Abstract

We present a CMOS compatible mass manufacturable, compact Si/SiO2 multilayer GRIN lens mode size converter from standard single mode fiber to 300nm-thick Si waveguide. The fiber-to-GRIN lens coupling loss is 2.6 ± 0.3dB (coupling efficiency: 51~60%) with optimized focal length of 11.6~11.8μm and Si/SiO2 multilayer thickness of 7.4μm.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. R. A. Soref, “Silicon-based optoelectronics,” Proc. IEEE81(12), 1687–1706 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Gunn, “CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects,” IEEE Micro26(2), 58–66 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE88(6), 728–749 (2000).
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  4. A. Shachem, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “On the design of a photonic Network-on-chip,” in Proceedings of International Symposium on Network-on-Chip (NOCS), Princeton, NJ, Paper 2.1, May 2007.
  5. B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. X. Zhang, Y. Du, C. W. Tan, J. Zhang, M. B. Yu, W. G. Yeoh, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A silicon platform with MEMS active alignment functions and its potential application in Si-photonics packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 101–105 (2010).
  7. D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact ad highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(1), 151–156 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Sure, T. Dillon, J. Murakowski, C. Lin, D. Pustai, and D. W. Prather, “Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silicon tapers,” Opt. Express11(26), 3555–3561 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett.28(15), 1302–1304 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, D. X. Xu, and K. P. Yap, “Monolithically integrated asymmetric graded and step-index couplers for microphotonic waveguides,” Opt. Express14(1), 148–161 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. Shirashi and C. S. Tsai, “A micro light-beam spot-size converter using a hemispherical GRIN-slab tip with high index contrast,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(11), 3821–3826 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Yoda, H. Ikedo, T. Ketsuka, A. Irie, K. Shirashi, and C. S. Tsai, “A high performance micro-GRIN-chip spot-size converter formed with focused ion-beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1554–1556 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Sun, V. Nguyen, A. Agarwal, C. Y. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High performance asymmetric graded index coupler with integrated lens for high index waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 201116 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141120 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, A. Ohshima, T. Ishimura, H. Furuhashi, H. Tsuchiya, and C. S. Tsai, “A two-port single-mode fiber-silicon wire waveguide coupler module using spot-size converters,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(10), 1315–1319 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Huang and S. T. Ho, “Superhigh numerical aperture (NA > 1.5) micro gradient-index lens based on a dual-material approach,” Opt. Lett.30(11), 1291–1293 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. T. H. Loh, Q. Wang, J. Zhu, K. T. Ng, Y. C. Lai, Y. Huang, and S. T. Ho, “Ultra-compact multilayer Si/SiO2 GRIN lens mode-size converter for coupling single-mode fiber to Si-wire waveguide,” Opt. Express18(21), 21519–21533 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Q. Wang, Y. Huang, T. H. Loh, K. T. Ng, and S. T. Ho, “Application and optimization of dual-materials approach in graded-index optics,” Opt. Express18, 4574–4589 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. X. Li, L. Li, X. Hua, M. Fukasawa, G. S. Oehrlein, M. Barela, and M. Anderson, “Effects of Ar and O2 additives on SiO2 etching in C4F8-based plasma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(1), 284–293 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. G. Walker, “Simple and accurate loss measurement technique for semiconductor optical waveguide,” Electron. Lett.21(13), 581–583 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, “Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated waveguide propagation loss measurement,” Pure Appl. Opt.2(6), 683–700 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Q. Wang, T. H. Loh, K. T. Ng, and S. T. Ho, “Design and analysis of optical coupling between silicon nanophotonics waveguide and standard single-mode fiber using an integrated asymmetric Super-GRIN lens,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 581–589 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. Hecht, Optics (Addison Wesley, 1998), Chap. 4.

2011 (1)

Q. Wang, T. H. Loh, K. T. Ng, and S. T. Ho, “Design and analysis of optical coupling between silicon nanophotonics waveguide and standard single-mode fiber using an integrated asymmetric Super-GRIN lens,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 581–589 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

T. H. Loh, Q. Wang, J. Zhu, K. T. Ng, Y. C. Lai, Y. Huang, and S. T. Ho, “Ultra-compact multilayer Si/SiO2 GRIN lens mode-size converter for coupling single-mode fiber to Si-wire waveguide,” Opt. Express18(21), 21519–21533 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, Y. Huang, T. H. Loh, K. T. Ng, and S. T. Ho, “Application and optimization of dual-materials approach in graded-index optics,” Opt. Express18, 4574–4589 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. X. Zhang, Y. Du, C. W. Tan, J. Zhang, M. B. Yu, W. G. Yeoh, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A silicon platform with MEMS active alignment functions and its potential application in Si-photonics packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 101–105 (2010).

2009 (1)

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, A. Ohshima, T. Ishimura, H. Furuhashi, H. Tsuchiya, and C. S. Tsai, “A two-port single-mode fiber-silicon wire waveguide coupler module using spot-size converters,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(10), 1315–1319 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

R. Sun, V. Nguyen, A. Agarwal, C. Y. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High performance asymmetric graded index coupler with integrated lens for high index waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 201116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact ad highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Gunn, “CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects,” IEEE Micro26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, D. X. Xu, and K. P. Yap, “Monolithically integrated asymmetric graded and step-index couplers for microphotonic waveguides,” Opt. Express14(1), 148–161 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoda, H. Ikedo, T. Ketsuka, A. Irie, K. Shirashi, and C. S. Tsai, “A high performance micro-GRIN-chip spot-size converter formed with focused ion-beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1554–1556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

K. Shirashi and C. S. Tsai, “A micro light-beam spot-size converter using a hemispherical GRIN-slab tip with high index contrast,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(11), 3821–3826 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang and S. T. Ho, “Superhigh numerical aperture (NA > 1.5) micro gradient-index lens based on a dual-material approach,” Opt. Lett.30(11), 1291–1293 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

A. Sure, T. Dillon, J. Murakowski, C. Lin, D. Pustai, and D. W. Prather, “Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silicon tapers,” Opt. Express11(26), 3555–3561 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett.28(15), 1302–1304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, L. Li, X. Hua, M. Fukasawa, G. S. Oehrlein, M. Barela, and M. Anderson, “Effects of Ar and O2 additives on SiO2 etching in C4F8-based plasma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(1), 284–293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE88(6), 728–749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

R. A. Soref, “Silicon-based optoelectronics,” Proc. IEEE81(12), 1687–1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, “Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated waveguide propagation loss measurement,” Pure Appl. Opt.2(6), 683–700 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. G. Walker, “Simple and accurate loss measurement technique for semiconductor optical waveguide,” Electron. Lett.21(13), 581–583 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

R. Sun, V. Nguyen, A. Agarwal, C. Y. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High performance asymmetric graded index coupler with integrated lens for high index waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 201116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett.28(15), 1302–1304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, M.

X. Li, L. Li, X. Hua, M. Fukasawa, G. S. Oehrlein, M. Barela, and M. Anderson, “Effects of Ar and O2 additives on SiO2 etching in C4F8-based plasma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(1), 284–293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ayre, M.

V. Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact ad highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

V. Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact ad highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barela, M.

X. Li, L. Li, X. Hua, M. Fukasawa, G. S. Oehrlein, M. Barela, and M. Anderson, “Effects of Ar and O2 additives on SiO2 etching in C4F8-based plasma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(1), 284–293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bogdanov, A.

A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, D. X. Xu, and K. P. Yap, “Monolithically integrated asymmetric graded and step-index couplers for microphotonic waveguides,” Opt. Express14(1), 148–161 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daele, P. V.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dalacu, D.

A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, D. X. Xu, and K. P. Yap, “Monolithically integrated asymmetric graded and step-index couplers for microphotonic waveguides,” Opt. Express14(1), 148–161 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delâge, A.

A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, D. X. Xu, and K. P. Yap, “Monolithically integrated asymmetric graded and step-index couplers for microphotonic waveguides,” Opt. Express14(1), 148–161 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dillon, T.

A. Sure, T. Dillon, J. Murakowski, C. Lin, D. Pustai, and D. W. Prather, “Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silicon tapers,” Opt. Express11(26), 3555–3561 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, Y.

Q. X. Zhang, Y. Du, C. W. Tan, J. Zhang, M. B. Yu, W. G. Yeoh, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A silicon platform with MEMS active alignment functions and its potential application in Si-photonics packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 101–105 (2010).

Fathpour, S.

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fukasawa, M.

X. Li, L. Li, X. Hua, M. Fukasawa, G. S. Oehrlein, M. Barela, and M. Anderson, “Effects of Ar and O2 additives on SiO2 etching in C4F8-based plasma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(1), 284–293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Furuhashi, H.

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, A. Ohshima, T. Ishimura, H. Furuhashi, H. Tsuchiya, and C. S. Tsai, “A two-port single-mode fiber-silicon wire waveguide coupler module using spot-size converters,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(10), 1315–1319 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, C.

C. Gunn, “CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects,” IEEE Micro26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

Q. Wang, T. H. Loh, K. T. Ng, and S. T. Ho, “Design and analysis of optical coupling between silicon nanophotonics waveguide and standard single-mode fiber using an integrated asymmetric Super-GRIN lens,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 581–589 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Loh, Q. Wang, J. Zhu, K. T. Ng, Y. C. Lai, Y. Huang, and S. T. Ho, “Ultra-compact multilayer Si/SiO2 GRIN lens mode-size converter for coupling single-mode fiber to Si-wire waveguide,” Opt. Express18(21), 21519–21533 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, Y. Huang, T. H. Loh, K. T. Ng, and S. T. Ho, “Application and optimization of dual-materials approach in graded-index optics,” Opt. Express18, 4574–4589 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Huang and S. T. Ho, “Superhigh numerical aperture (NA > 1.5) micro gradient-index lens based on a dual-material approach,” Opt. Lett.30(11), 1291–1293 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, C. Y.

R. Sun, V. Nguyen, A. Agarwal, C. Y. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High performance asymmetric graded index coupler with integrated lens for high index waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 201116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hua, X.

X. Li, L. Li, X. Hua, M. Fukasawa, G. S. Oehrlein, M. Barela, and M. Anderson, “Effects of Ar and O2 additives on SiO2 etching in C4F8-based plasma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(1), 284–293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

T. H. Loh, Q. Wang, J. Zhu, K. T. Ng, Y. C. Lai, Y. Huang, and S. T. Ho, “Ultra-compact multilayer Si/SiO2 GRIN lens mode-size converter for coupling single-mode fiber to Si-wire waveguide,” Opt. Express18(21), 21519–21533 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, Y. Huang, T. H. Loh, K. T. Ng, and S. T. Ho, “Application and optimization of dual-materials approach in graded-index optics,” Opt. Express18, 4574–4589 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Huang and S. T. Ho, “Superhigh numerical aperture (NA > 1.5) micro gradient-index lens based on a dual-material approach,” Opt. Lett.30(11), 1291–1293 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikedo, H.

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoda, H. Ikedo, T. Ketsuka, A. Irie, K. Shirashi, and C. S. Tsai, “A high performance micro-GRIN-chip spot-size converter formed with focused ion-beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1554–1556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Irie, A.

H. Yoda, H. Ikedo, T. Ketsuka, A. Irie, K. Shirashi, and C. S. Tsai, “A high performance micro-GRIN-chip spot-size converter formed with focused ion-beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1554–1556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishimura, T.

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, A. Ohshima, T. Ishimura, H. Furuhashi, H. Tsuchiya, and C. S. Tsai, “A two-port single-mode fiber-silicon wire waveguide coupler module using spot-size converters,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(10), 1315–1319 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, D. X. Xu, and K. P. Yap, “Monolithically integrated asymmetric graded and step-index couplers for microphotonic waveguides,” Opt. Express14(1), 148–161 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karthe, W.

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, “Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated waveguide propagation loss measurement,” Pure Appl. Opt.2(6), 683–700 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ketsuka, T.

H. Yoda, H. Ikedo, T. Ketsuka, A. Irie, K. Shirashi, and C. S. Tsai, “A high performance micro-GRIN-chip spot-size converter formed with focused ion-beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1554–1556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

R. Sun, V. Nguyen, A. Agarwal, C. Y. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High performance asymmetric graded index coupler with integrated lens for high index waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 201116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

V. Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact ad highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

Q. X. Zhang, Y. Du, C. W. Tan, J. Zhang, M. B. Yu, W. G. Yeoh, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A silicon platform with MEMS active alignment functions and its potential application in Si-photonics packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 101–105 (2010).

Laere, F. V.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laere, V.

V. Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact ad highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y. C.

T. H. Loh, Q. Wang, J. Zhu, K. T. Ng, Y. C. Lai, Y. Huang, and S. T. Ho, “Ultra-compact multilayer Si/SiO2 GRIN lens mode-size converter for coupling single-mode fiber to Si-wire waveguide,” Opt. Express18(21), 21519–21533 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamontagne, B.

A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, D. X. Xu, and K. P. Yap, “Monolithically integrated asymmetric graded and step-index couplers for microphotonic waveguides,” Opt. Express14(1), 148–161 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

X. Li, L. Li, X. Hua, M. Fukasawa, G. S. Oehrlein, M. Barela, and M. Anderson, “Effects of Ar and O2 additives on SiO2 etching in C4F8-based plasma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(1), 284–293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Li, L. Li, X. Hua, M. Fukasawa, G. S. Oehrlein, M. Barela, and M. Anderson, “Effects of Ar and O2 additives on SiO2 etching in C4F8-based plasma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(1), 284–293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

A. Sure, T. Dillon, J. Murakowski, C. Lin, D. Pustai, and D. W. Prather, “Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silicon tapers,” Opt. Express11(26), 3555–3561 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett.28(15), 1302–1304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, G. Q.

Q. X. Zhang, Y. Du, C. W. Tan, J. Zhang, M. B. Yu, W. G. Yeoh, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A silicon platform with MEMS active alignment functions and its potential application in Si-photonics packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 101–105 (2010).

Loh, T. H.

Q. Wang, T. H. Loh, K. T. Ng, and S. T. Ho, “Design and analysis of optical coupling between silicon nanophotonics waveguide and standard single-mode fiber using an integrated asymmetric Super-GRIN lens,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 581–589 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, Y. Huang, T. H. Loh, K. T. Ng, and S. T. Ho, “Application and optimization of dual-materials approach in graded-index optics,” Opt. Express18, 4574–4589 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Loh, Q. Wang, J. Zhu, K. T. Ng, Y. C. Lai, Y. Huang, and S. T. Ho, “Ultra-compact multilayer Si/SiO2 GRIN lens mode-size converter for coupling single-mode fiber to Si-wire waveguide,” Opt. Express18(21), 21519–21533 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mesel, K. D.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

R. Sun, V. Nguyen, A. Agarwal, C. Y. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High performance asymmetric graded index coupler with integrated lens for high index waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 201116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE88(6), 728–749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morita, H.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murakowski, J.

A. Sure, T. Dillon, J. Murakowski, C. Lin, D. Pustai, and D. W. Prather, “Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silicon tapers,” Opt. Express11(26), 3555–3561 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, K. T.

Q. Wang, T. H. Loh, K. T. Ng, and S. T. Ho, “Design and analysis of optical coupling between silicon nanophotonics waveguide and standard single-mode fiber using an integrated asymmetric Super-GRIN lens,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 581–589 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, Y. Huang, T. H. Loh, K. T. Ng, and S. T. Ho, “Application and optimization of dual-materials approach in graded-index optics,” Opt. Express18, 4574–4589 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Loh, Q. Wang, J. Zhu, K. T. Ng, Y. C. Lai, Y. Huang, and S. T. Ho, “Ultra-compact multilayer Si/SiO2 GRIN lens mode-size converter for coupling single-mode fiber to Si-wire waveguide,” Opt. Express18(21), 21519–21533 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, V.

R. Sun, V. Nguyen, A. Agarwal, C. Y. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High performance asymmetric graded index coupler with integrated lens for high index waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 201116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oehrlein, G. S.

X. Li, L. Li, X. Hua, M. Fukasawa, G. S. Oehrlein, M. Barela, and M. Anderson, “Effects of Ar and O2 additives on SiO2 etching in C4F8-based plasma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(1), 284–293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohshima, A.

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, A. Ohshima, T. Ishimura, H. Furuhashi, H. Tsuchiya, and C. S. Tsai, “A two-port single-mode fiber-silicon wire waveguide coupler module using spot-size converters,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(10), 1315–1319 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett.28(15), 1302–1304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prather, D. W.

A. Sure, T. Dillon, J. Murakowski, C. Lin, D. Pustai, and D. W. Prather, “Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silicon tapers,” Opt. Express11(26), 3555–3561 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pustai, D.

A. Sure, T. Dillon, J. Murakowski, C. Lin, D. Pustai, and D. W. Prather, “Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silicon tapers,” Opt. Express11(26), 3555–3561 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, B.

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, “Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated waveguide propagation loss measurement,” Pure Appl. Opt.2(6), 683–700 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

V. Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact ad highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schrauwen, J.

V. Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact ad highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shiraishi, K.

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, A. Ohshima, T. Ishimura, H. Furuhashi, H. Tsuchiya, and C. S. Tsai, “A two-port single-mode fiber-silicon wire waveguide coupler module using spot-size converters,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(10), 1315–1319 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shirashi, K.

H. Yoda, H. Ikedo, T. Ketsuka, A. Irie, K. Shirashi, and C. S. Tsai, “A high performance micro-GRIN-chip spot-size converter formed with focused ion-beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1554–1556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Shirashi and C. S. Tsai, “A micro light-beam spot-size converter using a hemispherical GRIN-slab tip with high index contrast,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(11), 3821–3826 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, “Silicon-based optoelectronics,” Proc. IEEE81(12), 1687–1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

R. Sun, V. Nguyen, A. Agarwal, C. Y. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High performance asymmetric graded index coupler with integrated lens for high index waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 201116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sure, A.

A. Sure, T. Dillon, J. Murakowski, C. Lin, D. Pustai, and D. W. Prather, “Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silicon tapers,” Opt. Express11(26), 3555–3561 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taillaert, D.

V. Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact ad highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tan, C. W.

Q. X. Zhang, Y. Du, C. W. Tan, J. Zhang, M. B. Yu, W. G. Yeoh, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A silicon platform with MEMS active alignment functions and its potential application in Si-photonics packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 101–105 (2010).

Thourhout, D. V.

V. Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact ad highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tittelbach, G.

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, “Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated waveguide propagation loss measurement,” Pure Appl. Opt.2(6), 683–700 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. S.

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, A. Ohshima, T. Ishimura, H. Furuhashi, H. Tsuchiya, and C. S. Tsai, “A two-port single-mode fiber-silicon wire waveguide coupler module using spot-size converters,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(10), 1315–1319 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoda, H. Ikedo, T. Ketsuka, A. Irie, K. Shirashi, and C. S. Tsai, “A high performance micro-GRIN-chip spot-size converter formed with focused ion-beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1554–1556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Shirashi and C. S. Tsai, “A micro light-beam spot-size converter using a hemispherical GRIN-slab tip with high index contrast,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(11), 3821–3826 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, H.

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, A. Ohshima, T. Ishimura, H. Furuhashi, H. Tsuchiya, and C. S. Tsai, “A two-port single-mode fiber-silicon wire waveguide coupler module using spot-size converters,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(10), 1315–1319 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vertuyft, S.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R. G.

R. G. Walker, “Simple and accurate loss measurement technique for semiconductor optical waveguide,” Electron. Lett.21(13), 581–583 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, T. H. Loh, K. T. Ng, and S. T. Ho, “Design and analysis of optical coupling between silicon nanophotonics waveguide and standard single-mode fiber using an integrated asymmetric Super-GRIN lens,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 581–589 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, Y. Huang, T. H. Loh, K. T. Ng, and S. T. Ho, “Application and optimization of dual-materials approach in graded-index optics,” Opt. Express18, 4574–4589 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Loh, Q. Wang, J. Zhu, K. T. Ng, Y. C. Lai, Y. Huang, and S. T. Ho, “Ultra-compact multilayer Si/SiO2 GRIN lens mode-size converter for coupling single-mode fiber to Si-wire waveguide,” Opt. Express18(21), 21519–21533 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D. X.

A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, D. X. Xu, and K. P. Yap, “Monolithically integrated asymmetric graded and step-index couplers for microphotonic waveguides,” Opt. Express14(1), 148–161 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yap, K. P.

A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, D. X. Xu, and K. P. Yap, “Monolithically integrated asymmetric graded and step-index couplers for microphotonic waveguides,” Opt. Express14(1), 148–161 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yasaitis, J.

R. Sun, V. Nguyen, A. Agarwal, C. Y. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High performance asymmetric graded index coupler with integrated lens for high index waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 201116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yeoh, W. G.

Q. X. Zhang, Y. Du, C. W. Tan, J. Zhang, M. B. Yu, W. G. Yeoh, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A silicon platform with MEMS active alignment functions and its potential application in Si-photonics packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 101–105 (2010).

Yoda, H.

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, A. Ohshima, T. Ishimura, H. Furuhashi, H. Tsuchiya, and C. S. Tsai, “A two-port single-mode fiber-silicon wire waveguide coupler module using spot-size converters,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(10), 1315–1319 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoda, H. Ikedo, T. Ketsuka, A. Irie, K. Shirashi, and C. S. Tsai, “A high performance micro-GRIN-chip spot-size converter formed with focused ion-beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1554–1556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M. B.

Q. X. Zhang, Y. Du, C. W. Tan, J. Zhang, M. B. Yu, W. G. Yeoh, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A silicon platform with MEMS active alignment functions and its potential application in Si-photonics packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 101–105 (2010).

Zhang, J.

Q. X. Zhang, Y. Du, C. W. Tan, J. Zhang, M. B. Yu, W. G. Yeoh, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A silicon platform with MEMS active alignment functions and its potential application in Si-photonics packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 101–105 (2010).

Zhang, Q. X.

Q. X. Zhang, Y. Du, C. W. Tan, J. Zhang, M. B. Yu, W. G. Yeoh, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A silicon platform with MEMS active alignment functions and its potential application in Si-photonics packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 101–105 (2010).

Zhu, J.

T. H. Loh, Q. Wang, J. Zhu, K. T. Ng, Y. C. Lai, Y. Huang, and S. T. Ho, “Ultra-compact multilayer Si/SiO2 GRIN lens mode-size converter for coupling single-mode fiber to Si-wire waveguide,” Opt. Express18(21), 21519–21533 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. Sun, V. Nguyen, A. Agarwal, C. Y. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “High performance asymmetric graded index coupler with integrated lens for high index waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 201116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, H. Yoda, A. Ohshima, H. Ikedo, and C. S. Tsai, “A silicon-based spot-size converter between single-mode fibers and Si-wire waveguides using cascaded tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett.38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Walker, “Simple and accurate loss measurement technique for semiconductor optical waveguide,” Electron. Lett.21(13), 581–583 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Vertuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-pf-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

Q. X. Zhang, Y. Du, C. W. Tan, J. Zhang, M. B. Yu, W. G. Yeoh, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “A silicon platform with MEMS active alignment functions and its potential application in Si-photonics packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16, 101–105 (2010).

Q. Wang, T. H. Loh, K. T. Ng, and S. T. Ho, “Design and analysis of optical coupling between silicon nanophotonics waveguide and standard single-mode fiber using an integrated asymmetric Super-GRIN lens,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 581–589 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Micro (1)

C. Gunn, “CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects,” IEEE Micro26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Yoda, H. Ikedo, T. Ketsuka, A. Irie, K. Shirashi, and C. S. Tsai, “A high performance micro-GRIN-chip spot-size converter formed with focused ion-beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(14), 1554–1556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. V. Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact ad highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Shirashi and C. S. Tsai, “A micro light-beam spot-size converter using a hemispherical GRIN-slab tip with high index contrast,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(11), 3821–3826 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, A. Ohshima, T. Ishimura, H. Furuhashi, H. Tsuchiya, and C. S. Tsai, “A two-port single-mode fiber-silicon wire waveguide coupler module using spot-size converters,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(10), 1315–1319 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

X. Li, L. Li, X. Hua, M. Fukasawa, G. S. Oehrlein, M. Barela, and M. Anderson, “Effects of Ar and O2 additives on SiO2 etching in C4F8-based plasma,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A21(1), 284–293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

A. Sure, T. Dillon, J. Murakowski, C. Lin, D. Pustai, and D. W. Prather, “Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silicon tapers,” Opt. Express11(26), 3555–3561 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, D. X. Xu, and K. P. Yap, “Monolithically integrated asymmetric graded and step-index couplers for microphotonic waveguides,” Opt. Express14(1), 148–161 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Loh, Q. Wang, J. Zhu, K. T. Ng, Y. C. Lai, Y. Huang, and S. T. Ho, “Ultra-compact multilayer Si/SiO2 GRIN lens mode-size converter for coupling single-mode fiber to Si-wire waveguide,” Opt. Express18(21), 21519–21533 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, Y. Huang, T. H. Loh, K. T. Ng, and S. T. Ho, “Application and optimization of dual-materials approach in graded-index optics,” Opt. Express18, 4574–4589 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Y. Huang and S. T. Ho, “Superhigh numerical aperture (NA > 1.5) micro gradient-index lens based on a dual-material approach,” Opt. Lett.30(11), 1291–1293 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett.28(15), 1302–1304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (2)

R. A. Soref, “Silicon-based optoelectronics,” Proc. IEEE81(12), 1687–1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE88(6), 728–749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, “Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated waveguide propagation loss measurement,” Pure Appl. Opt.2(6), 683–700 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison Wesley, 1998), Chap. 4.

A. Shachem, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “On the design of a photonic Network-on-chip,” in Proceedings of International Symposium on Network-on-Chip (NOCS), Princeton, NJ, Paper 2.1, May 2007.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the fabrication process flow of integrating a-Si/SiO2 ML-GRIN lens to Si-wire waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the fabricated Si/SiO2 multilayer GRIN lens integrated to Si-waveguide. (b) SEM image of the front side view of the ML-GRIN lens, showing the etched output surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of MSC that consists of ML-GRIN lens in cascade with Si up-taper.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of cross-section of the ML-GRIN lens integrated to Si-waveguide tip.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Computed effective RI (solid curve) of the ML-GRIN lens medium, the computed thicknesses of a-Si (red-square) and SiO2 (blue triangle) against vertical distance from the bottom of the a-Si/SiO2 multilayer stack.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical micrograph of Si-waveguides with output butt-terminated with a-Si/SiO2 ML-GRIN lenses for LGRIN varying from 7μm to 15μm in steps of 0.5μm or 1μm. Objective lenses (magnification: 60X, NA: 0.65) were used for input optical coupling and output imaging.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Optical output image from 6μm-wide Si-waveguide with a butt-terminated ML-GRIN lens. (b) Optical output image from 6μm-wide Si-waveguide termination without ML-GRIN lens.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) to (c) shows the coupling of SMF into ML-GRIN lenses for LGRIN of 11.6~11.8μm, 12~12.6μm and 10~10.5μm. The optical emission at the waveguide input-end was imaged by 60X lens. (d) Optical mode of single-mode fiber imaged by 30X objective lens with its output facet placed at the same object plane as the waveguide input-end. (e) Optical mode imaged at waveguide input-end by using 30X objective lens for LGRIN = 11.6~11.8μm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Fabry-Perot resonance spectra of straight 3μm-wide Si-waveguide without tapers at both ends using lens objectives to couple light into/out of the Si-waveguide.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Insertion loss spectra of 3μm-waveguide using lensed fiber-probes to couple light into/out of the Si-waveguide. (Insert: schematic of the experimental set-up).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Insertion-loss spectrum of 3μm-wide, 2228.5μm-long Si-waveguide, with 500μm-long Si up-taper at the output and butt-terminated with ML-GRIN lens. Lensed fiber-probe was used for input-coupling and standard SMF was used for output-coupling.

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