diameter on the elasticity of GaN nanowires. A combined in situ TEM and atomistic modeling investigation,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 548–555 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decremps, F.

A. Amziane, L. Belliard, F. Decremps, and B. Perrin, “Ultrafast acoustic resonance spectroscopy of gold nanostructures: Towards a generation of tunable transverse waves,” Phys. Rev. B 83(1), 014102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Del Fatti, N.

C. Guillon, P. Langot, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, A. S. Kirakosyan, T. V. Shahbazyan, T. Cardinal, and M. Treguer, “Coherent acoustic vibration of metal nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 138–142 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devos, A.

J.-F. Robillard, A. Devos, I. Roch-Jeune, and P. A. Mante, “Collective acoustic modes in various two-dimensional crystals by ultrafast acoustics: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 78(6), 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dikin, D. A.

J. J. Brown, A. I. Baca, K. A. Bertness, D. A. Dikin, R. S. Ruoff, and V. M. Bright, “Tensile measurement of single crystal gallium nitride nanowires on MEMS test stages,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 166(2), 177–186 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y.

C.-T. Huang, J. Song, W. F. Lee, Y. Ding, Z. Gao, Y. Hao, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “GaN nanowire arrays for high-output Nanogenerators,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(13), 4766–4771 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edgar, J. H.

D. Zhaung and J. H. Edgar, “Wet etching of GaN, AlN, and SiC: a review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 48(1), 1–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Espinosa, H. D.

R. A. Bernal, R. Agrawal, B. Peng, K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, and H. D. Espinosa, “Effect of growth orientation and diameter on the elasticity of GaN nanowires. A combined in situ TEM and atomistic modeling investigation,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 548–555 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Agrawal, B. Peng, and H. D. Espinosa, “Experimental-computational investigation of ZnO nanowires strength and fracture,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4177–4183 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evoy, S.

C.-Y. Nam, P. Jaroenapibal, D. Tham, D. E. Luzzi, S. Evoy, and J. E. Fischer, “Diameter-dependent electromechanical properties of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(2), 153–158 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feidenhans’l, R.

S. O. Mariager, D. Khakhulin, H. T. Lemke, K. S. Kjaer, L. Guerin, L. Nuccio, C. B. Sørensen, M. M. Nielsen, and R. Feidenhans’l, “Direct observation of acoustic oscillations in InAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2461–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, J. E.

C.-Y. Nam, P. Jaroenapibal, D. Tham, D. E. Luzzi, S. Evoy, and J. E. Fischer, “Diameter-dependent electromechanical properties of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(2), 153–158 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, F.

Z. Wang, X. Zu, L. Yang, F. Gao, and W. J. Weber, “Molecular dynamics simulation on the buckling behavior of GaN nanowires under uniaxial compression,” Physica E 40(3), 561–566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Z.

C.-T. Huang, J. Song, W. F. Lee, Y. Ding, Z. Gao, Y. Hao, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “GaN nanowire arrays for high-output Nanogenerators,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(13), 4766–4771 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gargas, D.

R. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 569–576 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grimsditch, M.

A. Polian, M. Grimsditch, and I. Grzegory, “Elastic constants of gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(6), 3343–3344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grzegory, I.

A. Polian, M. Grimsditch, and I. Grzegory, “Elastic constants of gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(6), 3343–3344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guerin, L.

S. O. Mariager, D. Khakhulin, H. T. Lemke, K. S. Kjaer, L. Guerin, L. Nuccio, C. B. Sørensen, M. M. Nielsen, and R. Feidenhans’l, “Direct observation of acoustic oscillations in InAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2461–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guillon, C.

C. Guillon, P. Langot, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, A. S. Kirakosyan, T. V. Shahbazyan, T. Cardinal, and M. Treguer, “Coherent acoustic vibration of metal nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 138–142 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gulans, A.

A. Gulans and I. Tale, “Ab initio calculation of wurtzite-type GaN nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 4(3), 1197–1200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, W.

J. Heo, W. Guo, and P. Bhattacharya, “Monolithic single GaN nanowire laser with photonic crystal microcavity on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

T. Henry, K. Kim, Z. Ren, C. Yerino, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Directed growth of horizontally aligned gallium nitride nanowires for nanoelectromechanical resonator arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3315–3319 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, Y.

C.-T. Huang, J. Song, W. F. Lee, Y. Ding, Z. Gao, Y. Hao, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “GaN nanowire arrays for high-output Nanogenerators,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(13), 4766–4771 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartland, G. V.

M. Hu, X. Wang, G. V. Hartland, P. Mulvaney, J. P. Juste, and J. E. Sader, “Vibrational response of nanorods to ultrafast laser induced heating: theoretical and experimental analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(48), 14925–14933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henry, T.

T. Henry, K. Kim, Z. Ren, C. Yerino, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Directed growth of horizontally aligned gallium nitride nanowires for nanoelectromechanical resonator arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3315–3319 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heo, J.

J. Heo, W. Guo, and P. Bhattacharya, “Monolithic single GaN nanowire laser with photonic crystal microcavity on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, T.-H.

C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Chu, J.-Y. Tsai, H.-W. Huang, T.-H. Hsueh, C.-F. Lin, and S.-C. Wang, “Gallium nitride nanorods fabricated by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 8B), L910–L912 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, M.

M. Hu, X. Wang, G. V. Hartland, P. Mulvaney, J. P. Juste, and J. E. Sader, “Vibrational response of nanorods to ultrafast laser induced heating: theoretical and experimental analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(48), 14925–14933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, C.-T.

C.-T. Huang, J. Song, W. F. Lee, Y. Ding, Z. Gao, Y. Hao, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “GaN nanowire arrays for high-output Nanogenerators,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(13), 4766–4771 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, H.

H. Liang, M. Upmanyu, and H. Huang, “Size-dependent elasticity of nanowires: Nonlinear effects,” Phys. Rev. B 71(24), 241403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.-W.

C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Chu, J.-Y. Tsai, H.-W. Huang, T.-H. Hsueh, C.-F. Lin, and S.-C. Wang, “Gallium nitride nanorods fabricated by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 8B), L910–L912 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jaroenapibal, P.

C.-Y. Nam, P. Jaroenapibal, D. Tham, D. E. Luzzi, S. Evoy, and J. E. Fischer, “Diameter-dependent electromechanical properties of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(2), 153–158 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juste, J. P.

M. Hu, X. Wang, G. V. Hartland, P. Mulvaney, J. P. Juste, and J. E. Sader, “Vibrational response of nanorods to ultrafast laser induced heating: theoretical and experimental analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(48), 14925–14933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kao, C. C.

P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, Y.-R. Wu, H. H. Yen, J. R. Chen, C. C. Kao, H. W. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, W. Y. Yeh, and S. C. Wang, “Strain relaxation induced microphotoluminescence characteristics of a single InGaN-based nanopillar fabricated by focused ion beam milling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Khakhulin, D.

S. O. Mariager, D. Khakhulin, H. T. Lemke, K. S. Kjaer, L. Guerin, L. Nuccio, C. B. Sørensen, M. M. Nielsen, and R. Feidenhans’l, “Direct observation of acoustic oscillations in InAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2461–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

T. Henry, K. Kim, Z. Ren, C. Yerino, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Directed growth of horizontally aligned gallium nitride nanowires for nanoelectromechanical resonator arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3315–3319 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirakosyan, A. S.

C. Guillon, P. Langot, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, A. S. Kirakosyan, T. V. Shahbazyan, T. Cardinal, and M. Treguer, “Coherent acoustic vibration of metal nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 138–142 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kjaer, K. S.

S. O. Mariager, D. Khakhulin, H. T. Lemke, K. S. Kjaer, L. Guerin, L. Nuccio, C. B. Sørensen, M. M. Nielsen, and R. Feidenhans’l, “Direct observation of acoustic oscillations in InAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2461–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, H. C.

P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, Y.-R. Wu, H. H. Yen, J. R. Chen, C. C. Kao, H. W. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, W. Y. Yeh, and S. C. Wang, “Strain relaxation induced microphotoluminescence characteristics of a single InGaN-based nanopillar fabricated by focused ion beam milling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lange, H.

H. Lange, M. Mohr, M. Artemyev, U. Woggon, and C. Thomsen, “Direct observation of the radial breathing mode in CdSe Nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4614–4617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langot, P.

C. Guillon, P. Langot, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, A. S. Kirakosyan, T. V. Shahbazyan, T. Cardinal, and M. Treguer, “Coherent acoustic vibration of metal nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 138–142 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-T.

K.-Q. Peng and S.-T. Lee, “Silicon Nanowires for Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(2), 198–215 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, W. F.

C.-T. Huang, J. Song, W. F. Lee, Y. Ding, Z. Gao, Y. Hao, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “GaN nanowire arrays for high-output Nanogenerators,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(13), 4766–4771 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemke, H. T.

S. O. Mariager, D. Khakhulin, H. T. Lemke, K. S. Kjaer, L. Guerin, L. Nuccio, C. B. Sørensen, M. M. Nielsen, and R. Feidenhans’l, “Direct observation of acoustic oscillations in InAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2461–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, H.

H. Liang, M. Upmanyu, and H. Huang, “Size-dependent elasticity of nanowires: Nonlinear effects,” Phys. Rev. B 71(24), 241403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-F.

C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Chu, J.-Y. Tsai, H.-W. Huang, T.-H. Hsueh, C.-F. Lin, and S.-C. Wang, “Gallium nitride nanorods fabricated by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 8B), L910–L912 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, Y.-R. Wu, H. H. Yen, J. R. Chen, C. C. Kao, H. W. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, W. Y. Yeh, and S. C. Wang, “Strain relaxation induced microphotoluminescence characteristics of a single InGaN-based nanopillar fabricated by focused ion beam milling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luzzi, D. E.

C.-Y. Nam, P. Jaroenapibal, D. Tham, D. E. Luzzi, S. Evoy, and J. E. Fischer, “Diameter-dependent electromechanical properties of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(2), 153–158 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mante, P. A.

J.-F. Robillard, A. Devos, I. Roch-Jeune, and P. A. Mante, “Collective acoustic modes in various two-dimensional crystals by ultrafast acoustics: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 78(6), 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mariager, S. O.

S. O. Mariager, D. Khakhulin, H. T. Lemke, K. S. Kjaer, L. Guerin, L. Nuccio, C. B. Sørensen, M. M. Nielsen, and R. Feidenhans’l, “Direct observation of acoustic oscillations in InAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2461–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McIlroy, D. N.

Y. Chen, I. Stevenson, R. Pouy, L. Wang, D. N. McIlroy, T. Pounds, M. G. Norton, and D. E. Aston, “Mechanical elasticity of vapour-liquid-solid grown GaN nanowires,” Nanotechnology 18(13), 135708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, J. R.

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mohr, M.

H. Lange, M. Mohr, M. Artemyev, U. Woggon, and C. Thomsen, “Direct observation of the radial breathing mode in CdSe Nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4614–4617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mulvaney, P.

M. Hu, X. Wang, G. V. Hartland, P. Mulvaney, J. P. Juste, and J. E. Sader, “Vibrational response of nanorods to ultrafast laser induced heating: theoretical and experimental analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(48), 14925–14933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, S.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yagi, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, “Brillouin scattering study of gallium nitride: elastic stiffness constants,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9(1), 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nam, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Nam, P. Jaroenapibal, D. Tham, D. E. Luzzi, S. Evoy, and J. E. Fischer, “Diameter-dependent electromechanical properties of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(2), 153–158 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, M. M.

S. O. Mariager, D. Khakhulin, H. T. Lemke, K. S. Kjaer, L. Guerin, L. Nuccio, C. B. Sørensen, M. M. Nielsen, and R. Feidenhans’l, “Direct observation of acoustic oscillations in InAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2461–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norton, M. G.

Y. Chen, I. Stevenson, R. Pouy, L. Wang, D. N. McIlroy, T. Pounds, M. G. Norton, and D. E. Aston, “Mechanical elasticity of vapour-liquid-solid grown GaN nanowires,” Nanotechnology 18(13), 135708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuccio, L.

S. O. Mariager, D. Khakhulin, H. T. Lemke, K. S. Kjaer, L. Guerin, L. Nuccio, C. B. Sørensen, M. M. Nielsen, and R. Feidenhans’l, “Direct observation of acoustic oscillations in InAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2461–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, B.

R. A. Bernal, R. Agrawal, B. Peng, K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, and H. D. Espinosa, “Effect of growth orientation and diameter on the elasticity of GaN nanowires. A combined in situ TEM and atomistic modeling investigation,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 548–555 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Agrawal, B. Peng, and H. D. Espinosa, “Experimental-computational investigation of ZnO nanowires strength and fracture,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4177–4183 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, K.-Q.

K.-Q. Peng and S.-T. Lee, “Silicon Nanowires for Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(2), 198–215 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perrin, B.

A. Amziane, L. Belliard, F. Decremps, and B. Perrin, “Ultrafast acoustic resonance spectroscopy of gold nanostructures: Towards a generation of tunable transverse waves,” Phys. Rev. B 83(1), 014102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Polian, A.

A. Polian, M. Grimsditch, and I. Grzegory, “Elastic constants of gallium nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(6), 3343–3344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pounds, T.

Y. Chen, I. Stevenson, R. Pouy, L. Wang, D. N. McIlroy, T. Pounds, M. G. Norton, and D. E. Aston, “Mechanical elasticity of vapour-liquid-solid grown GaN nanowires,” Nanotechnology 18(13), 135708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pouy, R.

Y. Chen, I. Stevenson, R. Pouy, L. Wang, D. N. McIlroy, T. Pounds, M. G. Norton, and D. E. Aston, “Mechanical elasticity of vapour-liquid-solid grown GaN nanowires,” Nanotechnology 18(13), 135708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, Z.

T. Henry, K. Kim, Z. Ren, C. Yerino, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Directed growth of horizontally aligned gallium nitride nanowires for nanoelectromechanical resonator arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3315–3319 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robillard, J.-F.

J.-F. Robillard, A. Devos, I. Roch-Jeune, and P. A. Mante, “Collective acoustic modes in various two-dimensional crystals by ultrafast acoustics: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 78(6), 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roch-Jeune, I.

J.-F. Robillard, A. Devos, I. Roch-Jeune, and P. A. Mante, “Collective acoustic modes in various two-dimensional crystals by ultrafast acoustics: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 78(6), 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ruoff, R. S.

J. J. Brown, A. I. Baca, K. A. Bertness, D. A. Dikin, R. S. Ruoff, and V. M. Bright, “Tensile measurement of single crystal gallium nitride nanowires on MEMS test stages,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 166(2), 177–186 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sader, J. E.

M. Hu, X. Wang, G. V. Hartland, P. Mulvaney, J. P. Juste, and J. E. Sader, “Vibrational response of nanorods to ultrafast laser induced heating: theoretical and experimental analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(48), 14925–14933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanford, N. A.

R. A. Bernal, R. Agrawal, B. Peng, K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, and H. D. Espinosa, “Effect of growth orientation and diameter on the elasticity of GaN nanowires. A combined in situ TEM and atomistic modeling investigation,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 548–555 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shahbazyan, T. V.

C. Guillon, P. Langot, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, A. S. Kirakosyan, T. V. Shahbazyan, T. Cardinal, and M. Treguer, “Coherent acoustic vibration of metal nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 138–142 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, J.

C.-T. Huang, J. Song, W. F. Lee, Y. Ding, Z. Gao, Y. Hao, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “GaN nanowire arrays for high-output Nanogenerators,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(13), 4766–4771 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sørensen, C. B.

S. O. Mariager, D. Khakhulin, H. T. Lemke, K. S. Kjaer, L. Guerin, L. Nuccio, C. B. Sørensen, M. M. Nielsen, and R. Feidenhans’l, “Direct observation of acoustic oscillations in InAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2461–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sota, T.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yagi, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, “Brillouin scattering study of gallium nitride: elastic stiffness constants,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9(1), 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, I.

Y. Chen, I. Stevenson, R. Pouy, L. Wang, D. N. McIlroy, T. Pounds, M. G. Norton, and D. E. Aston, “Mechanical elasticity of vapour-liquid-solid grown GaN nanowires,” Nanotechnology 18(13), 135708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, K.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yagi, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, “Brillouin scattering study of gallium nitride: elastic stiffness constants,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9(1), 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tale, I.

A. Gulans and I. Tale, “Ab initio calculation of wurtzite-type GaN nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 4(3), 1197–1200 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tang, H. X.

T. Henry, K. Kim, Z. Ren, C. Yerino, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Directed growth of horizontally aligned gallium nitride nanowires for nanoelectromechanical resonator arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3315–3319 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tham, D.

C.-Y. Nam, P. Jaroenapibal, D. Tham, D. E. Luzzi, S. Evoy, and J. E. Fischer, “Diameter-dependent electromechanical properties of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(2), 153–158 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomsen, C.

H. Lange, M. Mohr, M. Artemyev, U. Woggon, and C. Thomsen, “Direct observation of the radial breathing mode in CdSe Nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4614–4617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treguer, M.

C. Guillon, P. Langot, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, A. S. Kirakosyan, T. V. Shahbazyan, T. Cardinal, and M. Treguer, “Coherent acoustic vibration of metal nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 138–142 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, J.-Y.

C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Chu, J.-Y. Tsai, H.-W. Huang, T.-H. Hsueh, C.-F. Lin, and S.-C. Wang, “Gallium nitride nanorods fabricated by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 8B), L910–L912 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Upmanyu, M.

H. Liang, M. Upmanyu, and H. Huang, “Size-dependent elasticity of nanowires: Nonlinear effects,” Phys. Rev. B 71(24), 241403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, F.

C. Guillon, P. Langot, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, A. S. Kirakosyan, T. V. Shahbazyan, T. Cardinal, and M. Treguer, “Coherent acoustic vibration of metal nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 138–142 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Y. Chen, I. Stevenson, R. Pouy, L. Wang, D. N. McIlroy, T. Pounds, M. G. Norton, and D. E. Aston, “Mechanical elasticity of vapour-liquid-solid grown GaN nanowires,” Nanotechnology 18(13), 135708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S. C.

P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, Y.-R. Wu, H. H. Yen, J. R. Chen, C. C. Kao, H. W. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, W. Y. Yeh, and S. C. Wang, “Strain relaxation induced microphotoluminescence characteristics of a single InGaN-based nanopillar fabricated by focused ion beam milling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.-C.

C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Chu, J.-Y. Tsai, H.-W. Huang, T.-H. Hsueh, C.-F. Lin, and S.-C. Wang, “Gallium nitride nanorods fabricated by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 8B), L910–L912 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

M. Hu, X. Wang, G. V. Hartland, P. Mulvaney, J. P. Juste, and J. E. Sader, “Vibrational response of nanorods to ultrafast laser induced heating: theoretical and experimental analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(48), 14925–14933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, X. Zu, L. Yang, F. Gao, and W. J. Weber, “Molecular dynamics simulation on the buckling behavior of GaN nanowires under uniaxial compression,” Physica E 40(3), 561–566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. L.

C.-T. Huang, J. Song, W. F. Lee, Y. Ding, Z. Gao, Y. Hao, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “GaN nanowire arrays for high-output Nanogenerators,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(13), 4766–4771 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, W. J.

Z. Wang, X. Zu, L. Yang, F. Gao, and W. J. Weber, “Molecular dynamics simulation on the buckling behavior of GaN nanowires under uniaxial compression,” Physica E 40(3), 561–566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Woggon, U.

H. Lange, M. Mohr, M. Artemyev, U. Woggon, and C. Thomsen, “Direct observation of the radial breathing mode in CdSe Nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4614–4617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.-R.

P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, Y.-R. Wu, H. H. Yen, J. R. Chen, C. C. Kao, H. W. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, W. Y. Yeh, and S. C. Wang, “Strain relaxation induced microphotoluminescence characteristics of a single InGaN-based nanopillar fabricated by focused ion beam milling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yagi, T.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yagi, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, “Brillouin scattering study of gallium nitride: elastic stiffness constants,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9(1), 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yagi, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, “Brillouin scattering study of gallium nitride: elastic stiffness constants,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9(1), 241–248 (1997).
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Yan, R.

R. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 569–576 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. W.

P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, Y.-R. Wu, H. H. Yen, J. R. Chen, C. C. Kao, H. W. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, W. Y. Yeh, and S. C. Wang, “Strain relaxation induced microphotoluminescence characteristics of a single InGaN-based nanopillar fabricated by focused ion beam milling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

Z. Wang, X. Zu, L. Yang, F. Gao, and W. J. Weber, “Molecular dynamics simulation on the buckling behavior of GaN nanowires under uniaxial compression,” Physica E 40(3), 561–566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

R. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 569–576 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, W. Y.

P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, Y.-R. Wu, H. H. Yen, J. R. Chen, C. C. Kao, H. W. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, W. Y. Yeh, and S. C. Wang, “Strain relaxation induced microphotoluminescence characteristics of a single InGaN-based nanopillar fabricated by focused ion beam milling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yen, H. H.

P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, Y.-R. Wu, H. H. Yen, J. R. Chen, C. C. Kao, H. W. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, W. Y. Yeh, and S. C. Wang, “Strain relaxation induced microphotoluminescence characteristics of a single InGaN-based nanopillar fabricated by focused ion beam milling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yerino, C.

T. Henry, K. Kim, Z. Ren, C. Yerino, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Directed growth of horizontally aligned gallium nitride nanowires for nanoelectromechanical resonator arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3315–3319 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, C.-C.

C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Chu, J.-Y. Tsai, H.-W. Huang, T.-H. Hsueh, C.-F. Lin, and S.-C. Wang, “Gallium nitride nanorods fabricated by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 8B), L910–L912 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P.

P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, Y.-R. Wu, H. H. Yen, J. R. Chen, C. C. Kao, H. W. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, W. Y. Yeh, and S. C. Wang, “Strain relaxation induced microphotoluminescence characteristics of a single InGaN-based nanopillar fabricated by focused ion beam milling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhaung, D.

D. Zhaung and J. H. Edgar, “Wet etching of GaN, AlN, and SiC: a review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 48(1), 1–46 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zu, X.

Z. Wang, X. Zu, L. Yang, F. Gao, and W. J. Weber, “Molecular dynamics simulation on the buckling behavior of GaN nanowires under uniaxial compression,” Physica E 40(3), 561–566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

K.-Q. Peng and S.-T. Lee, “Silicon Nanowires for Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(2), 198–215 (2011).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Heo, W. Guo, and P. Bhattacharya, “Monolithic single GaN nanowire laser with photonic crystal microcavity on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, Y.-R. Wu, H. H. Yen, J. R. Chen, C. C. Kao, H. W. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, W. Y. Yeh, and S. C. Wang, “Strain relaxation induced microphotoluminescence characteristics of a single InGaN-based nanopillar fabricated by focused ion beam milling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081110 (2008).
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J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

C.-T. Huang, J. Song, W. F. Lee, Y. Ding, Z. Gao, Y. Hao, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “GaN nanowire arrays for high-output Nanogenerators,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(13), 4766–4771 (2010).
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M. Hu, X. Wang, G. V. Hartland, P. Mulvaney, J. P. Juste, and J. E. Sader, “Vibrational response of nanorods to ultrafast laser induced heating: theoretical and experimental analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(48), 14925–14933 (2003).
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J. Appl. Phys. (2)

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
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J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

M. Yamaguchi, T. Yagi, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, K. Suzuki, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, “Brillouin scattering study of gallium nitride: elastic stiffness constants,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9(1), 241–248 (1997).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Chu, J.-Y. Tsai, H.-W. Huang, T.-H. Hsueh, C.-F. Lin, and S.-C. Wang, “Gallium nitride nanorods fabricated by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 8B), L910–L912 (2002).
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Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. (1)

D. Zhaung and J. H. Edgar, “Wet etching of GaN, AlN, and SiC: a review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 48(1), 1–46 (2005).
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Nano Lett. (7)

C.-Y. Nam, P. Jaroenapibal, D. Tham, D. E. Luzzi, S. Evoy, and J. E. Fischer, “Diameter-dependent electromechanical properties of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(2), 153–158 (2006).
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T. Henry, K. Kim, Z. Ren, C. Yerino, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Directed growth of horizontally aligned gallium nitride nanowires for nanoelectromechanical resonator arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3315–3319 (2007).
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S. O. Mariager, D. Khakhulin, H. T. Lemke, K. S. Kjaer, L. Guerin, L. Nuccio, C. B. Sørensen, M. M. Nielsen, and R. Feidenhans’l, “Direct observation of acoustic oscillations in InAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2461–2465 (2010).
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H. Lange, M. Mohr, M. Artemyev, U. Woggon, and C. Thomsen, “Direct observation of the radial breathing mode in CdSe Nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4614–4617 (2008).
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C. Guillon, P. Langot, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, A. S. Kirakosyan, T. V. Shahbazyan, T. Cardinal, and M. Treguer, “Coherent acoustic vibration of metal nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 138–142 (2007).
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R. Agrawal, B. Peng, and H. D. Espinosa, “Experimental-computational investigation of ZnO nanowires strength and fracture,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4177–4183 (2009).
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Nanotechnology (1)

Y. Chen, I. Stevenson, R. Pouy, L. Wang, D. N. McIlroy, T. Pounds, M. G. Norton, and D. E. Aston, “Mechanical elasticity of vapour-liquid-solid grown GaN nanowires,” Nanotechnology 18(13), 135708 (2007).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

R. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 569–576 (2009).
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Phys. Rev. B (3)

A. Amziane, L. Belliard, F. Decremps, and B. Perrin, “Ultrafast acoustic resonance spectroscopy of gold nanostructures: Towards a generation of tunable transverse waves,” Phys. Rev. B 83(1), 014102 (2011).
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J.-F. Robillard, A. Devos, I. Roch-Jeune, and P. A. Mante, “Collective acoustic modes in various two-dimensional crystals by ultrafast acoustics: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 78(6), 064302 (2008).
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H. Liang, M. Upmanyu, and H. Huang, “Size-dependent elasticity of nanowires: Nonlinear effects,” Phys. Rev. B 71(24), 241403 (2005).
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Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. (1)

A. Gulans and I. Tale, “Ab initio calculation of wurtzite-type GaN nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 4(3), 1197–1200 (2007).
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Physica E (1)

Z. Wang, X. Zu, L. Yang, F. Gao, and W. J. Weber, “Molecular dynamics simulation on the buckling behavior of GaN nanowires under uniaxial compression,” Physica E 40(3), 561–566 (2008).
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Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

J. J. Brown, A. I. Baca, K. A. Bertness, D. A. Dikin, R. S. Ruoff, and V. M. Bright, “Tensile measurement of single crystal gallium nitride nanowires on MEMS test stages,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 166(2), 177–186 (2011).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top SEM views of the fabricated 2D-arrayed GaN nanorods on GaN substrates. The average rod diameters are (a) 324nm, (b) 250nm, (c) 230nm, (d) 183nm, (e) 135nm, (f) 52nm, (g) 40nm, (h) 35nm. (i) The side view SEM image of (e).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured probe reflection change as a function of time delay. The sample is with a 135nm diameter and a 220nm period. The inset scheme shows the geometry of a nanorod. D, d1, d2 and L are average diameter, top diameter, bottom diameter and height of a nanorod, determined by top and side SEM views. AR: aspect ratio. (b) An oscillation frequency of 33GHz was revealed in the fast-Fourier-transformed spectrum. The inset figure illustrates the observed oscillatory signal after removing the carrier dynamics background of (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The observed oscillatory frequency as a function of rod periodicity for 150 ± 10 nm-diameter (black solid squares) and 240 ± 10 nm-diameter (red solid triangles) GaN nanorods. (b) The observed oscillatory frequency as a function of aspect ratio for 240 ± 10 nm diameter GaN nanorods. The observed frequency is 21 ± 1.5GHz while the aspect ratio is higher than 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The observed oscillatory frequency versus the diameter of nanorod. Rod diameter ranges from 324nm to 35 nm. The horizontal error bars represent the diameter nonuniformity based on the SEM images and the vertical error bars represents full-width half-maximum of the amplitude in Fourier-transformed oscillatory spectra. The black curve is the result of the theoretical calculation on the radial breathing mode based on Eq. (1) with vr = 7744 m/s and τn = 2.05. (b) Elastic stiffness constant (C11) as a function of GaN rod diameter. The black dashed line represents the bulk C11 value.

Equations (1)

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f= τ n v r πd ,

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