Abstract

We present a polarization-insensitive subwavelength grating reflector based on a semiconductor-insulator-metal structure. The polarization-insensitive characteristic originates from the combined effect of the TM-polarized high-reflectivity high-index-contrast subwavelength grating and the TE-polarized metallic (Au) subwavelength grating with the addition of the insulator layer. The overlapped high reflectivity (>99.5%) bandwidth between the transverse electric polarization and the transverse magnetic polarization is 89 nm. This polarization-insensitive subwavelength grating reflector can be used in the applications without a preferred polarization.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Y. Chou and W. Deng, “Subwavelength amorphous silicon transmission gratings and applications in polarizers and waveplates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(6), 742–744 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Magnusson, M. Shokooh-Saremi, and E. G. Johnson, “Guided-mode resonant wave plates,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2472–2474 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, “A broad-band waveguide grating coupler with a subwavelength grating mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 13–15 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Zhou, M. Moewe, J. Kern, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Surface-normal emission of a high-Q resonator using a subwavelength high-contrast grating,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17282–17287 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Lu, F. G. Sedgwick, V. Karagodsky, C. Chase, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Planar high-numerical-aperture low-loss focusing reflectors and lenses using subwavelength high contrast gratings,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12606–12614 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. S. Wang and R. Magnusson, “Theory and applications of guided-mode resonance filters,” Appl. Opt. 32(14), 2606–2613 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12-1.62 mm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Magnusson and M. Shokooh-Saremi, “Physical basis for wideband resonant reflectors,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3456–3462 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Shokooh-Saremi and R. Magnusson, “Leaky-mode resonant reflectors with extreme bandwidths,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1121–1123 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. J. Schablitsky, L. Zhuang, R. C. Shi, and S. Y. Chou, “Controlling polarization of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using amorphous silicon subwavelength transmission gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(1), 7–9 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Goeman, S. Boons, B. Dhoedt, K. Vandeputte, K. Caekebeke, P. V. Daele, and R. Baets, “First demonstration of highly reflective and highly polarization selective diffraction gratings (GIRO-gratings) for long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1205–1207 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Haglund, S. J. Gustavsson, J. Vukusic, P. Jedrasik, and A. Larsson, “High-power fundamental-mode and polarization stabilised VCSELs using sub-wavelength surface grating,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 805–807 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, J.-L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, “Compact and polarization controlled 1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using single-layer photonic crystal mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. T. Hattori, X. Letartre, C. Seassal, P. Rojo-Romeo, J. L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, “Analysis of hybrid photonic crystal vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Opt. Express 11(15), 1799–1808 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. Chase, Y. Rao, W. Hofmann, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “1550 nm high contrast grating VCSEL,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15461–15466 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Nano electro-mechanical optoelectronic tunable VCSEL,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1222–1227 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. W. Hofmann, “Evolution of high-speed long-wavelengthvertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014011 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. V. Lousse, W. Suh, O. Kilic, S. Kim, O. Solgaard, and S. Fan, “Angular and polarization properties of a photonic crystal slab mirror,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1575–1582 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. W. Suh and S. Fan, “All-pass transmission or flattop reflection filters using a single photoniccrystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4905–4907 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. E. Popov, J. Hoose, B. Frankel, C. Keast, M. Fritze, T. Y. Fan, D. Yost, and S. Rabe, “Low polarization dependent diffraction grating for wavelength demultimlexing,” Opt. Express 12(2), 269–275 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. H. Wu, W. Mo, J. Hou, D. Gao, R. Hao, H. Jiang, R. Guo, W. Wu, and Z. Zhou, “A high performance polarization independent reflector based on a multilayered configuration grating structure,” J. Opt. 12(4), 045703 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. Zhao, H. Yang, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Polarization independent broadband reflectors based on cross-stacked gratings,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9050–9055 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. S. H. Ahn, J.-S. Kim, and L. J. Guo, “Bilayer metal wire-grid polarizer fabricated by roll-to-roll nanoimprintlithography on flexible plastic substrate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2388–2391 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, J.-N. Yih, K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Chang, P.-K. Wei, C.-C. Sun, and S.-J. Chen, “Coupled waveguide-surface plasmon resonance biosensor with subwavelength grating,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(11), 2737–2742 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, F. Van Laere, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Efficient, broadband and compact metal grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9625–9630 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. A. Porto, F. J. García-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(14), 2845–2848 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  30. D. Crouse and P. Keshavareddy, “Role of optical and surface plasmon modes in enhanced transmission and applications,” Opt. Express 13(20), 7760–7771 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. M. J. Treacy, “Dynamical diffraction explanation of the anomalous transmission of light through metallic gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 66(19), 195105 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  32. Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 057403 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. D. Crouse and P. Keshavareddy, “Polarization independent enhanced optical transmission in one-dimensional gratings and device applications,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1415–1427 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. Y. Lu, M. H. Cho, Y. P. Lee, and J. Y. Rhee, “Polarization-independent extraordinary optical transmission in onedimensional metallic gratings with broad slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of planargrating diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71(7), 811–818 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  36. M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Diffraction analysis of dielectric surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72(10), 1385–1392 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  37. M. A. Ordal, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, L. L. Long, and M. R. Querry, “Optical properties of fourteen metals in the infrared and far infrared: Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Mo, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, V, and W,” Appl. Opt. 24, 4493–4499 (1985).
  38. C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Y. Zhou, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. Chase, “High-contrast grating VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 869–878 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  39. A. Liu, M. Xing, H. Qu, W. Chen, W. Zhou, and W. Zheng, “Reduced divergence angle of photonic crystal vertical-cavitysurface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191105 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  40. A. Liu, W. Chen, M. Xing, W. Zhou, H. Qu, and W. Zheng, “Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

W. Hofmann, “Evolution of high-speed long-wavelengthvertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhao, H. Yang, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Polarization independent broadband reflectors based on cross-stacked gratings,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9050–9055 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

H. Wu, W. Mo, J. Hou, D. Gao, R. Hao, H. Jiang, R. Guo, W. Wu, and Z. Zhou, “A high performance polarization independent reflector based on a multilayered configuration grating structure,” J. Opt. 12(4), 045703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Magnusson, M. Shokooh-Saremi, and E. G. Johnson, “Guided-mode resonant wave plates,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2472–2474 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Lu, F. G. Sedgwick, V. Karagodsky, C. Chase, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Planar high-numerical-aperture low-loss focusing reflectors and lenses using subwavelength high contrast gratings,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12606–12614 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shokooh-Saremi and R. Magnusson, “Leaky-mode resonant reflectors with extreme bandwidths,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1121–1123 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Chase, Y. Rao, W. Hofmann, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “1550 nm high contrast grating VCSEL,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15461–15466 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, W. Chen, M. Xing, W. Zhou, H. Qu, and W. Zheng, “Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Y. Zhou, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. Chase, “High-contrast grating VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 869–878 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, M. Xing, H. Qu, W. Chen, W. Zhou, and W. Zheng, “Reduced divergence angle of photonic crystal vertical-cavitysurface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (7)

D. Crouse and P. Keshavareddy, “Polarization independent enhanced optical transmission in one-dimensional gratings and device applications,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1415–1427 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Ahn, J.-S. Kim, and L. J. Guo, “Bilayer metal wire-grid polarizer fabricated by roll-to-roll nanoimprintlithography on flexible plastic substrate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2388–2391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, J.-N. Yih, K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Chang, P.-K. Wei, C.-C. Sun, and S.-J. Chen, “Coupled waveguide-surface plasmon resonance biosensor with subwavelength grating,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(11), 2737–2742 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, F. Van Laere, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Efficient, broadband and compact metal grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9625–9630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Nano electro-mechanical optoelectronic tunable VCSEL,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1222–1227 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, J.-L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, “Compact and polarization controlled 1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using single-layer photonic crystal mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, “A broad-band waveguide grating coupler with a subwavelength grating mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 13–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Haglund, S. J. Gustavsson, J. Vukusic, P. Jedrasik, and A. Larsson, “High-power fundamental-mode and polarization stabilised VCSELs using sub-wavelength surface grating,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 805–807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Crouse and P. Keshavareddy, “Role of optical and surface plasmon modes in enhanced transmission and applications,” Opt. Express 13(20), 7760–7771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

V. Lousse, W. Suh, O. Kilic, S. Kim, O. Solgaard, and S. Fan, “Angular and polarization properties of a photonic crystal slab mirror,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1575–1582 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Suh and S. Fan, “All-pass transmission or flattop reflection filters using a single photoniccrystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4905–4907 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Popov, J. Hoose, B. Frankel, C. Keast, M. Fritze, T. Y. Fan, D. Yost, and S. Rabe, “Low polarization dependent diffraction grating for wavelength demultimlexing,” Opt. Express 12(2), 269–275 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12-1.62 mm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

M. M. J. Treacy, “Dynamical diffraction explanation of the anomalous transmission of light through metallic gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 66(19), 195105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 057403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. A. Porto, F. J. García-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(14), 2845–2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Goeman, S. Boons, B. Dhoedt, K. Vandeputte, K. Caekebeke, P. V. Daele, and R. Baets, “First demonstration of highly reflective and highly polarization selective diffraction gratings (GIRO-gratings) for long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1205–1207 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. J. Schablitsky, L. Zhuang, R. C. Shi, and S. Y. Chou, “Controlling polarization of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using amorphous silicon subwavelength transmission gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(1), 7–9 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Y. Chou and W. Deng, “Subwavelength amorphous silicon transmission gratings and applications in polarizers and waveplates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(6), 742–744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1985 (1)

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

Ahn, S. H.

S. H. Ahn, J.-S. Kim, and L. J. Guo, “Bilayer metal wire-grid polarizer fabricated by roll-to-roll nanoimprintlithography on flexible plastic substrate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2388–2391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, R. W.

Baets, R.

S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, F. Van Laere, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Efficient, broadband and compact metal grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9625–9630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Goeman, S. Boons, B. Dhoedt, K. Vandeputte, K. Caekebeke, P. V. Daele, and R. Baets, “First demonstration of highly reflective and highly polarization selective diffraction gratings (GIRO-gratings) for long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1205–1207 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R. G.

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bell, R. J.

Benbakir, B.

S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, J.-L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, “Compact and polarization controlled 1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using single-layer photonic crystal mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boons, S.

S. Goeman, S. Boons, B. Dhoedt, K. Vandeputte, K. Caekebeke, P. V. Daele, and R. Baets, “First demonstration of highly reflective and highly polarization selective diffraction gratings (GIRO-gratings) for long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1205–1207 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boutami, S.

S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, J.-L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, “Compact and polarization controlled 1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using single-layer photonic crystal mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Caekebeke, K.

S. Goeman, S. Boons, B. Dhoedt, K. Vandeputte, K. Caekebeke, P. V. Daele, and R. Baets, “First demonstration of highly reflective and highly polarization selective diffraction gratings (GIRO-gratings) for long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1205–1207 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Q.

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 057403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C.-W.

F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, J.-N. Yih, K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Chang, P.-K. Wei, C.-C. Sun, and S.-J. Chen, “Coupled waveguide-surface plasmon resonance biosensor with subwavelength grating,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(11), 2737–2742 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

F. Lu, F. G. Sedgwick, V. Karagodsky, C. Chase, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Planar high-numerical-aperture low-loss focusing reflectors and lenses using subwavelength high contrast gratings,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12606–12614 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Chase, Y. Rao, W. Hofmann, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “1550 nm high contrast grating VCSEL,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15461–15466 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Y. Zhou, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. Chase, “High-contrast grating VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 869–878 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, M. Moewe, J. Kern, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Surface-normal emission of a high-Q resonator using a subwavelength high-contrast grating,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17282–17287 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Nano electro-mechanical optoelectronic tunable VCSEL,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1222–1227 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12-1.62 mm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chase, C.

Cheben, P.

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, “A broad-band waveguide grating coupler with a subwavelength grating mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 13–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12-1.62 mm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-J.

F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, J.-N. Yih, K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Chang, P.-K. Wei, C.-C. Sun, and S.-J. Chen, “Coupled waveguide-surface plasmon resonance biosensor with subwavelength grating,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(11), 2737–2742 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

A. Liu, W. Chen, M. Xing, W. Zhou, H. Qu, and W. Zheng, “Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, M. Xing, H. Qu, W. Chen, W. Zhou, and W. Zheng, “Reduced divergence angle of photonic crystal vertical-cavitysurface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chien, F.-C.

F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, J.-N. Yih, K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Chang, P.-K. Wei, C.-C. Sun, and S.-J. Chen, “Coupled waveguide-surface plasmon resonance biosensor with subwavelength grating,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(11), 2737–2742 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, M. H.

Y. Lu, M. H. Cho, Y. P. Lee, and J. Y. Rhee, “Polarization-independent extraordinary optical transmission in onedimensional metallic gratings with broad slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. Y.

S. J. Schablitsky, L. Zhuang, R. C. Shi, and S. Y. Chou, “Controlling polarization of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using amorphous silicon subwavelength transmission gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(1), 7–9 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou and W. Deng, “Subwavelength amorphous silicon transmission gratings and applications in polarizers and waveplates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(6), 742–744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Crouse, D.

Daele, P. V.

S. Goeman, S. Boons, B. Dhoedt, K. Vandeputte, K. Caekebeke, P. V. Daele, and R. Baets, “First demonstration of highly reflective and highly polarization selective diffraction gratings (GIRO-gratings) for long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1205–1207 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Delâge, A.

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, “A broad-band waveguide grating coupler with a subwavelength grating mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 13–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deng, W.

S. Y. Chou and W. Deng, “Subwavelength amorphous silicon transmission gratings and applications in polarizers and waveplates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(6), 742–744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dhoedt, B.

S. Goeman, S. Boons, B. Dhoedt, K. Vandeputte, K. Caekebeke, P. V. Daele, and R. Baets, “First demonstration of highly reflective and highly polarization selective diffraction gratings (GIRO-gratings) for long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1205–1207 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

W. Suh and S. Fan, “All-pass transmission or flattop reflection filters using a single photoniccrystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4905–4907 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Lousse, W. Suh, O. Kilic, S. Kim, O. Solgaard, and S. Fan, “Angular and polarization properties of a photonic crystal slab mirror,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1575–1582 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, T. Y.

Fattal, D.

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentino, M.

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Frankel, B.

Fritze, M.

Gao, D.

H. Wu, W. Mo, J. Hou, D. Gao, R. Hao, H. Jiang, R. Guo, W. Wu, and Z. Zhou, “A high performance polarization independent reflector based on a multilayered configuration grating structure,” J. Opt. 12(4), 045703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

J. A. Porto, F. J. García-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(14), 2845–2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Goeman, S.

S. Goeman, S. Boons, B. Dhoedt, K. Vandeputte, K. Caekebeke, P. V. Daele, and R. Baets, “First demonstration of highly reflective and highly polarization selective diffraction gratings (GIRO-gratings) for long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1205–1207 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

S. H. Ahn, J.-S. Kim, and L. J. Guo, “Bilayer metal wire-grid polarizer fabricated by roll-to-roll nanoimprintlithography on flexible plastic substrate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2388–2391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, R.

H. Wu, W. Mo, J. Hou, D. Gao, R. Hao, H. Jiang, R. Guo, W. Wu, and Z. Zhou, “A high performance polarization independent reflector based on a multilayered configuration grating structure,” J. Opt. 12(4), 045703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gustavsson, S. J.

A. Haglund, S. J. Gustavsson, J. Vukusic, P. Jedrasik, and A. Larsson, “High-power fundamental-mode and polarization stabilised VCSELs using sub-wavelength surface grating,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 805–807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haglund, A.

A. Haglund, S. J. Gustavsson, J. Vukusic, P. Jedrasik, and A. Larsson, “High-power fundamental-mode and polarization stabilised VCSELs using sub-wavelength surface grating,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 805–807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hao, R.

H. Wu, W. Mo, J. Hou, D. Gao, R. Hao, H. Jiang, R. Guo, W. Wu, and Z. Zhou, “A high performance polarization independent reflector based on a multilayered configuration grating structure,” J. Opt. 12(4), 045703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, H. T.

Hofmann, W.

W. Hofmann, “Evolution of high-speed long-wavelengthvertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Chase, Y. Rao, W. Hofmann, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “1550 nm high contrast grating VCSEL,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15461–15466 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoose, J.

Hou, J.

H. Wu, W. Mo, J. Hou, D. Gao, R. Hao, H. Jiang, R. Guo, W. Wu, and Z. Zhou, “A high performance polarization independent reflector based on a multilayered configuration grating structure,” J. Opt. 12(4), 045703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. C. Y.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Y. Zhou, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. Chase, “High-contrast grating VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 869–878 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, M. Moewe, J. Kern, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Surface-normal emission of a high-Q resonator using a subwavelength high-contrast grating,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17282–17287 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Nano electro-mechanical optoelectronic tunable VCSEL,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1222–1227 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12-1.62 mm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, “A broad-band waveguide grating coupler with a subwavelength grating mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 13–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jedrasik, P.

A. Haglund, S. J. Gustavsson, J. Vukusic, P. Jedrasik, and A. Larsson, “High-power fundamental-mode and polarization stabilised VCSELs using sub-wavelength surface grating,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 805–807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

H. Wu, W. Mo, J. Hou, D. Gao, R. Hao, H. Jiang, R. Guo, W. Wu, and Z. Zhou, “A high performance polarization independent reflector based on a multilayered configuration grating structure,” J. Opt. 12(4), 045703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, E. G.

Karagodsky, V.

Keast, C.

Kern, J.

Keshavareddy, P.

Kilic, O.

Kim, J.-S.

S. H. Ahn, J.-S. Kim, and L. J. Guo, “Bilayer metal wire-grid polarizer fabricated by roll-to-roll nanoimprintlithography on flexible plastic substrate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2388–2391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

Lalanne, P.

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 057403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamontagne, B.

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, “A broad-band waveguide grating coupler with a subwavelength grating mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 13–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, A.

A. Haglund, S. J. Gustavsson, J. Vukusic, P. Jedrasik, and A. Larsson, “High-power fundamental-mode and polarization stabilised VCSELs using sub-wavelength surface grating,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 805–807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leclercq, J. L.

Leclercq, J.-L.

S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, J.-L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, “Compact and polarization controlled 1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using single-layer photonic crystal mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-L.

F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, J.-N. Yih, K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Chang, P.-K. Wei, C.-C. Sun, and S.-J. Chen, “Coupled waveguide-surface plasmon resonance biosensor with subwavelength grating,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(11), 2737–2742 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. P.

Y. Lu, M. H. Cho, Y. P. Lee, and J. Y. Rhee, “Polarization-independent extraordinary optical transmission in onedimensional metallic gratings with broad slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Letartre, X.

Li, J.

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-Y.

F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, J.-N. Yih, K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Chang, P.-K. Wei, C.-C. Sun, and S.-J. Chen, “Coupled waveguide-surface plasmon resonance biosensor with subwavelength grating,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(11), 2737–2742 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, W. Chen, M. Xing, W. Zhou, H. Qu, and W. Zheng, “Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, M. Xing, H. Qu, W. Chen, W. Zhou, and W. Zheng, “Reduced divergence angle of photonic crystal vertical-cavitysurface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Long, L. L.

Lousse, V.

Lu, F.

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, M. H. Cho, Y. P. Lee, and J. Y. Rhee, “Polarization-independent extraordinary optical transmission in onedimensional metallic gratings with broad slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z.

Magnusson, R.

Mateus, C. F. R.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12-1.62 mm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mo, W.

H. Wu, W. Mo, J. Hou, D. Gao, R. Hao, H. Jiang, R. Guo, W. Wu, and Z. Zhou, “A high performance polarization independent reflector based on a multilayered configuration grating structure,” J. Opt. 12(4), 045703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moewe, M.

Moharam, M. G.

Neureuther, A. R.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ordal, M. A.

Pendry, J. B.

J. A. Porto, F. J. García-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(14), 2845–2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Z.

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Popov, E.

Porto, J. A.

J. A. Porto, F. J. García-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(14), 2845–2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qu, H.

A. Liu, W. Chen, M. Xing, W. Zhou, H. Qu, and W. Zheng, “Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, M. Xing, H. Qu, W. Chen, W. Zhou, and W. Zheng, “Reduced divergence angle of photonic crystal vertical-cavitysurface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

Rabe, S.

Rao, Y.

Rhee, J. Y.

Y. Lu, M. H. Cho, Y. P. Lee, and J. Y. Rhee, “Polarization-independent extraordinary optical transmission in onedimensional metallic gratings with broad slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rojo-Romeo, P.

Schablitsky, S. J.

S. J. Schablitsky, L. Zhuang, R. C. Shi, and S. Y. Chou, “Controlling polarization of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using amorphous silicon subwavelength transmission gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(1), 7–9 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scheerlinck, S.

Schrauwen, J.

Seassal, C.

Sedgwick, F. G.

Shi, R. C.

S. J. Schablitsky, L. Zhuang, R. C. Shi, and S. Y. Chou, “Controlling polarization of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using amorphous silicon subwavelength transmission gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(1), 7–9 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shokooh-Saremi, M.

Solgaard, O.

Suh, W.

V. Lousse, W. Suh, O. Kilic, S. Kim, O. Solgaard, and S. Fan, “Angular and polarization properties of a photonic crystal slab mirror,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1575–1582 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Suh and S. Fan, “All-pass transmission or flattop reflection filters using a single photoniccrystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4905–4907 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.-C.

F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, J.-N. Yih, K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Chang, P.-K. Wei, C.-C. Sun, and S.-J. Chen, “Coupled waveguide-surface plasmon resonance biosensor with subwavelength grating,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(11), 2737–2742 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, Y.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12-1.62 mm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

Tanev, S.

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, “A broad-band waveguide grating coupler with a subwavelength grating mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 13–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Treacy, M. M. J.

M. M. J. Treacy, “Dynamical diffraction explanation of the anomalous transmission of light through metallic gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 66(19), 195105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Van Laere, F.

Van Thourhout, D.

Vandeputte, K.

S. Goeman, S. Boons, B. Dhoedt, K. Vandeputte, K. Caekebeke, P. V. Daele, and R. Baets, “First demonstration of highly reflective and highly polarization selective diffraction gratings (GIRO-gratings) for long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1205–1207 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Viktorovitch, P.

S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, J.-L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, “Compact and polarization controlled 1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using single-layer photonic crystal mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Hattori, X. Letartre, C. Seassal, P. Rojo-Romeo, J. L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, “Analysis of hybrid photonic crystal vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Opt. Express 11(15), 1799–1808 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vukusic, J.

A. Haglund, S. J. Gustavsson, J. Vukusic, P. Jedrasik, and A. Larsson, “High-power fundamental-mode and polarization stabilised VCSELs using sub-wavelength surface grating,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 805–807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. S.

Wei, P.-K.

F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, J.-N. Yih, K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Chang, P.-K. Wei, C.-C. Sun, and S.-J. Chen, “Coupled waveguide-surface plasmon resonance biosensor with subwavelength grating,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(11), 2737–2742 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, H.

H. Wu, W. Mo, J. Hou, D. Gao, R. Hao, H. Jiang, R. Guo, W. Wu, and Z. Zhou, “A high performance polarization independent reflector based on a multilayered configuration grating structure,” J. Opt. 12(4), 045703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

H. Wu, W. Mo, J. Hou, D. Gao, R. Hao, H. Jiang, R. Guo, W. Wu, and Z. Zhou, “A high performance polarization independent reflector based on a multilayered configuration grating structure,” J. Opt. 12(4), 045703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xing, M.

A. Liu, W. Chen, M. Xing, W. Zhou, H. Qu, and W. Zheng, “Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, M. Xing, H. Qu, W. Chen, W. Zhou, and W. Zheng, “Reduced divergence angle of photonic crystal vertical-cavitysurface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.-X.

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, “A broad-band waveguide grating coupler with a subwavelength grating mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 13–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

Yih, J.-N.

F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, J.-N. Yih, K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Chang, P.-K. Wei, C.-C. Sun, and S.-J. Chen, “Coupled waveguide-surface plasmon resonance biosensor with subwavelength grating,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(11), 2737–2742 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yost, D.

Zhao, D.

Zheng, W.

A. Liu, W. Chen, M. Xing, W. Zhou, H. Qu, and W. Zheng, “Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, M. Xing, H. Qu, W. Chen, W. Zhou, and W. Zheng, “Reduced divergence angle of photonic crystal vertical-cavitysurface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.

D. Zhao, H. Yang, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Polarization independent broadband reflectors based on cross-stacked gratings,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9050–9055 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, W. Chen, M. Xing, W. Zhou, H. Qu, and W. Zheng, “Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, M. Xing, H. Qu, W. Chen, W. Zhou, and W. Zheng, “Reduced divergence angle of photonic crystal vertical-cavitysurface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Y. Zhou, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. Chase, “High-contrast grating VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 869–878 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, M. Moewe, J. Kern, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Surface-normal emission of a high-Q resonator using a subwavelength high-contrast grating,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17282–17287 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Nano electro-mechanical optoelectronic tunable VCSEL,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1222–1227 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z.

H. Wu, W. Mo, J. Hou, D. Gao, R. Hao, H. Jiang, R. Guo, W. Wu, and Z. Zhou, “A high performance polarization independent reflector based on a multilayered configuration grating structure,” J. Opt. 12(4), 045703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, L.

S. J. Schablitsky, L. Zhuang, R. C. Shi, and S. Y. Chou, “Controlling polarization of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using amorphous silicon subwavelength transmission gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(1), 7–9 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

Y. Lu, M. H. Cho, Y. P. Lee, and J. Y. Rhee, “Polarization-independent extraordinary optical transmission in onedimensional metallic gratings with broad slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Suh and S. Fan, “All-pass transmission or flattop reflection filters using a single photoniccrystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4905–4907 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou and W. Deng, “Subwavelength amorphous silicon transmission gratings and applications in polarizers and waveplates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(6), 742–744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Schablitsky, L. Zhuang, R. C. Shi, and S. Y. Chou, “Controlling polarization of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using amorphous silicon subwavelength transmission gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(1), 7–9 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, J.-L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, “Compact and polarization controlled 1.55 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using single-layer photonic crystal mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, M. Xing, H. Qu, W. Chen, W. Zhou, and W. Zheng, “Reduced divergence angle of photonic crystal vertical-cavitysurface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, W. Chen, M. Xing, W. Zhou, H. Qu, and W. Zheng, “Phase-locked ring-defect photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

F.-C. Chien, C.-Y. Lin, J.-N. Yih, K.-L. Lee, C.-W. Chang, P.-K. Wei, C.-C. Sun, and S.-J. Chen, “Coupled waveguide-surface plasmon resonance biosensor with subwavelength grating,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(11), 2737–2742 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Haglund, S. J. Gustavsson, J. Vukusic, P. Jedrasik, and A. Larsson, “High-power fundamental-mode and polarization stabilised VCSELs using sub-wavelength surface grating,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 805–807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Y. Zhou, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. Chase, “High-contrast grating VCSELs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 869–878 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

S. Goeman, S. Boons, B. Dhoedt, K. Vandeputte, K. Caekebeke, P. V. Daele, and R. Baets, “First demonstration of highly reflective and highly polarization selective diffraction gratings (GIRO-gratings) for long-wavelength VCSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1205–1207 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, “A broad-band waveguide grating coupler with a subwavelength grating mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 13–15 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12-1.62 mm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

H. Wu, W. Mo, J. Hou, D. Gao, R. Hao, H. Jiang, R. Guo, W. Wu, and Z. Zhou, “A high performance polarization independent reflector based on a multilayered configuration grating structure,” J. Opt. 12(4), 045703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

S. H. Ahn, J.-S. Kim, and L. J. Guo, “Bilayer metal wire-grid polarizer fabricated by roll-to-roll nanoimprintlithography on flexible plastic substrate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(6), 2388–2391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A surface-emitting laser incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (12)

F. Lu, F. G. Sedgwick, V. Karagodsky, C. Chase, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Planar high-numerical-aperture low-loss focusing reflectors and lenses using subwavelength high contrast gratings,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12606–12614 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Hattori, X. Letartre, C. Seassal, P. Rojo-Romeo, J. L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, “Analysis of hybrid photonic crystal vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Opt. Express 11(15), 1799–1808 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Chase, Y. Rao, W. Hofmann, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “1550 nm high contrast grating VCSEL,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15461–15466 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Nano electro-mechanical optoelectronic tunable VCSEL,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1222–1227 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Magnusson and M. Shokooh-Saremi, “Physical basis for wideband resonant reflectors,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3456–3462 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, M. Moewe, J. Kern, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Surface-normal emission of a high-Q resonator using a subwavelength high-contrast grating,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17282–17287 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Popov, J. Hoose, B. Frankel, C. Keast, M. Fritze, T. Y. Fan, D. Yost, and S. Rabe, “Low polarization dependent diffraction grating for wavelength demultimlexing,” Opt. Express 12(2), 269–275 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Lousse, W. Suh, O. Kilic, S. Kim, O. Solgaard, and S. Fan, “Angular and polarization properties of a photonic crystal slab mirror,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1575–1582 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhao, H. Yang, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Polarization independent broadband reflectors based on cross-stacked gratings,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9050–9055 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, F. Van Laere, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Efficient, broadband and compact metal grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9625–9630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Crouse and P. Keshavareddy, “Role of optical and surface plasmon modes in enhanced transmission and applications,” Opt. Express 13(20), 7760–7771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Crouse and P. Keshavareddy, “Polarization independent enhanced optical transmission in one-dimensional gratings and device applications,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1415–1427 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. M. J. Treacy, “Dynamical diffraction explanation of the anomalous transmission of light through metallic gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 66(19), 195105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 057403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Porto, F. J. García-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(14), 2845–2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

W. Hofmann, “Evolution of high-speed long-wavelengthvertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Domain of 2-D FDTD simulation. Λ is the period, dn is the width of the subwavelength grating strip, and hn is the thickness of each layer (n = s, i, or m, denoting the semiconductor, insulator, and metal, respectively).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of a HCG. Λ is 380 nm, dis 250 nm, and hs is 235 nm. For the TM polarization, the electric field is perpendicular to the grating stripe (in the x direction). For the TE polarization, the electric field is parallel to the grating stripe (in the y direction). (b) Calculated reflectivity spectra for surface-normal incident plane waves with the parameters in Fig. 2(a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the SIM-SG. hi is the thickness of the insulator layer and hm is the thickness of the metal layer. Subscripts i and m denote the insulator and the metal, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Calculated reflectivity spectra as a function of thickness hi for the TM polarization. (b) Calculated reflectivity spectra as a function of duty cycle (defined as d/Λ) for the TM polarization.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Reflectivity spectra as a function of the thickness hi for the TE polarization. (b) Reflectivity spectra as a function of duty cycle for the TE polarization.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reflectivity spectra of the optimized SIM-SG for the TM and TE polarizations.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflectivity spectra of the MSG. Period Λ is 380 nm, strip width dis 250 nm, and thickness hmis100 nm (m denotes the metal). The inset is the MSG structure.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Field distribution of Ex component in the SIM-SG for the TM polarization at the wavelength of 870 nm. (b) Field distribution of Ez component in the SIM-SG for the TM polarization at the wavelength of 870 nm. (c) Reflectivity spectra of the subwavelength grating based on the metal-semiconductor structure for the TM polarization.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Field distribution of Ex component in the metal-semiconductor structure for the TM polarization at the wavelength of 870 nm. (b) Field distribution of Ez component in the metal-semiconductor structure for the TM polarization at the wavelength of 870 nm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Field distribution of Ex component in the SIM-SG for the TM polarization at the wavelength of 953.38 nm. (b) Field distribution of Ez component in the SIM-SG for the TM polarization at the wavelength of 953.38 nm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Field distribution of Ey component in the HCG for the TE polarization at the wavelength of 870 nm. (b) Field distribution of Ey component in the MSG for the TE polarization at the wavelength of 870 nm. (c) Field distribution of Ey component in the SIM-SG for the TE polarization at the wavelength of 870 nm. (d) Reflectivity spectra of the subwavelength grating based on the metal-semiconductor structure for the TE polarization.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Field distribution of Ey component in the metal-semiconductor structure for the TE polarization at the wavelength of 870 nm.

Metrics