Abstract

We demonstrate steady-state focusing of coherent light through dynamic scattering media. The phase of an incident beam is controlled both spatially and temporally using a reflective, 1020-segment MEMS spatial light modulator, using a coordinate descent optimization technique. We achieve focal intensity enhancement of between 5 and 400 for dynamic media with speckle decorrelation time constants ranging from 0.4 seconds to 20 seconds. We show that this optimization approach combined with a fast spatial light modulator enables focusing through dynamic media. The capacity to enhance focal intensity despite transmission through dynamic scattering media could enable advancement in biological microscopy and imaging through turbid environments.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Scattered light fluorescence microscopy: imaging through turbid layers,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1245–1247 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Focusing coherent light through opaque strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2309–2311 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. Mosk, “Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 320–322 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Montaldo, M. Tanter, and M. Fink, “Time reversal of speckle noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(5), 054301 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the Transmission Matrix in Optics: An Approach to the Study and Control of Light Propagation in Disordered Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat Commun 1(6), 81 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Lerosey, J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, and M. Fink, “Focusing beyond the diffraction limit with far-field time reversal,” Science 315(5815), 1120–1122 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. I. Vellekoop and C. Aegerter, “Focusing light through living tissue,” San Francisco, California, USA, SPIE 7554, 755430 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, and R. Piestun, “High-speed scattering medium characterization with application to focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1733–1740 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Baker, E. Stappaerts, D. Homoelle, M. Henesian, E. Bliss, C. Siders, and C. Barty, “Interferometric adaptive optics for high-power laser pointing and wavefront control and phasing,” J. Micro/Nano, MEMS and MOEMS 8(3), 033040 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Baker, E. Stappaerts, D. Gavel, S. Wilks, J. Tucker, D. Silva, J. Olsen, S. Olivier, P. Young, M. Kartz, L. Flath, P. Kruelivitch, J. Crawford, and O. Azucena, “High-speed horizontal-path atmospheric turbulence correction using a large actuator-number MEMS spatial light modulator in an interferometric phase conjugation engine,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1781–1783 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. Kasdin, R. Vanderbei, and R. Belikov, “Shaped pupil coronagraphy,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 312–322 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Belikov, E. Pluzhnik, M. Connelley, F. Witteborn, D. Lynch, K. Cahoy, O. Guyon, T. Greene, and M. McKelvey, “First results on a new PIAA coronagraph testbed at NASA Ames,” Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets IV (San Diego, Calif., 2009) Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400J (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Belikov, E. Pluzhnik, M. Connelley, F. Witteborn, T. Greene, D. Lynch, P. Zell, and O. Guyon, “Laboratory demonstration of high-contrast imaging at 2 lambda/D on a temperature-stabilized testbed in air,” Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2010: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Wave (San Diego, Calif., 2011) Proc. SPIE 7731, D1–D11 (2011).
  16. S. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, D. Gavel, and A. Sivaramakrishnan, “Testing the apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph on the laboratory for adaptive optics extreme adaptive optics testbed,” Astron. J. 142(4), 119 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, J. Evans, D. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Marois, and B. Oppenheimer, “Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed,” Adaptive Optics Systems (Marseille, France 2008) SPIE 7015, 70156I (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J. Veran, “Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 365–373 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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  21. F. Wang, “Wavefront sensing through measurements of binary aberration modes,” Appl. Opt. 48(15), 2865–2870 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. F. Wang, “Utility transforms of optical fields employing deformable mirror,” Opt. Lett. 36(22), 4383–4385 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. F. Wang, “High-contrast imaging via modal convergence of deformable mirror,” Astrophys. J. 751(2), 83 (2012).
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  24. J. Walsh, “A closed set of normal orthogonal functions,” Am. J. Math. 45(1), 5–24 (1923).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. Schreiber and J. Bruning, Optical Shop Testing (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006), Chap. 15.
  26. I. Vellekoop and A. Mosk, “Phase control algorithms for focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Commun. 281(11), 3071–3080 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (5)

F. Wang, “Utility transforms of optical fields employing deformable mirror,” Opt. Lett. 36(22), 4383–4385 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bifano, “Adaptive imaging: MEMS deformable mirrors,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 21–23 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Belikov, E. Pluzhnik, M. Connelley, F. Witteborn, T. Greene, D. Lynch, P. Zell, and O. Guyon, “Laboratory demonstration of high-contrast imaging at 2 lambda/D on a temperature-stabilized testbed in air,” Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2010: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Wave (San Diego, Calif., 2011) Proc. SPIE 7731, D1–D11 (2011).

S. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, D. Gavel, and A. Sivaramakrishnan, “Testing the apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph on the laboratory for adaptive optics extreme adaptive optics testbed,” Astron. J. 142(4), 119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Montaldo, M. Tanter, and M. Fink, “Time reversal of speckle noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(5), 054301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the Transmission Matrix in Optics: An Approach to the Study and Control of Light Propagation in Disordered Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat Commun 1(6), 81 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Scattered light fluorescence microscopy: imaging through turbid layers,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1245–1247 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. Mosk, “Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 320–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Vellekoop and C. Aegerter, “Focusing light through living tissue,” San Francisco, California, USA, SPIE 7554, 755430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, “Control of deformable mirror with light-intensity measurements through single-mode fiber,” Appl. Opt. 49(31), G60–G66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

F. Wang, “Wavefront sensing through measurements of binary aberration modes,” Appl. Opt. 48(15), 2865–2870 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Belikov, E. Pluzhnik, M. Connelley, F. Witteborn, D. Lynch, K. Cahoy, O. Guyon, T. Greene, and M. McKelvey, “First results on a new PIAA coronagraph testbed at NASA Ames,” Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets IV (San Diego, Calif., 2009) Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400J (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Baker, E. Stappaerts, D. Homoelle, M. Henesian, E. Bliss, C. Siders, and C. Barty, “Interferometric adaptive optics for high-power laser pointing and wavefront control and phasing,” J. Micro/Nano, MEMS and MOEMS 8(3), 033040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, J. Evans, D. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Marois, and B. Oppenheimer, “Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed,” Adaptive Optics Systems (Marseille, France 2008) SPIE 7015, 70156I (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Vellekoop and A. Mosk, “Phase control algorithms for focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Commun. 281(11), 3071–3080 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

N. Kasdin, R. Vanderbei, and R. Belikov, “Shaped pupil coronagraphy,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 312–322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J. Veran, “Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 365–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Focusing coherent light through opaque strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2309–2311 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lerosey, J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, and M. Fink, “Focusing beyond the diffraction limit with far-field time reversal,” Science 315(5815), 1120–1122 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

1923 (1)

J. Walsh, “A closed set of normal orthogonal functions,” Am. J. Math. 45(1), 5–24 (1923).
[CrossRef]

Aegerter, C.

I. Vellekoop and C. Aegerter, “Focusing light through living tissue,” San Francisco, California, USA, SPIE 7554, 755430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aegerter, C. M.

Azucena, O.

Baker, K.

Barty, C.

K. Baker, E. Stappaerts, D. Homoelle, M. Henesian, E. Bliss, C. Siders, and C. Barty, “Interferometric adaptive optics for high-power laser pointing and wavefront control and phasing,” J. Micro/Nano, MEMS and MOEMS 8(3), 033040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bauman, B.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J. Veran, “Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 365–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Belikov, R.

R. Belikov, E. Pluzhnik, M. Connelley, F. Witteborn, T. Greene, D. Lynch, P. Zell, and O. Guyon, “Laboratory demonstration of high-contrast imaging at 2 lambda/D on a temperature-stabilized testbed in air,” Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2010: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Wave (San Diego, Calif., 2011) Proc. SPIE 7731, D1–D11 (2011).

R. Belikov, E. Pluzhnik, M. Connelley, F. Witteborn, D. Lynch, K. Cahoy, O. Guyon, T. Greene, and M. McKelvey, “First results on a new PIAA coronagraph testbed at NASA Ames,” Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets IV (San Diego, Calif., 2009) Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400J (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Kasdin, R. Vanderbei, and R. Belikov, “Shaped pupil coronagraphy,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 312–322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bifano, T.

T. Bifano, “Adaptive imaging: MEMS deformable mirrors,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 21–23 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bliss, E.

K. Baker, E. Stappaerts, D. Homoelle, M. Henesian, E. Bliss, C. Siders, and C. Barty, “Interferometric adaptive optics for high-power laser pointing and wavefront control and phasing,” J. Micro/Nano, MEMS and MOEMS 8(3), 033040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat Commun 1(6), 81 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the Transmission Matrix in Optics: An Approach to the Study and Control of Light Propagation in Disordered Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cahoy, K.

R. Belikov, E. Pluzhnik, M. Connelley, F. Witteborn, D. Lynch, K. Cahoy, O. Guyon, T. Greene, and M. McKelvey, “First results on a new PIAA coronagraph testbed at NASA Ames,” Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets IV (San Diego, Calif., 2009) Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400J (2009).
[CrossRef]

Caravaca-Aguirre, A. M.

Carminati, R.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the Transmission Matrix in Optics: An Approach to the Study and Control of Light Propagation in Disordered Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conkey, D. B.

Connelley, M.

R. Belikov, E. Pluzhnik, M. Connelley, F. Witteborn, T. Greene, D. Lynch, P. Zell, and O. Guyon, “Laboratory demonstration of high-contrast imaging at 2 lambda/D on a temperature-stabilized testbed in air,” Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2010: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Wave (San Diego, Calif., 2011) Proc. SPIE 7731, D1–D11 (2011).

R. Belikov, E. Pluzhnik, M. Connelley, F. Witteborn, D. Lynch, K. Cahoy, O. Guyon, T. Greene, and M. McKelvey, “First results on a new PIAA coronagraph testbed at NASA Ames,” Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets IV (San Diego, Calif., 2009) Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400J (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, J.

de Rosny, J.

G. Lerosey, J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, and M. Fink, “Focusing beyond the diffraction limit with far-field time reversal,” Science 315(5815), 1120–1122 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dillon, D.

S. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, D. Gavel, and A. Sivaramakrishnan, “Testing the apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph on the laboratory for adaptive optics extreme adaptive optics testbed,” Astron. J. 142(4), 119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, J. Evans, D. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Marois, and B. Oppenheimer, “Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed,” Adaptive Optics Systems (Marseille, France 2008) SPIE 7015, 70156I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Doyon, R.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J. Veran, “Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 365–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Erikson, D.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J. Veran, “Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 365–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J.

S. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, J. Evans, D. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Marois, and B. Oppenheimer, “Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed,” Adaptive Optics Systems (Marseille, France 2008) SPIE 7015, 70156I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fink, M.

G. Montaldo, M. Tanter, and M. Fink, “Time reversal of speckle noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(5), 054301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the Transmission Matrix in Optics: An Approach to the Study and Control of Light Propagation in Disordered Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat Commun 1(6), 81 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lerosey, J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, and M. Fink, “Focusing beyond the diffraction limit with far-field time reversal,” Science 315(5815), 1120–1122 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flath, L.

Gavel, D.

S. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, D. Gavel, and A. Sivaramakrishnan, “Testing the apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph on the laboratory for adaptive optics extreme adaptive optics testbed,” Astron. J. 142(4), 119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, J. Evans, D. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Marois, and B. Oppenheimer, “Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed,” Adaptive Optics Systems (Marseille, France 2008) SPIE 7015, 70156I (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J. Veran, “Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 365–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Baker, E. Stappaerts, D. Gavel, S. Wilks, J. Tucker, D. Silva, J. Olsen, S. Olivier, P. Young, M. Kartz, L. Flath, P. Kruelivitch, J. Crawford, and O. Azucena, “High-speed horizontal-path atmospheric turbulence correction using a large actuator-number MEMS spatial light modulator in an interferometric phase conjugation engine,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1781–1783 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gigan, S.

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat Commun 1(6), 81 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the Transmission Matrix in Optics: An Approach to the Study and Control of Light Propagation in Disordered Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graham, J.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J. Veran, “Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 365–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Greene, T.

R. Belikov, E. Pluzhnik, M. Connelley, F. Witteborn, T. Greene, D. Lynch, P. Zell, and O. Guyon, “Laboratory demonstration of high-contrast imaging at 2 lambda/D on a temperature-stabilized testbed in air,” Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2010: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Wave (San Diego, Calif., 2011) Proc. SPIE 7731, D1–D11 (2011).

R. Belikov, E. Pluzhnik, M. Connelley, F. Witteborn, D. Lynch, K. Cahoy, O. Guyon, T. Greene, and M. McKelvey, “First results on a new PIAA coronagraph testbed at NASA Ames,” Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets IV (San Diego, Calif., 2009) Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400J (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guyon, O.

R. Belikov, E. Pluzhnik, M. Connelley, F. Witteborn, T. Greene, D. Lynch, P. Zell, and O. Guyon, “Laboratory demonstration of high-contrast imaging at 2 lambda/D on a temperature-stabilized testbed in air,” Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2010: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Wave (San Diego, Calif., 2011) Proc. SPIE 7731, D1–D11 (2011).

R. Belikov, E. Pluzhnik, M. Connelley, F. Witteborn, D. Lynch, K. Cahoy, O. Guyon, T. Greene, and M. McKelvey, “First results on a new PIAA coronagraph testbed at NASA Ames,” Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets IV (San Diego, Calif., 2009) Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400J (2009).
[CrossRef]

Helmchen, F.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henesian, M.

K. Baker, E. Stappaerts, D. Homoelle, M. Henesian, E. Bliss, C. Siders, and C. Barty, “Interferometric adaptive optics for high-power laser pointing and wavefront control and phasing,” J. Micro/Nano, MEMS and MOEMS 8(3), 033040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Homoelle, D.

K. Baker, E. Stappaerts, D. Homoelle, M. Henesian, E. Bliss, C. Siders, and C. Barty, “Interferometric adaptive optics for high-power laser pointing and wavefront control and phasing,” J. Micro/Nano, MEMS and MOEMS 8(3), 033040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kartz, M.

Kasdin, N.

N. Kasdin, R. Vanderbei, and R. Belikov, “Shaped pupil coronagraphy,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 312–322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kruelivitch, P.

Lagendijk, A.

I. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. Mosk, “Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 320–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Larkin, J.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J. Veran, “Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 365–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lerosey, G.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the Transmission Matrix in Optics: An Approach to the Study and Control of Light Propagation in Disordered Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat Commun 1(6), 81 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lerosey, J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, and M. Fink, “Focusing beyond the diffraction limit with far-field time reversal,” Science 315(5815), 1120–1122 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lynch, D.

R. Belikov, E. Pluzhnik, M. Connelley, F. Witteborn, T. Greene, D. Lynch, P. Zell, and O. Guyon, “Laboratory demonstration of high-contrast imaging at 2 lambda/D on a temperature-stabilized testbed in air,” Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2010: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Wave (San Diego, Calif., 2011) Proc. SPIE 7731, D1–D11 (2011).

R. Belikov, E. Pluzhnik, M. Connelley, F. Witteborn, D. Lynch, K. Cahoy, O. Guyon, T. Greene, and M. McKelvey, “First results on a new PIAA coronagraph testbed at NASA Ames,” Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets IV (San Diego, Calif., 2009) Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400J (2009).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B.

S. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, D. Gavel, and A. Sivaramakrishnan, “Testing the apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph on the laboratory for adaptive optics extreme adaptive optics testbed,” Astron. J. 142(4), 119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, J. Evans, D. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Marois, and B. Oppenheimer, “Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed,” Adaptive Optics Systems (Marseille, France 2008) SPIE 7015, 70156I (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J. Veran, “Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 365–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marois, C.

S. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, J. Evans, D. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Marois, and B. Oppenheimer, “Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed,” Adaptive Optics Systems (Marseille, France 2008) SPIE 7015, 70156I (2008).
[CrossRef]

McKelvey, M.

R. Belikov, E. Pluzhnik, M. Connelley, F. Witteborn, D. Lynch, K. Cahoy, O. Guyon, T. Greene, and M. McKelvey, “First results on a new PIAA coronagraph testbed at NASA Ames,” Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets IV (San Diego, Calif., 2009) Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400J (2009).
[CrossRef]

Montaldo, G.

G. Montaldo, M. Tanter, and M. Fink, “Time reversal of speckle noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(5), 054301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mosk, A.

I. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. Mosk, “Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 320–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Vellekoop and A. Mosk, “Phase control algorithms for focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Commun. 281(11), 3071–3080 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mosk, A. P.

Olivier, S.

Olsen, J.

Oppenheimer, B.

S. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, J. Evans, D. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Marois, and B. Oppenheimer, “Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed,” Adaptive Optics Systems (Marseille, France 2008) SPIE 7015, 70156I (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J. Veran, “Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 365–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, D.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J. Veran, “Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 365–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Piestun, R.

Pluzhnik, E.

R. Belikov, E. Pluzhnik, M. Connelley, F. Witteborn, T. Greene, D. Lynch, P. Zell, and O. Guyon, “Laboratory demonstration of high-contrast imaging at 2 lambda/D on a temperature-stabilized testbed in air,” Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2010: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Wave (San Diego, Calif., 2011) Proc. SPIE 7731, D1–D11 (2011).

R. Belikov, E. Pluzhnik, M. Connelley, F. Witteborn, D. Lynch, K. Cahoy, O. Guyon, T. Greene, and M. McKelvey, “First results on a new PIAA coronagraph testbed at NASA Ames,” Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets IV (San Diego, Calif., 2009) Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400J (2009).
[CrossRef]

Popoff, S.

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat Commun 1(6), 81 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popoff, S. M.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the Transmission Matrix in Optics: An Approach to the Study and Control of Light Propagation in Disordered Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poyneer, L.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J. Veran, “Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 365–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saddlemyer, L.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J. Veran, “Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 365–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Siders, C.

K. Baker, E. Stappaerts, D. Homoelle, M. Henesian, E. Bliss, C. Siders, and C. Barty, “Interferometric adaptive optics for high-power laser pointing and wavefront control and phasing,” J. Micro/Nano, MEMS and MOEMS 8(3), 033040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Silva, D.

Sivaramakrishnan, A.

S. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, D. Gavel, and A. Sivaramakrishnan, “Testing the apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph on the laboratory for adaptive optics extreme adaptive optics testbed,” Astron. J. 142(4), 119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, J. Evans, D. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Marois, and B. Oppenheimer, “Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed,” Adaptive Optics Systems (Marseille, France 2008) SPIE 7015, 70156I (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J. Veran, “Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 365–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soummer, R.

S. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, D. Gavel, and A. Sivaramakrishnan, “Testing the apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph on the laboratory for adaptive optics extreme adaptive optics testbed,” Astron. J. 142(4), 119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, J. Evans, D. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Marois, and B. Oppenheimer, “Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed,” Adaptive Optics Systems (Marseille, France 2008) SPIE 7015, 70156I (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J. Veran, “Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 365–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stappaerts, E.

Tanter, M.

G. Montaldo, M. Tanter, and M. Fink, “Time reversal of speckle noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(5), 054301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, S.

S. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, D. Gavel, and A. Sivaramakrishnan, “Testing the apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph on the laboratory for adaptive optics extreme adaptive optics testbed,” Astron. J. 142(4), 119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, J. Evans, D. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Marois, and B. Oppenheimer, “Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed,” Adaptive Optics Systems (Marseille, France 2008) SPIE 7015, 70156I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tourin, A.

G. Lerosey, J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, and M. Fink, “Focusing beyond the diffraction limit with far-field time reversal,” Science 315(5815), 1120–1122 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tucker, J.

Vanderbei, R.

N. Kasdin, R. Vanderbei, and R. Belikov, “Shaped pupil coronagraphy,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 312–322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vellekoop, I.

I. Vellekoop and C. Aegerter, “Focusing light through living tissue,” San Francisco, California, USA, SPIE 7554, 755430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. Mosk, “Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 320–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Vellekoop and A. Mosk, “Phase control algorithms for focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Commun. 281(11), 3071–3080 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vellekoop, I. M.

Veran, J.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J. Veran, “Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 365–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, J.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J. Veran, “Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 365–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, J.

J. Walsh, “A closed set of normal orthogonal functions,” Am. J. Math. 45(1), 5–24 (1923).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

Wilks, S.

Witteborn, F.

R. Belikov, E. Pluzhnik, M. Connelley, F. Witteborn, T. Greene, D. Lynch, P. Zell, and O. Guyon, “Laboratory demonstration of high-contrast imaging at 2 lambda/D on a temperature-stabilized testbed in air,” Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2010: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Wave (San Diego, Calif., 2011) Proc. SPIE 7731, D1–D11 (2011).

R. Belikov, E. Pluzhnik, M. Connelley, F. Witteborn, D. Lynch, K. Cahoy, O. Guyon, T. Greene, and M. McKelvey, “First results on a new PIAA coronagraph testbed at NASA Ames,” Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets IV (San Diego, Calif., 2009) Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400J (2009).
[CrossRef]

Young, P.

Zell, P.

R. Belikov, E. Pluzhnik, M. Connelley, F. Witteborn, T. Greene, D. Lynch, P. Zell, and O. Guyon, “Laboratory demonstration of high-contrast imaging at 2 lambda/D on a temperature-stabilized testbed in air,” Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2010: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Wave (San Diego, Calif., 2011) Proc. SPIE 7731, D1–D11 (2011).

Am. J. Math. (1)

J. Walsh, “A closed set of normal orthogonal functions,” Am. J. Math. 45(1), 5–24 (1923).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astron. J. (1)

S. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, D. Gavel, and A. Sivaramakrishnan, “Testing the apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph on the laboratory for adaptive optics extreme adaptive optics testbed,” Astron. J. 142(4), 119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (1)

F. Wang, “High-contrast imaging via modal convergence of deformable mirror,” Astrophys. J. 751(2), 83 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Phys. (2)

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J. Veran, “Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 365–373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Kasdin, R. Vanderbei, and R. Belikov, “Shaped pupil coronagraphy,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 312–322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Micro/Nano, MEMS and MOEMS (1)

K. Baker, E. Stappaerts, D. Homoelle, M. Henesian, E. Bliss, C. Siders, and C. Barty, “Interferometric adaptive optics for high-power laser pointing and wavefront control and phasing,” J. Micro/Nano, MEMS and MOEMS 8(3), 033040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat Commun (1)

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat Commun 1(6), 81 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

T. Bifano, “Adaptive imaging: MEMS deformable mirrors,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 21–23 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. Mosk, “Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 320–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

I. Vellekoop and A. Mosk, “Phase control algorithms for focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Commun. 281(11), 3071–3080 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

G. Montaldo, M. Tanter, and M. Fink, “Time reversal of speckle noise,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(5), 054301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the Transmission Matrix in Optics: An Approach to the Study and Control of Light Propagation in Disordered Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. Belikov, E. Pluzhnik, M. Connelley, F. Witteborn, D. Lynch, K. Cahoy, O. Guyon, T. Greene, and M. McKelvey, “First results on a new PIAA coronagraph testbed at NASA Ames,” Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets IV (San Diego, Calif., 2009) Proc. SPIE 7440, 74400J (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Belikov, E. Pluzhnik, M. Connelley, F. Witteborn, T. Greene, D. Lynch, P. Zell, and O. Guyon, “Laboratory demonstration of high-contrast imaging at 2 lambda/D on a temperature-stabilized testbed in air,” Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2010: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Wave (San Diego, Calif., 2011) Proc. SPIE 7731, D1–D11 (2011).

San Francisco, California, USA, SPIE (1)

I. Vellekoop and C. Aegerter, “Focusing light through living tissue,” San Francisco, California, USA, SPIE 7554, 755430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

G. Lerosey, J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, and M. Fink, “Focusing beyond the diffraction limit with far-field time reversal,” Science 315(5815), 1120–1122 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

SPIE (1)

S. Thomas, R. Soummer, D. Dillon, B. Macintosh, J. Evans, D. Gavel, A. Sivaramakrishnan, C. Marois, and B. Oppenheimer, “Testing the APLC on the LAO ExAO testbed,” Adaptive Optics Systems (Marseille, France 2008) SPIE 7015, 70156I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. Gavel, S. Severson, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, M. Reinig, C. Lockwood, D. Palmer, K. Morzinski, M. Ammons, E. Gates, and G. Grigsby, “Villages: an on-sky visible wavelength astronomy AO experiment using a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE MEMS Adaptive Optics II 6888, 688804–688807 (2008).

H. Schreiber and J. Bruning, Optical Shop Testing (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006), Chap. 15.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (4093 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental apparatus. A collimated, spatially filtered laser beam, (a), reflects from the SLM surface, (b), acquiring a spatially distributed phase shift. The wavefront at the SLM is reimaged by a 45 × telescope comprised of a 400mm focal length lens and a 20 × , 0.4NA microscope objective, (c) onto the near side of the scattering medium, (d). A microscope objective on the far side of the scattering medium, (e), projects a portion of the resulting speckle pattern onto a fixed detector, (f).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental results for focus optimization though a 5mm ex vivo sample of chicken breast tissue. Before each optimization, the mean intensity on the camera was measured. This value was then used as a normalization constant for subsequent enhancement measurements. Left: Ensemble average autocorrelation for the fully developed speckle pattern on the camera prior to optimization. The decorrelation time constant was estimated to be ~3.4s from this data. Center: Optimized focus spot centered on the pixel at coordinate location (16,16) within the 32-pixel square camera sensor area, with peak intensity ~160 times larger than the initial mean camera intensity measured within this area. Right: Normalized peak intensity on the camera as a function of time before, during, and after optimization. After optimization is stopped, the focus enhancement decays with a first-order time constant of ~3.6s to the background intensity level. A similar plot in Media 1 shows the full progression of the enhancement along with the real time decay using a sample composed of polystyrene spheres translating at 200µm per second.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Peak optimized enhancement measured as a function of initial speckle decorrelation time for a dynamic scattering medium, with Walsh function coordinate optimization update rate of 110Hz and 1020 phase-modulating segments. The dashed line corresponds to the mean peak enhancement level achieved when the medium was stationary. Error bars correspond to one standard deviation of enhancement fluctuation over a 10s period at the end of the optimization trial.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized peak enhancement as a function of speckle decorrelation time and number of independent segments in the SLM. Error bars correspond to the span of mean enhancement for three trials at each experimental condition.

Equations (2)

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a k = tan 1 [ ( S k2 S k1 )tan( π α ) 2 S k0 S k1 S k2 ]
E= αN ( 1+ N T i T d )

Metrics