Abstract

We report the facile and economical synthesis of an electrochromic copolymer for black based on electrochemical copolymerization of thiophene and 3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene in boron trifluoride diethyl etherate. The resultant copolymer presents multicolor electrochromism with reversible color change between drab color and blue black. Furthermore, in the polar state the resultant copolymer shows strong and broad absorption in the whole visible region and then exhibits black color. The copolymer presents a transmittance variation of 25% at 522 nm, and corresponding response times for bleaching and coloration are 4.2 and 3.3 s, respectively. Good electrochemical stability can be achieved by the copolymer film, which retains 87% of its original electroactivity after 2000 cycles.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. Ma, M. Taya, and C. Xu, “Flexible electrochromic device based on poly(3,4-(2,2 dimethylpropylenedioxy)thiophene),” Electrochim. Acta 54(2), 598–605 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. V. Vasilyeva, P. M. Beaujuge, S. Wang, J. E. Babiarz, V. W. Ballarotto, and J. R. Reynolds, “Material strategies for black-to-transmissive window-type polymer electrochromic devices,” ACS. Appl. Mater. Inter. 3(4), 1022–1032 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. R. Somani and S. Radhakrishnan, “Electrochromic materials and devices: present and future,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 77(1), 117–133 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Baran, G. Oktem, S. Celebi, and L. Toppare, “Neutral-state green conjugated polymers from pyrrole bis-substituted benzothiadiazole and benzoselenadiazole for electrochromic devices,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 212(8), 799–805 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. M. Beaujuge and J. R. Reynolds, “Color control in π-conjugated organic polymers for use in electrochromic devices,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 268–320 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. C. Kucuk, F. Yilmaz, H. Can, H. Durmaz, A. Kosemen, and A. E. Muftuoglu, “Synthesis of a novel macroinimer based on thiophene and poly(e-caprolactone) and its use in electrochromic device application,” J. Polymer. Sci. Pol. Chem. 49, 4180–4192 (2011).
  7. H. Yoon, M. Chang, and J. Jang, “Formation of 1D poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanomaterials in reverse microemulsions and their application to chemical sensors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(3), 431–436 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Beaupre, A. C. Breton, J. Dumas, and M. Leclerc, “Multicolored electrochromic cells based on poly(2,7-carbazole) derivatives for adaptive camouflage,” Chem. Mater. 21(8), 1504–1513 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. M. Beaujuge, S. Ellinger, and J. R. Reynolds, “The donor-acceptor approach allows a black-to-transmissive switching polymeric electrochrome,” Nat. Mater. 7(10), 795–799 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. Shi, C. M. Amb, E. P. Knott, E. J. Thompson, D. Y. Liu, J. Mei, A. L. Dyer, and J. R. Reynolds, “Broadly absorbing black to transmissive switching electrochromic polymers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 4949–4953 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Içli, M. Pamuk, F. Algı, A. M. Önal, and A. Cihaner, “A new soluble neutral state black electrochromic copolymer via a donor–acceptor approach,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1255–1260 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. H. Xia, J. P. Tu, J. Zhang, X. H. Huang, X. L. Wang, W. K. Zhang, and H. Huang, “Multicolor and fast electrochromism of nanoporous NiO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite thin film,” Electrochem. Commun. 11(3), 702–705 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Camurlu, Z. Bicil, C. Gültekin, and N. Karagoren, “Novel ferrocene derivatized poly(2,5-dithienylpyrrole)s: Optoelectronic properties, electrochemical copolymerization,” Electrochim. Acta 63, 245–250 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Sankaran and J. R. Reynolds, “High-contrast electrochromic polymers from alkyl-derivatized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophenes),” Macromolecules 30(9), 2582–2588 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Camurlu, S. Tarkuc, E. Sahmetlioglu, I. M. Akhmedov, C. Tanyeli, and L. Toppare, “Multichromic conducting copolymer of 1-benzyl-2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)- 1H-pyrrole with EDOT,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(2), 154–159 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Akoudad and J. Roncali, “Modification of the electrochemical and electronic properties of electrogenerated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) by hydroxymethyl and oligo(oxyethylene) substituents,” Electrochem. Commun. 2(1), 72–76 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Kumar, D. M. Welsh, M. C. Morvant, F. Piroux, K. A. Abboud, and J. R. Reynolds, “Conducting poly(3,4-alkylenedioxythiophene) derivatives as fast electrochromics with high-contrast ratios,” Chem. Mater. 10(3), 896–902 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. J. Mortimer, A. L. Dyer, and J. R. Reynolds, “Electrochromic organic and polymeric materials for display applications,” Displays 27(1), 2–18 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Heinze, B. A. Frontana-Uribe, and S. Ludwigs, “Electrochemistry of conducting polymers persistent models and new concepts,” Chem. Rev. 110(8), 4724–4771 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. G. Shi, S. Jin, G. Xue, and C. Li, “A conducting polymer film stronger than aluminum,” Science 267(5200), 994–996 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. Shi, C. Li, and Y. Liang, “High-strength conducting polymers prepared by electrochemical polymerization in boron trifluoride diethyl etherate solution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 11(13), 1145–1146 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Alkan, C. A. Cutler, and J. R. Reynolds, “High quality electrochromic polythiophenes via BF3.Et2O electropolymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(4), 331–336 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Krishnamoorthy, M. Kanungo, A. Q. Contractor, and A. Kumar, “Electrochromic polymer based on a rigid cyanobiphenyl substituted 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene,” Synth. Met. 124(2-3), 471–475 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. Zhang, Y. Xu, N. Wang, Y. Xu, W. Xiang, M. Ouyang, and C. Ma, “Electrosyntheses and characterizations of novel electrochromic copolymers based on pyrene and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene,” Electrochim. Acta 55(1), 13–19 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Zhang, C. Hua, G. Wang, O. Mi, and C. Ma, “A novel multichromic copolymer of 1,4-bis(3-hexylthiophen-2-yl)benzene and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene prepared via electrocopolymerization,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 64, 54–61 (2010).
  26. A. Patra, Y. H. Wijsboom, S. S. Zade, M. Li, Y. Sheynin, G. Leitus, and M. Bendikov, “Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(21), 6734–6736 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. G. E. Gunbas, P. Camurlu, I. M. Akhmedov, C. Tanyeli, A. M. Onal, and L. Toppare, “A fast switching, low band gap, p- and n-dopable, donor–acceptor type polymer,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 615(1), 75–83 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

P. Camurlu, Z. Bicil, C. Gültekin, and N. Karagoren, “Novel ferrocene derivatized poly(2,5-dithienylpyrrole)s: Optoelectronic properties, electrochemical copolymerization,” Electrochim. Acta 63, 245–250 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

S. V. Vasilyeva, P. M. Beaujuge, S. Wang, J. E. Babiarz, V. W. Ballarotto, and J. R. Reynolds, “Material strategies for black-to-transmissive window-type polymer electrochromic devices,” ACS. Appl. Mater. Inter. 3(4), 1022–1032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Baran, G. Oktem, S. Celebi, and L. Toppare, “Neutral-state green conjugated polymers from pyrrole bis-substituted benzothiadiazole and benzoselenadiazole for electrochromic devices,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 212(8), 799–805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Kucuk, F. Yilmaz, H. Can, H. Durmaz, A. Kosemen, and A. E. Muftuoglu, “Synthesis of a novel macroinimer based on thiophene and poly(e-caprolactone) and its use in electrochromic device application,” J. Polymer. Sci. Pol. Chem. 49, 4180–4192 (2011).

2010 (5)

P. M. Beaujuge and J. R. Reynolds, “Color control in π-conjugated organic polymers for use in electrochromic devices,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 268–320 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Shi, C. M. Amb, E. P. Knott, E. J. Thompson, D. Y. Liu, J. Mei, A. L. Dyer, and J. R. Reynolds, “Broadly absorbing black to transmissive switching electrochromic polymers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 4949–4953 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Içli, M. Pamuk, F. Algı, A. M. Önal, and A. Cihaner, “A new soluble neutral state black electrochromic copolymer via a donor–acceptor approach,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1255–1260 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Heinze, B. A. Frontana-Uribe, and S. Ludwigs, “Electrochemistry of conducting polymers persistent models and new concepts,” Chem. Rev. 110(8), 4724–4771 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, C. Hua, G. Wang, O. Mi, and C. Ma, “A novel multichromic copolymer of 1,4-bis(3-hexylthiophen-2-yl)benzene and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene prepared via electrocopolymerization,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 64, 54–61 (2010).

2009 (3)

C. Zhang, Y. Xu, N. Wang, Y. Xu, W. Xiang, M. Ouyang, and C. Ma, “Electrosyntheses and characterizations of novel electrochromic copolymers based on pyrene and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene,” Electrochim. Acta 55(1), 13–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Xia, J. P. Tu, J. Zhang, X. H. Huang, X. L. Wang, W. K. Zhang, and H. Huang, “Multicolor and fast electrochromism of nanoporous NiO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite thin film,” Electrochem. Commun. 11(3), 702–705 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Beaupre, A. C. Breton, J. Dumas, and M. Leclerc, “Multicolored electrochromic cells based on poly(2,7-carbazole) derivatives for adaptive camouflage,” Chem. Mater. 21(8), 1504–1513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

P. M. Beaujuge, S. Ellinger, and J. R. Reynolds, “The donor-acceptor approach allows a black-to-transmissive switching polymeric electrochrome,” Nat. Mater. 7(10), 795–799 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Camurlu, S. Tarkuc, E. Sahmetlioglu, I. M. Akhmedov, C. Tanyeli, and L. Toppare, “Multichromic conducting copolymer of 1-benzyl-2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)- 1H-pyrrole with EDOT,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(2), 154–159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Ma, M. Taya, and C. Xu, “Flexible electrochromic device based on poly(3,4-(2,2 dimethylpropylenedioxy)thiophene),” Electrochim. Acta 54(2), 598–605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Patra, Y. H. Wijsboom, S. S. Zade, M. Li, Y. Sheynin, G. Leitus, and M. Bendikov, “Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(21), 6734–6736 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Gunbas, P. Camurlu, I. M. Akhmedov, C. Tanyeli, A. M. Onal, and L. Toppare, “A fast switching, low band gap, p- and n-dopable, donor–acceptor type polymer,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 615(1), 75–83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H. Yoon, M. Chang, and J. Jang, “Formation of 1D poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanomaterials in reverse microemulsions and their application to chemical sensors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(3), 431–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. J. Mortimer, A. L. Dyer, and J. R. Reynolds, “Electrochromic organic and polymeric materials for display applications,” Displays 27(1), 2–18 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

P. R. Somani and S. Radhakrishnan, “Electrochromic materials and devices: present and future,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 77(1), 117–133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Alkan, C. A. Cutler, and J. R. Reynolds, “High quality electrochromic polythiophenes via BF3.Et2O electropolymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(4), 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Krishnamoorthy, M. Kanungo, A. Q. Contractor, and A. Kumar, “Electrochromic polymer based on a rigid cyanobiphenyl substituted 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene,” Synth. Met. 124(2-3), 471–475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Akoudad and J. Roncali, “Modification of the electrochemical and electronic properties of electrogenerated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) by hydroxymethyl and oligo(oxyethylene) substituents,” Electrochem. Commun. 2(1), 72–76 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Shi, C. Li, and Y. Liang, “High-strength conducting polymers prepared by electrochemical polymerization in boron trifluoride diethyl etherate solution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 11(13), 1145–1146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Kumar, D. M. Welsh, M. C. Morvant, F. Piroux, K. A. Abboud, and J. R. Reynolds, “Conducting poly(3,4-alkylenedioxythiophene) derivatives as fast electrochromics with high-contrast ratios,” Chem. Mater. 10(3), 896–902 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. Sankaran and J. R. Reynolds, “High-contrast electrochromic polymers from alkyl-derivatized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophenes),” Macromolecules 30(9), 2582–2588 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. Shi, S. Jin, G. Xue, and C. Li, “A conducting polymer film stronger than aluminum,” Science 267(5200), 994–996 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abboud, K. A.

A. Kumar, D. M. Welsh, M. C. Morvant, F. Piroux, K. A. Abboud, and J. R. Reynolds, “Conducting poly(3,4-alkylenedioxythiophene) derivatives as fast electrochromics with high-contrast ratios,” Chem. Mater. 10(3), 896–902 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Akhmedov, I. M.

P. Camurlu, S. Tarkuc, E. Sahmetlioglu, I. M. Akhmedov, C. Tanyeli, and L. Toppare, “Multichromic conducting copolymer of 1-benzyl-2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)- 1H-pyrrole with EDOT,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(2), 154–159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Gunbas, P. Camurlu, I. M. Akhmedov, C. Tanyeli, A. M. Onal, and L. Toppare, “A fast switching, low band gap, p- and n-dopable, donor–acceptor type polymer,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 615(1), 75–83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Akoudad, S.

S. Akoudad and J. Roncali, “Modification of the electrochemical and electronic properties of electrogenerated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) by hydroxymethyl and oligo(oxyethylene) substituents,” Electrochem. Commun. 2(1), 72–76 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Algi, F.

M. Içli, M. Pamuk, F. Algı, A. M. Önal, and A. Cihaner, “A new soluble neutral state black electrochromic copolymer via a donor–acceptor approach,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1255–1260 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alkan, S.

S. Alkan, C. A. Cutler, and J. R. Reynolds, “High quality electrochromic polythiophenes via BF3.Et2O electropolymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(4), 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Amb, C. M.

P. Shi, C. M. Amb, E. P. Knott, E. J. Thompson, D. Y. Liu, J. Mei, A. L. Dyer, and J. R. Reynolds, “Broadly absorbing black to transmissive switching electrochromic polymers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 4949–4953 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babiarz, J. E.

S. V. Vasilyeva, P. M. Beaujuge, S. Wang, J. E. Babiarz, V. W. Ballarotto, and J. R. Reynolds, “Material strategies for black-to-transmissive window-type polymer electrochromic devices,” ACS. Appl. Mater. Inter. 3(4), 1022–1032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ballarotto, V. W.

S. V. Vasilyeva, P. M. Beaujuge, S. Wang, J. E. Babiarz, V. W. Ballarotto, and J. R. Reynolds, “Material strategies for black-to-transmissive window-type polymer electrochromic devices,” ACS. Appl. Mater. Inter. 3(4), 1022–1032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baran, D.

D. Baran, G. Oktem, S. Celebi, and L. Toppare, “Neutral-state green conjugated polymers from pyrrole bis-substituted benzothiadiazole and benzoselenadiazole for electrochromic devices,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 212(8), 799–805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Beaujuge, P. M.

S. V. Vasilyeva, P. M. Beaujuge, S. Wang, J. E. Babiarz, V. W. Ballarotto, and J. R. Reynolds, “Material strategies for black-to-transmissive window-type polymer electrochromic devices,” ACS. Appl. Mater. Inter. 3(4), 1022–1032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Beaujuge and J. R. Reynolds, “Color control in π-conjugated organic polymers for use in electrochromic devices,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 268–320 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Beaujuge, S. Ellinger, and J. R. Reynolds, “The donor-acceptor approach allows a black-to-transmissive switching polymeric electrochrome,” Nat. Mater. 7(10), 795–799 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaupre, S.

S. Beaupre, A. C. Breton, J. Dumas, and M. Leclerc, “Multicolored electrochromic cells based on poly(2,7-carbazole) derivatives for adaptive camouflage,” Chem. Mater. 21(8), 1504–1513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bendikov, M.

A. Patra, Y. H. Wijsboom, S. S. Zade, M. Li, Y. Sheynin, G. Leitus, and M. Bendikov, “Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(21), 6734–6736 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bicil, Z.

P. Camurlu, Z. Bicil, C. Gültekin, and N. Karagoren, “Novel ferrocene derivatized poly(2,5-dithienylpyrrole)s: Optoelectronic properties, electrochemical copolymerization,” Electrochim. Acta 63, 245–250 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Breton, A. C.

S. Beaupre, A. C. Breton, J. Dumas, and M. Leclerc, “Multicolored electrochromic cells based on poly(2,7-carbazole) derivatives for adaptive camouflage,” Chem. Mater. 21(8), 1504–1513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Camurlu, P.

P. Camurlu, Z. Bicil, C. Gültekin, and N. Karagoren, “Novel ferrocene derivatized poly(2,5-dithienylpyrrole)s: Optoelectronic properties, electrochemical copolymerization,” Electrochim. Acta 63, 245–250 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Gunbas, P. Camurlu, I. M. Akhmedov, C. Tanyeli, A. M. Onal, and L. Toppare, “A fast switching, low band gap, p- and n-dopable, donor–acceptor type polymer,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 615(1), 75–83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Camurlu, S. Tarkuc, E. Sahmetlioglu, I. M. Akhmedov, C. Tanyeli, and L. Toppare, “Multichromic conducting copolymer of 1-benzyl-2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)- 1H-pyrrole with EDOT,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(2), 154–159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Can, H.

A. C. Kucuk, F. Yilmaz, H. Can, H. Durmaz, A. Kosemen, and A. E. Muftuoglu, “Synthesis of a novel macroinimer based on thiophene and poly(e-caprolactone) and its use in electrochromic device application,” J. Polymer. Sci. Pol. Chem. 49, 4180–4192 (2011).

Celebi, S.

D. Baran, G. Oktem, S. Celebi, and L. Toppare, “Neutral-state green conjugated polymers from pyrrole bis-substituted benzothiadiazole and benzoselenadiazole for electrochromic devices,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 212(8), 799–805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, M.

H. Yoon, M. Chang, and J. Jang, “Formation of 1D poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanomaterials in reverse microemulsions and their application to chemical sensors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(3), 431–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cihaner, A.

M. Içli, M. Pamuk, F. Algı, A. M. Önal, and A. Cihaner, “A new soluble neutral state black electrochromic copolymer via a donor–acceptor approach,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1255–1260 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Contractor, A. Q.

K. Krishnamoorthy, M. Kanungo, A. Q. Contractor, and A. Kumar, “Electrochromic polymer based on a rigid cyanobiphenyl substituted 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene,” Synth. Met. 124(2-3), 471–475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cutler, C. A.

S. Alkan, C. A. Cutler, and J. R. Reynolds, “High quality electrochromic polythiophenes via BF3.Et2O electropolymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(4), 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dumas, J.

S. Beaupre, A. C. Breton, J. Dumas, and M. Leclerc, “Multicolored electrochromic cells based on poly(2,7-carbazole) derivatives for adaptive camouflage,” Chem. Mater. 21(8), 1504–1513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Durmaz, H.

A. C. Kucuk, F. Yilmaz, H. Can, H. Durmaz, A. Kosemen, and A. E. Muftuoglu, “Synthesis of a novel macroinimer based on thiophene and poly(e-caprolactone) and its use in electrochromic device application,” J. Polymer. Sci. Pol. Chem. 49, 4180–4192 (2011).

Dyer, A. L.

P. Shi, C. M. Amb, E. P. Knott, E. J. Thompson, D. Y. Liu, J. Mei, A. L. Dyer, and J. R. Reynolds, “Broadly absorbing black to transmissive switching electrochromic polymers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 4949–4953 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Mortimer, A. L. Dyer, and J. R. Reynolds, “Electrochromic organic and polymeric materials for display applications,” Displays 27(1), 2–18 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ellinger, S.

P. M. Beaujuge, S. Ellinger, and J. R. Reynolds, “The donor-acceptor approach allows a black-to-transmissive switching polymeric electrochrome,” Nat. Mater. 7(10), 795–799 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frontana-Uribe, B. A.

J. Heinze, B. A. Frontana-Uribe, and S. Ludwigs, “Electrochemistry of conducting polymers persistent models and new concepts,” Chem. Rev. 110(8), 4724–4771 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gültekin, C.

P. Camurlu, Z. Bicil, C. Gültekin, and N. Karagoren, “Novel ferrocene derivatized poly(2,5-dithienylpyrrole)s: Optoelectronic properties, electrochemical copolymerization,” Electrochim. Acta 63, 245–250 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gunbas, G. E.

G. E. Gunbas, P. Camurlu, I. M. Akhmedov, C. Tanyeli, A. M. Onal, and L. Toppare, “A fast switching, low band gap, p- and n-dopable, donor–acceptor type polymer,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 615(1), 75–83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heinze, J.

J. Heinze, B. A. Frontana-Uribe, and S. Ludwigs, “Electrochemistry of conducting polymers persistent models and new concepts,” Chem. Rev. 110(8), 4724–4771 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hua, C.

C. Zhang, C. Hua, G. Wang, O. Mi, and C. Ma, “A novel multichromic copolymer of 1,4-bis(3-hexylthiophen-2-yl)benzene and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene prepared via electrocopolymerization,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 64, 54–61 (2010).

Huang, H.

X. H. Xia, J. P. Tu, J. Zhang, X. H. Huang, X. L. Wang, W. K. Zhang, and H. Huang, “Multicolor and fast electrochromism of nanoporous NiO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite thin film,” Electrochem. Commun. 11(3), 702–705 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. H.

X. H. Xia, J. P. Tu, J. Zhang, X. H. Huang, X. L. Wang, W. K. Zhang, and H. Huang, “Multicolor and fast electrochromism of nanoporous NiO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite thin film,” Electrochem. Commun. 11(3), 702–705 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Içli, M.

M. Içli, M. Pamuk, F. Algı, A. M. Önal, and A. Cihaner, “A new soluble neutral state black electrochromic copolymer via a donor–acceptor approach,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1255–1260 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

H. Yoon, M. Chang, and J. Jang, “Formation of 1D poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanomaterials in reverse microemulsions and their application to chemical sensors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(3), 431–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S.

G. Shi, S. Jin, G. Xue, and C. Li, “A conducting polymer film stronger than aluminum,” Science 267(5200), 994–996 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanungo, M.

K. Krishnamoorthy, M. Kanungo, A. Q. Contractor, and A. Kumar, “Electrochromic polymer based on a rigid cyanobiphenyl substituted 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene,” Synth. Met. 124(2-3), 471–475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Karagoren, N.

P. Camurlu, Z. Bicil, C. Gültekin, and N. Karagoren, “Novel ferrocene derivatized poly(2,5-dithienylpyrrole)s: Optoelectronic properties, electrochemical copolymerization,” Electrochim. Acta 63, 245–250 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Knott, E. P.

P. Shi, C. M. Amb, E. P. Knott, E. J. Thompson, D. Y. Liu, J. Mei, A. L. Dyer, and J. R. Reynolds, “Broadly absorbing black to transmissive switching electrochromic polymers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 4949–4953 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosemen, A.

A. C. Kucuk, F. Yilmaz, H. Can, H. Durmaz, A. Kosemen, and A. E. Muftuoglu, “Synthesis of a novel macroinimer based on thiophene and poly(e-caprolactone) and its use in electrochromic device application,” J. Polymer. Sci. Pol. Chem. 49, 4180–4192 (2011).

Krishnamoorthy, K.

K. Krishnamoorthy, M. Kanungo, A. Q. Contractor, and A. Kumar, “Electrochromic polymer based on a rigid cyanobiphenyl substituted 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene,” Synth. Met. 124(2-3), 471–475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kucuk, A. C.

A. C. Kucuk, F. Yilmaz, H. Can, H. Durmaz, A. Kosemen, and A. E. Muftuoglu, “Synthesis of a novel macroinimer based on thiophene and poly(e-caprolactone) and its use in electrochromic device application,” J. Polymer. Sci. Pol. Chem. 49, 4180–4192 (2011).

Kumar, A.

K. Krishnamoorthy, M. Kanungo, A. Q. Contractor, and A. Kumar, “Electrochromic polymer based on a rigid cyanobiphenyl substituted 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene,” Synth. Met. 124(2-3), 471–475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, D. M. Welsh, M. C. Morvant, F. Piroux, K. A. Abboud, and J. R. Reynolds, “Conducting poly(3,4-alkylenedioxythiophene) derivatives as fast electrochromics with high-contrast ratios,” Chem. Mater. 10(3), 896–902 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leclerc, M.

S. Beaupre, A. C. Breton, J. Dumas, and M. Leclerc, “Multicolored electrochromic cells based on poly(2,7-carbazole) derivatives for adaptive camouflage,” Chem. Mater. 21(8), 1504–1513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leitus, G.

A. Patra, Y. H. Wijsboom, S. S. Zade, M. Li, Y. Sheynin, G. Leitus, and M. Bendikov, “Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(21), 6734–6736 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

S. Shi, C. Li, and Y. Liang, “High-strength conducting polymers prepared by electrochemical polymerization in boron trifluoride diethyl etherate solution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 11(13), 1145–1146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Shi, S. Jin, G. Xue, and C. Li, “A conducting polymer film stronger than aluminum,” Science 267(5200), 994–996 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, M.

A. Patra, Y. H. Wijsboom, S. S. Zade, M. Li, Y. Sheynin, G. Leitus, and M. Bendikov, “Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(21), 6734–6736 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, Y.

S. Shi, C. Li, and Y. Liang, “High-strength conducting polymers prepared by electrochemical polymerization in boron trifluoride diethyl etherate solution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 11(13), 1145–1146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D. Y.

P. Shi, C. M. Amb, E. P. Knott, E. J. Thompson, D. Y. Liu, J. Mei, A. L. Dyer, and J. R. Reynolds, “Broadly absorbing black to transmissive switching electrochromic polymers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 4949–4953 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ludwigs, S.

J. Heinze, B. A. Frontana-Uribe, and S. Ludwigs, “Electrochemistry of conducting polymers persistent models and new concepts,” Chem. Rev. 110(8), 4724–4771 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, C.

C. Zhang, C. Hua, G. Wang, O. Mi, and C. Ma, “A novel multichromic copolymer of 1,4-bis(3-hexylthiophen-2-yl)benzene and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene prepared via electrocopolymerization,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 64, 54–61 (2010).

C. Zhang, Y. Xu, N. Wang, Y. Xu, W. Xiang, M. Ouyang, and C. Ma, “Electrosyntheses and characterizations of novel electrochromic copolymers based on pyrene and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene,” Electrochim. Acta 55(1), 13–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Ma, M. Taya, and C. Xu, “Flexible electrochromic device based on poly(3,4-(2,2 dimethylpropylenedioxy)thiophene),” Electrochim. Acta 54(2), 598–605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mei, J.

P. Shi, C. M. Amb, E. P. Knott, E. J. Thompson, D. Y. Liu, J. Mei, A. L. Dyer, and J. R. Reynolds, “Broadly absorbing black to transmissive switching electrochromic polymers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 4949–4953 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mi, O.

C. Zhang, C. Hua, G. Wang, O. Mi, and C. Ma, “A novel multichromic copolymer of 1,4-bis(3-hexylthiophen-2-yl)benzene and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene prepared via electrocopolymerization,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 64, 54–61 (2010).

Mortimer, R. J.

R. J. Mortimer, A. L. Dyer, and J. R. Reynolds, “Electrochromic organic and polymeric materials for display applications,” Displays 27(1), 2–18 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morvant, M. C.

A. Kumar, D. M. Welsh, M. C. Morvant, F. Piroux, K. A. Abboud, and J. R. Reynolds, “Conducting poly(3,4-alkylenedioxythiophene) derivatives as fast electrochromics with high-contrast ratios,” Chem. Mater. 10(3), 896–902 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Muftuoglu, A. E.

A. C. Kucuk, F. Yilmaz, H. Can, H. Durmaz, A. Kosemen, and A. E. Muftuoglu, “Synthesis of a novel macroinimer based on thiophene and poly(e-caprolactone) and its use in electrochromic device application,” J. Polymer. Sci. Pol. Chem. 49, 4180–4192 (2011).

Oktem, G.

D. Baran, G. Oktem, S. Celebi, and L. Toppare, “Neutral-state green conjugated polymers from pyrrole bis-substituted benzothiadiazole and benzoselenadiazole for electrochromic devices,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 212(8), 799–805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Onal, A. M.

G. E. Gunbas, P. Camurlu, I. M. Akhmedov, C. Tanyeli, A. M. Onal, and L. Toppare, “A fast switching, low band gap, p- and n-dopable, donor–acceptor type polymer,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 615(1), 75–83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Önal, A. M.

M. Içli, M. Pamuk, F. Algı, A. M. Önal, and A. Cihaner, “A new soluble neutral state black electrochromic copolymer via a donor–acceptor approach,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1255–1260 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, M.

C. Zhang, Y. Xu, N. Wang, Y. Xu, W. Xiang, M. Ouyang, and C. Ma, “Electrosyntheses and characterizations of novel electrochromic copolymers based on pyrene and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene,” Electrochim. Acta 55(1), 13–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pamuk, M.

M. Içli, M. Pamuk, F. Algı, A. M. Önal, and A. Cihaner, “A new soluble neutral state black electrochromic copolymer via a donor–acceptor approach,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1255–1260 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Patra, A.

A. Patra, Y. H. Wijsboom, S. S. Zade, M. Li, Y. Sheynin, G. Leitus, and M. Bendikov, “Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(21), 6734–6736 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piroux, F.

A. Kumar, D. M. Welsh, M. C. Morvant, F. Piroux, K. A. Abboud, and J. R. Reynolds, “Conducting poly(3,4-alkylenedioxythiophene) derivatives as fast electrochromics with high-contrast ratios,” Chem. Mater. 10(3), 896–902 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Radhakrishnan, S.

P. R. Somani and S. Radhakrishnan, “Electrochromic materials and devices: present and future,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 77(1), 117–133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, J. R.

S. V. Vasilyeva, P. M. Beaujuge, S. Wang, J. E. Babiarz, V. W. Ballarotto, and J. R. Reynolds, “Material strategies for black-to-transmissive window-type polymer electrochromic devices,” ACS. Appl. Mater. Inter. 3(4), 1022–1032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Beaujuge and J. R. Reynolds, “Color control in π-conjugated organic polymers for use in electrochromic devices,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 268–320 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Shi, C. M. Amb, E. P. Knott, E. J. Thompson, D. Y. Liu, J. Mei, A. L. Dyer, and J. R. Reynolds, “Broadly absorbing black to transmissive switching electrochromic polymers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 4949–4953 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Beaujuge, S. Ellinger, and J. R. Reynolds, “The donor-acceptor approach allows a black-to-transmissive switching polymeric electrochrome,” Nat. Mater. 7(10), 795–799 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Mortimer, A. L. Dyer, and J. R. Reynolds, “Electrochromic organic and polymeric materials for display applications,” Displays 27(1), 2–18 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Alkan, C. A. Cutler, and J. R. Reynolds, “High quality electrochromic polythiophenes via BF3.Et2O electropolymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(4), 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, D. M. Welsh, M. C. Morvant, F. Piroux, K. A. Abboud, and J. R. Reynolds, “Conducting poly(3,4-alkylenedioxythiophene) derivatives as fast electrochromics with high-contrast ratios,” Chem. Mater. 10(3), 896–902 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Sankaran and J. R. Reynolds, “High-contrast electrochromic polymers from alkyl-derivatized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophenes),” Macromolecules 30(9), 2582–2588 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roncali, J.

S. Akoudad and J. Roncali, “Modification of the electrochemical and electronic properties of electrogenerated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) by hydroxymethyl and oligo(oxyethylene) substituents,” Electrochem. Commun. 2(1), 72–76 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sahmetlioglu, E.

P. Camurlu, S. Tarkuc, E. Sahmetlioglu, I. M. Akhmedov, C. Tanyeli, and L. Toppare, “Multichromic conducting copolymer of 1-benzyl-2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)- 1H-pyrrole with EDOT,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(2), 154–159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sankaran, B.

B. Sankaran and J. R. Reynolds, “High-contrast electrochromic polymers from alkyl-derivatized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophenes),” Macromolecules 30(9), 2582–2588 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sheynin, Y.

A. Patra, Y. H. Wijsboom, S. S. Zade, M. Li, Y. Sheynin, G. Leitus, and M. Bendikov, “Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(21), 6734–6736 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, G.

G. Shi, S. Jin, G. Xue, and C. Li, “A conducting polymer film stronger than aluminum,” Science 267(5200), 994–996 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, P.

P. Shi, C. M. Amb, E. P. Knott, E. J. Thompson, D. Y. Liu, J. Mei, A. L. Dyer, and J. R. Reynolds, “Broadly absorbing black to transmissive switching electrochromic polymers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 4949–4953 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, S.

S. Shi, C. Li, and Y. Liang, “High-strength conducting polymers prepared by electrochemical polymerization in boron trifluoride diethyl etherate solution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 11(13), 1145–1146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Somani, P. R.

P. R. Somani and S. Radhakrishnan, “Electrochromic materials and devices: present and future,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 77(1), 117–133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanyeli, C.

G. E. Gunbas, P. Camurlu, I. M. Akhmedov, C. Tanyeli, A. M. Onal, and L. Toppare, “A fast switching, low band gap, p- and n-dopable, donor–acceptor type polymer,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 615(1), 75–83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Camurlu, S. Tarkuc, E. Sahmetlioglu, I. M. Akhmedov, C. Tanyeli, and L. Toppare, “Multichromic conducting copolymer of 1-benzyl-2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)- 1H-pyrrole with EDOT,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(2), 154–159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tarkuc, S.

P. Camurlu, S. Tarkuc, E. Sahmetlioglu, I. M. Akhmedov, C. Tanyeli, and L. Toppare, “Multichromic conducting copolymer of 1-benzyl-2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)- 1H-pyrrole with EDOT,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(2), 154–159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taya, M.

C. Ma, M. Taya, and C. Xu, “Flexible electrochromic device based on poly(3,4-(2,2 dimethylpropylenedioxy)thiophene),” Electrochim. Acta 54(2), 598–605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, E. J.

P. Shi, C. M. Amb, E. P. Knott, E. J. Thompson, D. Y. Liu, J. Mei, A. L. Dyer, and J. R. Reynolds, “Broadly absorbing black to transmissive switching electrochromic polymers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 4949–4953 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toppare, L.

D. Baran, G. Oktem, S. Celebi, and L. Toppare, “Neutral-state green conjugated polymers from pyrrole bis-substituted benzothiadiazole and benzoselenadiazole for electrochromic devices,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 212(8), 799–805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Camurlu, S. Tarkuc, E. Sahmetlioglu, I. M. Akhmedov, C. Tanyeli, and L. Toppare, “Multichromic conducting copolymer of 1-benzyl-2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)- 1H-pyrrole with EDOT,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(2), 154–159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Gunbas, P. Camurlu, I. M. Akhmedov, C. Tanyeli, A. M. Onal, and L. Toppare, “A fast switching, low band gap, p- and n-dopable, donor–acceptor type polymer,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 615(1), 75–83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tu, J. P.

X. H. Xia, J. P. Tu, J. Zhang, X. H. Huang, X. L. Wang, W. K. Zhang, and H. Huang, “Multicolor and fast electrochromism of nanoporous NiO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite thin film,” Electrochem. Commun. 11(3), 702–705 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vasilyeva, S. V.

S. V. Vasilyeva, P. M. Beaujuge, S. Wang, J. E. Babiarz, V. W. Ballarotto, and J. R. Reynolds, “Material strategies for black-to-transmissive window-type polymer electrochromic devices,” ACS. Appl. Mater. Inter. 3(4), 1022–1032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

C. Zhang, C. Hua, G. Wang, O. Mi, and C. Ma, “A novel multichromic copolymer of 1,4-bis(3-hexylthiophen-2-yl)benzene and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene prepared via electrocopolymerization,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 64, 54–61 (2010).

Wang, N.

C. Zhang, Y. Xu, N. Wang, Y. Xu, W. Xiang, M. Ouyang, and C. Ma, “Electrosyntheses and characterizations of novel electrochromic copolymers based on pyrene and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene,” Electrochim. Acta 55(1), 13–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. V. Vasilyeva, P. M. Beaujuge, S. Wang, J. E. Babiarz, V. W. Ballarotto, and J. R. Reynolds, “Material strategies for black-to-transmissive window-type polymer electrochromic devices,” ACS. Appl. Mater. Inter. 3(4), 1022–1032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. L.

X. H. Xia, J. P. Tu, J. Zhang, X. H. Huang, X. L. Wang, W. K. Zhang, and H. Huang, “Multicolor and fast electrochromism of nanoporous NiO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite thin film,” Electrochem. Commun. 11(3), 702–705 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Welsh, D. M.

A. Kumar, D. M. Welsh, M. C. Morvant, F. Piroux, K. A. Abboud, and J. R. Reynolds, “Conducting poly(3,4-alkylenedioxythiophene) derivatives as fast electrochromics with high-contrast ratios,” Chem. Mater. 10(3), 896–902 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wijsboom, Y. H.

A. Patra, Y. H. Wijsboom, S. S. Zade, M. Li, Y. Sheynin, G. Leitus, and M. Bendikov, “Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(21), 6734–6736 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, X. H.

X. H. Xia, J. P. Tu, J. Zhang, X. H. Huang, X. L. Wang, W. K. Zhang, and H. Huang, “Multicolor and fast electrochromism of nanoporous NiO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite thin film,” Electrochem. Commun. 11(3), 702–705 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, W.

C. Zhang, Y. Xu, N. Wang, Y. Xu, W. Xiang, M. Ouyang, and C. Ma, “Electrosyntheses and characterizations of novel electrochromic copolymers based on pyrene and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene,” Electrochim. Acta 55(1), 13–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

C. Ma, M. Taya, and C. Xu, “Flexible electrochromic device based on poly(3,4-(2,2 dimethylpropylenedioxy)thiophene),” Electrochim. Acta 54(2), 598–605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

C. Zhang, Y. Xu, N. Wang, Y. Xu, W. Xiang, M. Ouyang, and C. Ma, “Electrosyntheses and characterizations of novel electrochromic copolymers based on pyrene and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene,” Electrochim. Acta 55(1), 13–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhang, Y. Xu, N. Wang, Y. Xu, W. Xiang, M. Ouyang, and C. Ma, “Electrosyntheses and characterizations of novel electrochromic copolymers based on pyrene and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene,” Electrochim. Acta 55(1), 13–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xue, G.

G. Shi, S. Jin, G. Xue, and C. Li, “A conducting polymer film stronger than aluminum,” Science 267(5200), 994–996 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yilmaz, F.

A. C. Kucuk, F. Yilmaz, H. Can, H. Durmaz, A. Kosemen, and A. E. Muftuoglu, “Synthesis of a novel macroinimer based on thiophene and poly(e-caprolactone) and its use in electrochromic device application,” J. Polymer. Sci. Pol. Chem. 49, 4180–4192 (2011).

Yoon, H.

H. Yoon, M. Chang, and J. Jang, “Formation of 1D poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanomaterials in reverse microemulsions and their application to chemical sensors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(3), 431–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zade, S. S.

A. Patra, Y. H. Wijsboom, S. S. Zade, M. Li, Y. Sheynin, G. Leitus, and M. Bendikov, “Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(21), 6734–6736 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, C. Hua, G. Wang, O. Mi, and C. Ma, “A novel multichromic copolymer of 1,4-bis(3-hexylthiophen-2-yl)benzene and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene prepared via electrocopolymerization,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 64, 54–61 (2010).

C. Zhang, Y. Xu, N. Wang, Y. Xu, W. Xiang, M. Ouyang, and C. Ma, “Electrosyntheses and characterizations of novel electrochromic copolymers based on pyrene and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene,” Electrochim. Acta 55(1), 13–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

X. H. Xia, J. P. Tu, J. Zhang, X. H. Huang, X. L. Wang, W. K. Zhang, and H. Huang, “Multicolor and fast electrochromism of nanoporous NiO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite thin film,” Electrochem. Commun. 11(3), 702–705 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. K.

X. H. Xia, J. P. Tu, J. Zhang, X. H. Huang, X. L. Wang, W. K. Zhang, and H. Huang, “Multicolor and fast electrochromism of nanoporous NiO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite thin film,” Electrochem. Commun. 11(3), 702–705 (2009).
[CrossRef]

ACS. Appl. Mater. Inter. (1)

S. V. Vasilyeva, P. M. Beaujuge, S. Wang, J. E. Babiarz, V. W. Ballarotto, and J. R. Reynolds, “Material strategies for black-to-transmissive window-type polymer electrochromic devices,” ACS. Appl. Mater. Inter. 3(4), 1022–1032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

H. Yoon, M. Chang, and J. Jang, “Formation of 1D poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanomaterials in reverse microemulsions and their application to chemical sensors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(3), 431–436 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Alkan, C. A. Cutler, and J. R. Reynolds, “High quality electrochromic polythiophenes via BF3.Et2O electropolymerization,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(4), 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (2)

S. Shi, C. Li, and Y. Liang, “High-strength conducting polymers prepared by electrochemical polymerization in boron trifluoride diethyl etherate solution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 11(13), 1145–1146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Shi, C. M. Amb, E. P. Knott, E. J. Thompson, D. Y. Liu, J. Mei, A. L. Dyer, and J. R. Reynolds, “Broadly absorbing black to transmissive switching electrochromic polymers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 4949–4953 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Mater. (2)

A. Kumar, D. M. Welsh, M. C. Morvant, F. Piroux, K. A. Abboud, and J. R. Reynolds, “Conducting poly(3,4-alkylenedioxythiophene) derivatives as fast electrochromics with high-contrast ratios,” Chem. Mater. 10(3), 896–902 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Beaupre, A. C. Breton, J. Dumas, and M. Leclerc, “Multicolored electrochromic cells based on poly(2,7-carbazole) derivatives for adaptive camouflage,” Chem. Mater. 21(8), 1504–1513 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (2)

P. M. Beaujuge and J. R. Reynolds, “Color control in π-conjugated organic polymers for use in electrochromic devices,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 268–320 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Heinze, B. A. Frontana-Uribe, and S. Ludwigs, “Electrochemistry of conducting polymers persistent models and new concepts,” Chem. Rev. 110(8), 4724–4771 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Displays (1)

R. J. Mortimer, A. L. Dyer, and J. R. Reynolds, “Electrochromic organic and polymeric materials for display applications,” Displays 27(1), 2–18 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Commun. (2)

X. H. Xia, J. P. Tu, J. Zhang, X. H. Huang, X. L. Wang, W. K. Zhang, and H. Huang, “Multicolor and fast electrochromism of nanoporous NiO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite thin film,” Electrochem. Commun. 11(3), 702–705 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Akoudad and J. Roncali, “Modification of the electrochemical and electronic properties of electrogenerated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) by hydroxymethyl and oligo(oxyethylene) substituents,” Electrochem. Commun. 2(1), 72–76 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electrochim. Acta (3)

C. Zhang, Y. Xu, N. Wang, Y. Xu, W. Xiang, M. Ouyang, and C. Ma, “Electrosyntheses and characterizations of novel electrochromic copolymers based on pyrene and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene,” Electrochim. Acta 55(1), 13–19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Camurlu, Z. Bicil, C. Gültekin, and N. Karagoren, “Novel ferrocene derivatized poly(2,5-dithienylpyrrole)s: Optoelectronic properties, electrochemical copolymerization,” Electrochim. Acta 63, 245–250 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Ma, M. Taya, and C. Xu, “Flexible electrochromic device based on poly(3,4-(2,2 dimethylpropylenedioxy)thiophene),” Electrochim. Acta 54(2), 598–605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

A. Patra, Y. H. Wijsboom, S. S. Zade, M. Li, Y. Sheynin, G. Leitus, and M. Bendikov, “Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(21), 6734–6736 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Electroanal. Chem. (2)

G. E. Gunbas, P. Camurlu, I. M. Akhmedov, C. Tanyeli, A. M. Onal, and L. Toppare, “A fast switching, low band gap, p- and n-dopable, donor–acceptor type polymer,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 615(1), 75–83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhang, C. Hua, G. Wang, O. Mi, and C. Ma, “A novel multichromic copolymer of 1,4-bis(3-hexylthiophen-2-yl)benzene and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene prepared via electrocopolymerization,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 64, 54–61 (2010).

J. Polymer. Sci. Pol. Chem. (1)

A. C. Kucuk, F. Yilmaz, H. Can, H. Durmaz, A. Kosemen, and A. E. Muftuoglu, “Synthesis of a novel macroinimer based on thiophene and poly(e-caprolactone) and its use in electrochromic device application,” J. Polymer. Sci. Pol. Chem. 49, 4180–4192 (2011).

Macromol. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. Baran, G. Oktem, S. Celebi, and L. Toppare, “Neutral-state green conjugated polymers from pyrrole bis-substituted benzothiadiazole and benzoselenadiazole for electrochromic devices,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 212(8), 799–805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

B. Sankaran and J. R. Reynolds, “High-contrast electrochromic polymers from alkyl-derivatized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophenes),” Macromolecules 30(9), 2582–2588 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

P. R. Somani and S. Radhakrishnan, “Electrochromic materials and devices: present and future,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 77(1), 117–133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

P. M. Beaujuge, S. Ellinger, and J. R. Reynolds, “The donor-acceptor approach allows a black-to-transmissive switching polymeric electrochrome,” Nat. Mater. 7(10), 795–799 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Org. Electron. (1)

M. Içli, M. Pamuk, F. Algı, A. M. Önal, and A. Cihaner, “A new soluble neutral state black electrochromic copolymer via a donor–acceptor approach,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1255–1260 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

G. Shi, S. Jin, G. Xue, and C. Li, “A conducting polymer film stronger than aluminum,” Science 267(5200), 994–996 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

P. Camurlu, S. Tarkuc, E. Sahmetlioglu, I. M. Akhmedov, C. Tanyeli, and L. Toppare, “Multichromic conducting copolymer of 1-benzyl-2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)- 1H-pyrrole with EDOT,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(2), 154–159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (1)

K. Krishnamoorthy, M. Kanungo, A. Q. Contractor, and A. Kumar, “Electrochromic polymer based on a rigid cyanobiphenyl substituted 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene,” Synth. Met. 124(2-3), 471–475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cyclic voltymmogram curves of the mixture of 20 mM thiophene and 5 mM EDOT in BFEE solution.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Peak current density of the copolymer under various scan rates; inset: CV curves of the copolymer at different scan rates.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Absorption spectra and (b) optical images of the copolymer under various applied potentials.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Chronoamperometric curve and optical response of the copolymer at 522 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electrochemical stability of the copolymer.

Metrics