Abstract

We report on an Er-doped fiber oscillator that produces 146 fs pulses with 156 mW average power at a repetition rate of 49.9 MHz. The pulse energy reaches 3.13 nJ, surpassing the conventional power limit in the dispersion-managed soliton regime. Such high pulse power is obtained by devising a hybrid mode-locking scheme that combines saturable absorption with nonlinear polarization evolution. The oscillator also offers excellent temporal purity in the generated pulses with high power, providing a robust fiber-based frequency comb well suited for industrial uses.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B65(2), 277–294 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. H. Renninger, “High-energy femtosecond fiber lasers based on pulse propagation at normal dispersion,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 58–73 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Tauser, A. Leitenstorfer, and W. Zinth, “Amplified femtosecond pulses from an Er:fiber system: nonlinear pulse shortening and selfreferencing detection of the carrier-envelope phase evolution,” Opt. Express11(6), 594–600 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, “Broad-spectrum frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope offset frequency measurement by second-harmonic generation of a mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.28(17), 1516–1518 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett.29(3), 250–252 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 355–359 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, S. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Er-doped fiber comb with enhanced fceo S/N ratio using Tm:Ho-doped fiber,” Opt. Express17(21), 18606–18611 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Kim, S. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, H. Hussein, and S.-W. Kim, “Er-doped fiber frequency comb with mHz relative linewidth,” Opt. Express17(14), 11972–11977 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Diddams, “The evolving optical frequency comb,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(11), B51–B62 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. R. Newbury, “Searching for applications with a fine-tooth comb,” Nat. Photonics5(4), 186–188 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S.-W. Kim, “Metrology: Combs rule,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 313–314 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. J. Matas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Self-starting passively mode-locked fibre ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation,” Electron. Lett.28(15), 1391–1392 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett.28(24), 2226–2227 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, and L. E. Nelson, “77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett.18(13), 1080–1083 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. E. Nelson, S. B. Fleischer, G. Lenz, and E. P. Ippen, “Efficient frequency doubling of a femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1759–1761 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. Y. Tang and L. M. Zhao, “Generation of 47-fs pulses directly from an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.32(1), 41–43 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. R. Buckley, F. W. Wise, F. O. Ilday, and T. Sosnowski, “Femtosecond fiber lasers with pulse energies above 10 nJ,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1888–1890 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. M. Dudley, C. Finot, D. J. Richardson, and G. Millot, “Self-similarity in ultrafast nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics3, 597–603 (2007).
  21. B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Soliton-similariton fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(5), 307–311 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. O. Prochnow, R. Paschotta, E. Benkler, U. Morgner, J. Neumann, D. Wandt, and D. Kracht, “Quantum-limited noise performance of a femtosecond all-fiber ytterbium laser,” Opt. Express17(18), 15525–15533 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. Senel, F. O. Ilday, O. Kara, C. Birlikseven, C. Erdogan, and R. Hamid, “All-normal-dispersion fiber lasers for frequency metrology,” paper CFM2, CLEO 2011 (Baltimore, MD, 2011).
  24. A. Ruehl, D. Wandt, U. Morgner, and D. Kracht, “On wave-breaking free fiber lasers mode-locked with two saturable absorber mechanisms,” Opt. Express16(11), 8181–8189 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. K. Tamura, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Soliton fiber ring laser stabilization and tuning with a broad intracavity filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(6), 697–699 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Optimization of filtering in soliton fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(12), 1433–1435 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2011

N. R. Newbury, “Searching for applications with a fine-tooth comb,” Nat. Photonics5(4), 186–188 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. Diddams, “The evolving optical frequency comb,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(11), B51–B62 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Soliton-similariton fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(5), 307–311 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

O. Prochnow, R. Paschotta, E. Benkler, U. Morgner, J. Neumann, D. Wandt, and D. Kracht, “Quantum-limited noise performance of a femtosecond all-fiber ytterbium laser,” Opt. Express17(18), 15525–15533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Kim, “Metrology: Combs rule,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 313–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, S. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Er-doped fiber comb with enhanced fceo S/N ratio using Tm:Ho-doped fiber,” Opt. Express17(21), 18606–18611 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, S. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, H. Hussein, and S.-W. Kim, “Er-doped fiber frequency comb with mHz relative linewidth,” Opt. Express17(14), 11972–11977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. H. Renninger, “High-energy femtosecond fiber lasers based on pulse propagation at normal dispersion,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 58–73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ruehl, D. Wandt, U. Morgner, and D. Kracht, “On wave-breaking free fiber lasers mode-locked with two saturable absorber mechanisms,” Opt. Express16(11), 8181–8189 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

D. Y. Tang and L. M. Zhao, “Generation of 47-fs pulses directly from an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.32(1), 41–43 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, C. Finot, D. J. Richardson, and G. Millot, “Self-similarity in ultrafast nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics3, 597–603 (2007).

2005

J. R. Buckley, F. W. Wise, F. O. Ilday, and T. Sosnowski, “Femtosecond fiber lasers with pulse energies above 10 nJ,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1888–1890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett.29(3), 250–252 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

F. Tauser, A. Leitenstorfer, and W. Zinth, “Amplified femtosecond pulses from an Er:fiber system: nonlinear pulse shortening and selfreferencing detection of the carrier-envelope phase evolution,” Opt. Express11(6), 594–600 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, “Broad-spectrum frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope offset frequency measurement by second-harmonic generation of a mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.28(17), 1516–1518 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

L. E. Nelson, S. B. Fleischer, G. Lenz, and E. P. Ippen, “Efficient frequency doubling of a femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1759–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

K. Tamura, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Soliton fiber ring laser stabilization and tuning with a broad intracavity filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(6), 697–699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Optimization of filtering in soliton fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(12), 1433–1435 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, and L. E. Nelson, “77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett.18(13), 1080–1083 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

V. J. Matas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Self-starting passively mode-locked fibre ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation,” Electron. Lett.28(15), 1391–1392 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett.28(24), 2226–2227 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Benkler, E.

O. Prochnow, R. Paschotta, E. Benkler, U. Morgner, J. Neumann, D. Wandt, and D. Kracht, “Quantum-limited noise performance of a femtosecond all-fiber ytterbium laser,” Opt. Express17(18), 15525–15533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buckley, J. R.

J. R. Buckley, F. W. Wise, F. O. Ilday, and T. Sosnowski, “Femtosecond fiber lasers with pulse energies above 10 nJ,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1888–1890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, A.

F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. H. Renninger, “High-energy femtosecond fiber lasers based on pulse propagation at normal dispersion,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 58–73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S.

S. Diddams, “The evolving optical frequency comb,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(11), B51–B62 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett.29(3), 250–252 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doerr, C. R.

K. Tamura, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Soliton fiber ring laser stabilization and tuning with a broad intracavity filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(6), 697–699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, C. Finot, D. J. Richardson, and G. Millot, “Self-similarity in ultrafast nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics3, 597–603 (2007).

Fermann, M. E.

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Finot, C.

J. M. Dudley, C. Finot, D. J. Richardson, and G. Millot, “Self-similarity in ultrafast nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics3, 597–603 (2007).

Fleischer, S. B.

L. E. Nelson, S. B. Fleischer, G. Lenz, and E. P. Ippen, “Efficient frequency doubling of a femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1759–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Optimization of filtering in soliton fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(12), 1433–1435 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Soliton fiber ring laser stabilization and tuning with a broad intracavity filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(6), 697–699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, and L. E. Nelson, “77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett.18(13), 1080–1083 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett.28(24), 2226–2227 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hirai, A.

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, “Broad-spectrum frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope offset frequency measurement by second-harmonic generation of a mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.28(17), 1516–1518 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, F.-L.

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, “Broad-spectrum frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope offset frequency measurement by second-harmonic generation of a mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.28(17), 1516–1518 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hussein, H.

Y. Kim, S. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, H. Hussein, and S.-W. Kim, “Er-doped fiber frequency comb with mHz relative linewidth,” Opt. Express17(14), 11972–11977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilday, F. O.

J. R. Buckley, F. W. Wise, F. O. Ilday, and T. Sosnowski, “Femtosecond fiber lasers with pulse energies above 10 nJ,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1888–1890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilday, F. Ö.

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Soliton-similariton fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(5), 307–311 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, “Broad-spectrum frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope offset frequency measurement by second-harmonic generation of a mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.28(17), 1516–1518 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson, S. B. Fleischer, G. Lenz, and E. P. Ippen, “Efficient frequency doubling of a femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1759–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Optimization of filtering in soliton fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(12), 1433–1435 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Soliton fiber ring laser stabilization and tuning with a broad intracavity filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(6), 697–699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, and L. E. Nelson, “77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett.18(13), 1080–1083 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett.28(24), 2226–2227 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jørgensen, C. G.

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett.29(3), 250–252 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

Y. Kim, S. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, H. Hussein, and S.-W. Kim, “Er-doped fiber frequency comb with mHz relative linewidth,” Opt. Express17(14), 11972–11977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, S. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Er-doped fiber comb with enhanced fceo S/N ratio using Tm:Ho-doped fiber,” Opt. Express17(21), 18606–18611 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-W.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, S. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Er-doped fiber comb with enhanced fceo S/N ratio using Tm:Ho-doped fiber,” Opt. Express17(21), 18606–18611 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Kim, “Metrology: Combs rule,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 313–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, S. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, H. Hussein, and S.-W. Kim, “Er-doped fiber frequency comb with mHz relative linewidth,” Opt. Express17(14), 11972–11977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, S. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, H. Hussein, and S.-W. Kim, “Er-doped fiber frequency comb with mHz relative linewidth,” Opt. Express17(14), 11972–11977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, S. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Er-doped fiber comb with enhanced fceo S/N ratio using Tm:Ho-doped fiber,” Opt. Express17(21), 18606–18611 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.-J.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, S. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Er-doped fiber comb with enhanced fceo S/N ratio using Tm:Ho-doped fiber,” Opt. Express17(21), 18606–18611 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, S. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, H. Hussein, and S.-W. Kim, “Er-doped fiber frequency comb with mHz relative linewidth,” Opt. Express17(14), 11972–11977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kracht, D.

O. Prochnow, R. Paschotta, E. Benkler, U. Morgner, J. Neumann, D. Wandt, and D. Kracht, “Quantum-limited noise performance of a femtosecond all-fiber ytterbium laser,” Opt. Express17(18), 15525–15533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ruehl, D. Wandt, U. Morgner, and D. Kracht, “On wave-breaking free fiber lasers mode-locked with two saturable absorber mechanisms,” Opt. Express16(11), 8181–8189 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitenstorfer, A.

F. Tauser, A. Leitenstorfer, and W. Zinth, “Amplified femtosecond pulses from an Er:fiber system: nonlinear pulse shortening and selfreferencing detection of the carrier-envelope phase evolution,” Opt. Express11(6), 594–600 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenz, G.

L. E. Nelson, S. B. Fleischer, G. Lenz, and E. P. Ippen, “Efficient frequency doubling of a femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1759–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcinkevicius, A.

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M. J.

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matas, V. J.

V. J. Matas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Self-starting passively mode-locked fibre ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation,” Electron. Lett.28(15), 1391–1392 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, H.

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, “Broad-spectrum frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope offset frequency measurement by second-harmonic generation of a mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.28(17), 1516–1518 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millot, G.

J. M. Dudley, C. Finot, D. J. Richardson, and G. Millot, “Self-similarity in ultrafast nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics3, 597–603 (2007).

Minoshima, K.

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, “Broad-spectrum frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope offset frequency measurement by second-harmonic generation of a mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.28(17), 1516–1518 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

O. Prochnow, R. Paschotta, E. Benkler, U. Morgner, J. Neumann, D. Wandt, and D. Kracht, “Quantum-limited noise performance of a femtosecond all-fiber ytterbium laser,” Opt. Express17(18), 15525–15533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ruehl, D. Wandt, U. Morgner, and D. Kracht, “On wave-breaking free fiber lasers mode-locked with two saturable absorber mechanisms,” Opt. Express16(11), 8181–8189 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, L. E.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson, S. B. Fleischer, G. Lenz, and E. P. Ippen, “Efficient frequency doubling of a femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1759–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, and L. E. Nelson, “77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett.18(13), 1080–1083 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neumann, J.

O. Prochnow, R. Paschotta, E. Benkler, U. Morgner, J. Neumann, D. Wandt, and D. Kracht, “Quantum-limited noise performance of a femtosecond all-fiber ytterbium laser,” Opt. Express17(18), 15525–15533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newbury, N. R.

N. R. Newbury, “Searching for applications with a fine-tooth comb,” Nat. Photonics5(4), 186–188 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett.29(3), 250–252 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newson, T. P.

V. J. Matas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Self-starting passively mode-locked fibre ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation,” Electron. Lett.28(15), 1391–1392 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett.29(3), 250–252 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oktem, B.

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Soliton-similariton fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(5), 307–311 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Onae, A.

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, “Broad-spectrum frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope offset frequency measurement by second-harmonic generation of a mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.28(17), 1516–1518 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paschotta, R.

O. Prochnow, R. Paschotta, E. Benkler, U. Morgner, J. Neumann, D. Wandt, and D. Kracht, “Quantum-limited noise performance of a femtosecond all-fiber ytterbium laser,” Opt. Express17(18), 15525–15533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Payne, D. N.

V. J. Matas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Self-starting passively mode-locked fibre ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation,” Electron. Lett.28(15), 1391–1392 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Prochnow, O.

O. Prochnow, R. Paschotta, E. Benkler, U. Morgner, J. Neumann, D. Wandt, and D. Kracht, “Quantum-limited noise performance of a femtosecond all-fiber ytterbium laser,” Opt. Express17(18), 15525–15533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renninger, W. H.

F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. H. Renninger, “High-energy femtosecond fiber lasers based on pulse propagation at normal dispersion,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 58–73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

J. M. Dudley, C. Finot, D. J. Richardson, and G. Millot, “Self-similarity in ultrafast nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics3, 597–603 (2007).

V. J. Matas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Self-starting passively mode-locked fibre ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation,” Electron. Lett.28(15), 1391–1392 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ruehl, A.

A. Ruehl, D. Wandt, U. Morgner, and D. Kracht, “On wave-breaking free fiber lasers mode-locked with two saturable absorber mechanisms,” Opt. Express16(11), 8181–8189 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schibli, T. R.

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sosnowski, T.

J. R. Buckley, F. W. Wise, F. O. Ilday, and T. Sosnowski, “Femtosecond fiber lasers with pulse energies above 10 nJ,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1888–1890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugiura, T.

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, “Broad-spectrum frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope offset frequency measurement by second-harmonic generation of a mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.28(17), 1516–1518 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takada, H.

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, “Broad-spectrum frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope offset frequency measurement by second-harmonic generation of a mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.28(17), 1516–1518 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamura, K.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Optimization of filtering in soliton fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(12), 1433–1435 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Soliton fiber ring laser stabilization and tuning with a broad intracavity filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(6), 697–699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, and L. E. Nelson, “77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett.18(13), 1080–1083 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett.28(24), 2226–2227 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

D. Y. Tang and L. M. Zhao, “Generation of 47-fs pulses directly from an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.32(1), 41–43 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tauser, F.

F. Tauser, A. Leitenstorfer, and W. Zinth, “Amplified femtosecond pulses from an Er:fiber system: nonlinear pulse shortening and selfreferencing detection of the carrier-envelope phase evolution,” Opt. Express11(6), 594–600 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ülgüdür, C.

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Soliton-similariton fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(5), 307–311 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wandt, D.

O. Prochnow, R. Paschotta, E. Benkler, U. Morgner, J. Neumann, D. Wandt, and D. Kracht, “Quantum-limited noise performance of a femtosecond all-fiber ytterbium laser,” Opt. Express17(18), 15525–15533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ruehl, D. Wandt, U. Morgner, and D. Kracht, “On wave-breaking free fiber lasers mode-locked with two saturable absorber mechanisms,” Opt. Express16(11), 8181–8189 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Washburn, B. R.

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett.29(3), 250–252 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wise, F. W.

F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. H. Renninger, “High-energy femtosecond fiber lasers based on pulse propagation at normal dispersion,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 58–73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Buckley, F. W. Wise, F. O. Ilday, and T. Sosnowski, “Femtosecond fiber lasers with pulse energies above 10 nJ,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1888–1890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, M. F.

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett.29(3), 250–252 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, “Broad-spectrum frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope offset frequency measurement by second-harmonic generation of a mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.28(17), 1516–1518 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yost, D. C.

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. M.

D. Y. Tang and L. M. Zhao, “Generation of 47-fs pulses directly from an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.32(1), 41–43 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zinth, W.

F. Tauser, A. Leitenstorfer, and W. Zinth, “Amplified femtosecond pulses from an Er:fiber system: nonlinear pulse shortening and selfreferencing detection of the carrier-envelope phase evolution,” Opt. Express11(6), 594–600 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

V. J. Matas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Self-starting passively mode-locked fibre ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarization rotation,” Electron. Lett.28(15), 1391–1392 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett.28(24), 2226–2227 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

K. Tamura, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Soliton fiber ring laser stabilization and tuning with a broad intracavity filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(6), 697–699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Optimization of filtering in soliton fiber lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(12), 1433–1435 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

S. Diddams, “The evolving optical frequency comb,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(11), B51–B62 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. H. Renninger, “High-energy femtosecond fiber lasers based on pulse propagation at normal dispersion,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 58–73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, C. Finot, D. J. Richardson, and G. Millot, “Self-similarity in ultrafast nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics3, 597–603 (2007).

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Soliton-similariton fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(5), 307–311 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Newbury, “Searching for applications with a fine-tooth comb,” Nat. Photonics5(4), 186–188 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Kim, “Metrology: Combs rule,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 313–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, S. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Er-doped fiber comb with enhanced fceo S/N ratio using Tm:Ho-doped fiber,” Opt. Express17(21), 18606–18611 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, S. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, H. Hussein, and S.-W. Kim, “Er-doped fiber frequency comb with mHz relative linewidth,” Opt. Express17(14), 11972–11977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Tauser, A. Leitenstorfer, and W. Zinth, “Amplified femtosecond pulses from an Er:fiber system: nonlinear pulse shortening and selfreferencing detection of the carrier-envelope phase evolution,” Opt. Express11(6), 594–600 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Prochnow, R. Paschotta, E. Benkler, U. Morgner, J. Neumann, D. Wandt, and D. Kracht, “Quantum-limited noise performance of a femtosecond all-fiber ytterbium laser,” Opt. Express17(18), 15525–15533 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ruehl, D. Wandt, U. Morgner, and D. Kracht, “On wave-breaking free fiber lasers mode-locked with two saturable absorber mechanisms,” Opt. Express16(11), 8181–8189 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, and L. E. Nelson, “77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett.18(13), 1080–1083 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Nelson, S. B. Fleischer, G. Lenz, and E. P. Ippen, “Efficient frequency doubling of a femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1759–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Tang and L. M. Zhao, “Generation of 47-fs pulses directly from an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.32(1), 41–43 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Buckley, F. W. Wise, F. O. Ilday, and T. Sosnowski, “Femtosecond fiber lasers with pulse energies above 10 nJ,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1888–1890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, “Broad-spectrum frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope offset frequency measurement by second-harmonic generation of a mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.28(17), 1516–1518 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett.29(3), 250–252 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

C. Senel, F. O. Ilday, O. Kara, C. Birlikseven, C. Erdogan, and R. Hamid, “All-normal-dispersion fiber lasers for frequency metrology,” paper CFM2, CLEO 2011 (Baltimore, MD, 2011).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System layout of the hybrid mode-locked Er-doped fiber oscillator configured in this investigation. M: mirror, NPE: nonlinear polarization evolution, SA: saturable absorber, LD: laser diode, WDM: wavelength division multiplexer, SMF: single mode fiber, and EDF: erbium-doped fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral and temporal characteristics of generated femtosecond pulses. (a) Spectrum of the NPE-dominating mode showing Kelly side bands. The spectral bandwidth is measured 42 nm. (b) Interferometic and intensity auto-correlation of NPE-dominating 135 fs pulses (sech2, FWHM). The measured pedestal beat period agrees well with the Kelly side bands of Fig. 2(a). (c) Spectrum of the hybrid mode showing no noticeable side bands. The spectral bandwidth is 30 nm (d) Interferometric and intensity auto-correlation of hybrid-mode 146 fs pulses (sech2, FWHM).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy concentration of the mode-locked femtosecond pulses. (a) Accumulated pulse energy from the central peak of a pulse. (b) Normalized relative power concentration. More than 98.5% of the power is concentrated within 320 fs near the pulse peak in the hybrid mode-lock, compared to 94% in the NPE mode-lock case.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

RF spectra of the repetition rate of femtosecond pulses. (a) Harmonic spectrum of the pulse repetition rate (RBW & VBW: 300 kHz). No noticeable sub-harmonics or spurious peaks are detected. (b) Linewidth measurement of the 20th harmonic of the repetition rate at ~1 GHz with 3 kHz RBW. (c) Measurement of the same linewidth with 10 Hz RBW. (d) Time trace of the stabilized repetition rate over a period of 2 hours. (e) RF beat notes with a narrow linewidth continuous-wave (cw) laser (RBW & VBW: 100 kHz).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Power Characteristics of Two Distinct Modes Existing in the Hybrid Mode-locking

Metrics