Abstract

Hafnium dioxide films deposited using electron-beam evaporation tend to exhibit high tensile stresses, particularly when deposited on low-thermal-expansion substrates for use in a low-relative-humidity environment. Hafnia has been shown to be a critical material, however, for use in high-peak-power laser coatings, providing exceptional deposition control and laser-damage resistance. To correct for tensile thin-film stresses in hafnia/silica multilayer coatings, alumina compensation layers were incorporated in the multilayer design. Determination of the stresses resulting from alumina layers in different coating designs has led to the realization of the influence of water diffusion and the diffusion-barrier properties of alumina that must be considered. The inclusion of alumina layers in a hafnia/silica multilayer provides the ability to produce low-compressive-stress, high-laser-damage-threshold coatings.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  19. A. Tikhonravov, M. Trubetskov, T. Amotchkina, and M. Kokarev, “Key role of the coating total optical thickness in solving design problems,” in Advances in Optical Thin Films C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod eds., (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 2004), 5250, 312–321.
  20. M. Ohring, Materials Science of Thin Films: Deposition and Structure 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 2002), 723−730.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Proost and F. Spaepen, “Evolution of the growth stress, stiffness, and microstructure of alumina thin films during vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(1), 204–216 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Shen, H. He, S. Shao, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influences of the film thickness on residual stress of the HfO2 thin films,” Rare Metal. Mater. Eng. 36, 412–415 (2007).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. J. Smith, A. Staley, R. Eriksson, and G. Algar, “Counter-rotating planetary design for large rectangular substrates,” in Proceedings of the 41st Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, NM, 1998), 193−196.
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2011 (1)

2007 (1)

Y. Shen, H. He, S. Shao, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influences of the film thickness on residual stress of the HfO2 thin films,” Rare Metal. Mater. Eng. 36, 412–415 (2007).

2006 (1)

2002 (2)

J. Proost and F. Spaepen, “Evolution of the growth stress, stiffness, and microstructure of alumina thin films during vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(1), 204–216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Thielsch, A. Gatto, J. Heber, and N. Kaiser, “A comparative study of the UV optical and structural properties of SiO2, Al2O3, and HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, ion-assisted deposition and plasma ion-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 410(1-2), 86–93 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Henyk, D. Wolfframm, and J. Reif, “Ultra short laser pulse induced charged particle emission from wide bandgap crystals,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 168(1-4), 263–266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Reichling, A. Bodemann, and N. Kaiser, “Defect induced laser damage in oxide multilayer coatings for 248 nm,” Thin Solid Films 320(2), 264–279 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Localized absorption effects during 351 nm, pulsed laser irradiation of dielectric multilayer thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(11), 5422–5432 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

H. Leplan, B. Geenen, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, “Residual stresses in evaporated silicon dioxide thin films: Correlation with deposition parameters and aging behavior,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(2), 962–968 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1909 (1)

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond., A Contain. Pap. Math. Phys. Character 82(553), 172–175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Bodemann, A.

M. Reichling, A. Bodemann, and N. Kaiser, “Defect induced laser damage in oxide multilayer coatings for 248 nm,” Thin Solid Films 320(2), 264–279 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brinkley, I.

Chow, R.

Chrzan, Z. R.

Falabella, S.

Fan, Z.

Y. Shen, H. He, S. Shao, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influences of the film thickness on residual stress of the HfO2 thin films,” Rare Metal. Mater. Eng. 36, 412–415 (2007).

Gatto, A.

R. Thielsch, A. Gatto, J. Heber, and N. Kaiser, “A comparative study of the UV optical and structural properties of SiO2, Al2O3, and HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, ion-assisted deposition and plasma ion-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 410(1-2), 86–93 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Geenen, B.

H. Leplan, B. Geenen, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, “Residual stresses in evaporated silicon dioxide thin films: Correlation with deposition parameters and aging behavior,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(2), 962–968 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, D. R.

Hand, R. D.

He, H.

Y. Shen, H. He, S. Shao, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influences of the film thickness on residual stress of the HfO2 thin films,” Rare Metal. Mater. Eng. 36, 412–415 (2007).

Heber, J.

R. Thielsch, A. Gatto, J. Heber, and N. Kaiser, “A comparative study of the UV optical and structural properties of SiO2, Al2O3, and HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, ion-assisted deposition and plasma ion-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 410(1-2), 86–93 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Henyk, M.

M. Henyk, D. Wolfframm, and J. Reif, “Ultra short laser pulse induced charged particle emission from wide bandgap crystals,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 168(1-4), 263–266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

R. Thielsch, A. Gatto, J. Heber, and N. Kaiser, “A comparative study of the UV optical and structural properties of SiO2, Al2O3, and HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, ion-assisted deposition and plasma ion-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 410(1-2), 86–93 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Reichling, A. Bodemann, and N. Kaiser, “Defect induced laser damage in oxide multilayer coatings for 248 nm,” Thin Solid Films 320(2), 264–279 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, A.

Kozlowski, M. R.

Kupinski, P.

Lambropoulos, J. C.

Leplan, H.

H. Leplan, B. Geenen, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, “Residual stresses in evaporated silicon dioxide thin films: Correlation with deposition parameters and aging behavior,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(2), 962–968 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Loomis, G. E.

Oliver, J. B.

Papernov, S.

Pauleau, Y.

H. Leplan, B. Geenen, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, “Residual stresses in evaporated silicon dioxide thin films: Correlation with deposition parameters and aging behavior,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(2), 962–968 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Placido, F.

Proost, J.

J. Proost and F. Spaepen, “Evolution of the growth stress, stiffness, and microstructure of alumina thin films during vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(1), 204–216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rainer, F.

Reichling, M.

M. Reichling, A. Bodemann, and N. Kaiser, “Defect induced laser damage in oxide multilayer coatings for 248 nm,” Thin Solid Films 320(2), 264–279 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reif, J.

M. Henyk, D. Wolfframm, and J. Reif, “Ultra short laser pulse induced charged particle emission from wide bandgap crystals,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 168(1-4), 263–266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rigatti, A. L.

Robic, J. Y.

H. Leplan, B. Geenen, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, “Residual stresses in evaporated silicon dioxide thin films: Correlation with deposition parameters and aging behavior,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(2), 962–968 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sadowski, D.

Schmid, A. W.

Shao, J.

Y. Shen, H. He, S. Shao, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influences of the film thickness on residual stress of the HfO2 thin films,” Rare Metal. Mater. Eng. 36, 412–415 (2007).

Shao, S.

Y. Shen, H. He, S. Shao, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influences of the film thickness on residual stress of the HfO2 thin films,” Rare Metal. Mater. Eng. 36, 412–415 (2007).

Shen, Y.

Y. Shen, H. He, S. Shao, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influences of the film thickness on residual stress of the HfO2 thin films,” Rare Metal. Mater. Eng. 36, 412–415 (2007).

Spaepen, F.

J. Proost and F. Spaepen, “Evolution of the growth stress, stiffness, and microstructure of alumina thin films during vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(1), 204–216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spaulding, J.

Stolz, C. J.

Stoney, G. G.

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond., A Contain. Pap. Math. Phys. Character 82(553), 172–175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Talbot, D.

Thielsch, R.

R. Thielsch, A. Gatto, J. Heber, and N. Kaiser, “A comparative study of the UV optical and structural properties of SiO2, Al2O3, and HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, ion-assisted deposition and plasma ion-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 410(1-2), 86–93 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wolfframm, D.

M. Henyk, D. Wolfframm, and J. Reif, “Ultra short laser pulse induced charged particle emission from wide bandgap crystals,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 168(1-4), 263–266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

M. Henyk, D. Wolfframm, and J. Reif, “Ultra short laser pulse induced charged particle emission from wide bandgap crystals,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 168(1-4), 263–266 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

H. Leplan, B. Geenen, J. Y. Robic, and Y. Pauleau, “Residual stresses in evaporated silicon dioxide thin films: Correlation with deposition parameters and aging behavior,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(2), 962–968 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Localized absorption effects during 351 nm, pulsed laser irradiation of dielectric multilayer thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(11), 5422–5432 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Proost and F. Spaepen, “Evolution of the growth stress, stiffness, and microstructure of alumina thin films during vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(1), 204–216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond., A Contain. Pap. Math. Phys. Character (1)

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond., A Contain. Pap. Math. Phys. Character 82(553), 172–175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Rare Metal. Mater. Eng. (1)

Y. Shen, H. He, S. Shao, Z. Fan, and J. Shao, “Influences of the film thickness on residual stress of the HfO2 thin films,” Rare Metal. Mater. Eng. 36, 412–415 (2007).

Thin Solid Films (2)

M. Reichling, A. Bodemann, and N. Kaiser, “Defect induced laser damage in oxide multilayer coatings for 248 nm,” Thin Solid Films 320(2), 264–279 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Thielsch, A. Gatto, J. Heber, and N. Kaiser, “A comparative study of the UV optical and structural properties of SiO2, Al2O3, and HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, ion-assisted deposition and plasma ion-assisted deposition,” Thin Solid Films 410(1-2), 86–93 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (16)

D. J. Smith, A. Staley, R. Eriksson, and G. Algar, “Counter-rotating planetary design for large rectangular substrates,” in Proceedings of the 41st Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, NM, 1998), 193−196.

A. V. Tikhonravov and M. K. Trubetskov, OptiLayer Thin Film Software, Optilayer Ltd., http://www.optilayer.com (9 June 2005).

J. W. Hutchison and T. Y. Wu eds. Advances in Applied Mechanics (Academic Press, 1992), 29.

J. W. Hutchison and Z. Suo, “Mixed mode cracking in layered materials,” in Advances in Applied Mechanics29, J. W. Hutchison and T. Y. Wu eds. (Academic Press, 1992), 63−191.

A. Tikhonravov, M. Trubetskov, T. Amotchkina, and M. Kokarev, “Key role of the coating total optical thickness in solving design problems,” in Advances in Optical Thin Films C. Amra, N. Kaiser, and H. A. Macleod eds., (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 2004), 5250, 312–321.

M. Ohring, Materials Science of Thin Films: Deposition and Structure 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 2002), 723−730.

B. Pinot, H. Leplan, F. Houbre, E. Lavastre, J. C. Poncetta, and G. Chabassier, “Laser Mégajoule 1.06μm mirrors production, with very high laser damage threshold,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials 2001 G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz eds. (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 2002), 4679, 234–241.

C. J. Stolz, “Status of NIF mirror technologies for completion of the NIF facility,” in Advances in Optical Thin Films III N. Kaiser, M. Lequime, and H. A. Macleod eds. (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 2008), 7101, Paper 710115.

D. J. Smith, M. McCullough, C. Smith, T. Mikami, and T. Jitsuno, “Low stress ion-assisted coatings on fused silica substrates for large aperture laser pulse compression gratings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials:2008 G. J. Exarhos, D. Ristau, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz eds. (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 2008), 7132, Paper 71320E.

L. B. Freund and S. Suresh, Thin Film Materials: Stress, Defect Formation, and Surface Evolution (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2003), 60–83.

E. Lavastre, J. Néauport, J. Duchesne, H. Leplan, and F. Houbre, “Polarizers coatings for the Laser Megajoule prototype,” in Optical Interference Coatings OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2004), Paper TuF3.

J. B. Oliver, P. Kupinski, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, J. C. Lambropoulos, S. Papernov, A. Kozlov, and R. D. Hand, “Modification of stresses in evaporated hafnia coatings for use in vacuum,” in Optical Interference Coatings OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2010), Paper WD6.

J. F. Anzellotti, D. J. Smith, R. J. Sczupak, and Z. R. Chrzan, “Stress and environmental shift characteristics of HfO2/SiO2 multilayer coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials:1996 H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau eds. (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1997), 2966, 258−264.

J. B. Oliver, J. Howe, A. Rigatti, D. J. Smith, and C. Stolz, “High precision coating technology for large aperture NIF optics,” in Optical Interference Coatings OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2001), Paper ThD2.

J. B. Oliver, A. L. Rigatti, J. D. Howe, J. Keck, J. Szczepanski, A. W. Schmid, S. Papernov, A. Kozlov, and T. Z. Kosc, “Thin-film polarizers for the OMEGA EP laser system,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials:2005 G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, D. Ristau, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz eds. (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 2005), 5991, 394−401.

J. B. Oliver, S. Papernov, A. W. Schmid, and J. C. Lambropoulos, “Optimization of laser-damage resistance of evaporated hafnia films at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials:2008 G. J. Exarhos, D. Ristau, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz eds. (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 2008), 7132, Paper 71320J.

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