Abstract

Ultraviolet absorption measurements and laser excitation spectroscopy in the vicinity of 248 nm provide compelling evidence for linkages between the oxygen deficiency center (ODC) and rare earth concentrations in Yb and Er-doped glass optical fibers. Investigations of YAG-derived and solution-doped glass fibers are described. For both Yb and Er-doped fibers, the dependence of Type II ODC absorption on the rare earth number density is approximately linear, but the magnitude of the effect is greater for Yb-doped fibers. Furthermore, laser excitation spectra demonstrate unambiguously the existence of an energy transfer mechanism coupling an ODC with Yb3+. Photopumping glass fibers with a Ti:sapphire laser/optical parametric amplifier system, tunable over the 225-265 nm region, or with a KrF laser at 248.4 nm show: 1) emission features in the 200-1100 nm interval attributable only to the ODC (Type II) defect or Yb3+, and 2) the excitation spectra for ODC (II) emission at ~280 nm and Yb3+ fluorescence (λ ~1.03 μm) to be, within experimental uncertainty, identical. The latter demonstrates that, when irradiating Yb-doped silica fibers between ~240 and 255 nm, the ODC (II) defect is at least the primary precursor to Yb3+ emission. Consistent with previous reports in the literature, the data show the ODC (II) absorption spectrum to have a peak wavelength and breadth of ~246 nm and ~19 nm (FWHM). Experiments also reveal that, in the absence of Yb, incorporating either Al2O3 or Y2O3 into glass fibers has a negligible impact on the ODC concentration. Not only do the data reported here demonstrate the relationship between the ODC (II) number density and the Yb doping concentration, but they also suggest that the appearance of ODC defects in the fiber is associated with the introduction of Yb and the process by which the fiber is formed.

© 2012 OSA

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2010 (1)

2009 (1)

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

C. Pare, “Influence of inner cladding shape and stress-applying parts on the pump absorption of a double-clad fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 5260, 272–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

L. Skuja, “Optically active oxygen-deficiency-related centers in amorphous silicon dioxide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 16–48 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Lee, G. H. Sigel, and J. Li, “Processing-induced defects in optical waveguide materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 57–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Skuja, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, and K. Kajihara, “Defects in oxide glasses,” Phys. Stat. Sol. C 1, 15–24 (1998).

D. L. Griscom and M. Mizuguchi, “Determination of the visible range optical absorption spectrum of peroxy radicals in gamma-irradiated fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 66–77 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

S. Magne, Y. Ouerdane, M. Druetta, J. P. Goure, P. Ferdinand, and G. Monnom, “Cooperative luminescence in a ytterbium-doped silica fibre,” Opt. Commun. 111(3-4), 310–316 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Amossov and A. O. Rybaltovsky, “Oxygen deficient centers in silica glasses: a review of their properties and structure,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 75–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

H. Imai, K. Arai, J. Isoya, H. Hosono, Y. Abe, and H. Imagawa, “Generation of E’ centers and oxygen hole centers in synthetic silica glasses by γ irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(5), 3116–3123 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

W. J. Miniscalco, “Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(2), 234–250 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

H. Hosono and R. A. Weeks, “Bleaching of peroxy radical in SiO2 glass with 5 eV light,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 116(2-3), 289–292 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. Imai, K. Arai, H. Imagawa, H. Hosono, and Y. Abe, “Two types of oxygen-deficient centers in synthetic silica glass,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 38(17), 12772–12775 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Abe, Y.

H. Imai, K. Arai, J. Isoya, H. Hosono, Y. Abe, and H. Imagawa, “Generation of E’ centers and oxygen hole centers in synthetic silica glasses by γ irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(5), 3116–3123 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Imai, K. Arai, H. Imagawa, H. Hosono, and Y. Abe, “Two types of oxygen-deficient centers in synthetic silica glass,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 38(17), 12772–12775 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Åberg, D.

Amossov, A. V.

A. V. Amossov and A. O. Rybaltovsky, “Oxygen deficient centers in silica glasses: a review of their properties and structure,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 75–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Arai, K.

H. Imai, K. Arai, J. Isoya, H. Hosono, Y. Abe, and H. Imagawa, “Generation of E’ centers and oxygen hole centers in synthetic silica glasses by γ irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(5), 3116–3123 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Imai, K. Arai, H. Imagawa, H. Hosono, and Y. Abe, “Two types of oxygen-deficient centers in synthetic silica glass,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 38(17), 12772–12775 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ballato, J.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basu, C.

Bello Doua, R.

Boullet, J.

Boyland, A. J.

Cardinal, T.

Carlson, C. G.

Croteau, A.

Daw, M.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dragic, P. D.

Druetta, M.

S. Magne, Y. Ouerdane, M. Druetta, J. P. Goure, P. Ferdinand, and G. Monnom, “Cooperative luminescence in a ytterbium-doped silica fibre,” Opt. Commun. 111(3-4), 310–316 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dubinskii, M.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eden, J. G.

Engholm, M.

Ermeneux, S.

Ferdinand, P.

S. Magne, Y. Ouerdane, M. Druetta, J. P. Goure, P. Ferdinand, and G. Monnom, “Cooperative luminescence in a ytterbium-doped silica fibre,” Opt. Commun. 111(3-4), 310–316 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Foy, P.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goure, J. P.

S. Magne, Y. Ouerdane, M. Druetta, J. P. Goure, P. Ferdinand, and G. Monnom, “Cooperative luminescence in a ytterbium-doped silica fibre,” Opt. Commun. 111(3-4), 310–316 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Griscom, D. L.

D. L. Griscom and M. Mizuguchi, “Determination of the visible range optical absorption spectrum of peroxy radicals in gamma-irradiated fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 66–77 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guillen, F.

Handa, T.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, T.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, M.

L. Skuja, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, and K. Kajihara, “Defects in oxide glasses,” Phys. Stat. Sol. C 1, 15–24 (1998).

Hoffman, H. J.

Honda, T.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hosono, H.

L. Skuja, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, and K. Kajihara, “Defects in oxide glasses,” Phys. Stat. Sol. C 1, 15–24 (1998).

H. Imai, K. Arai, J. Isoya, H. Hosono, Y. Abe, and H. Imagawa, “Generation of E’ centers and oxygen hole centers in synthetic silica glasses by γ irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(5), 3116–3123 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hosono and R. A. Weeks, “Bleaching of peroxy radical in SiO2 glass with 5 eV light,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 116(2-3), 289–292 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Imai, K. Arai, H. Imagawa, H. Hosono, and Y. Abe, “Two types of oxygen-deficient centers in synthetic silica glass,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 38(17), 12772–12775 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imagawa, H.

H. Imai, K. Arai, J. Isoya, H. Hosono, Y. Abe, and H. Imagawa, “Generation of E’ centers and oxygen hole centers in synthetic silica glasses by γ irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(5), 3116–3123 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Imai, K. Arai, H. Imagawa, H. Hosono, and Y. Abe, “Two types of oxygen-deficient centers in synthetic silica glass,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 38(17), 12772–12775 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imai, H.

H. Imai, K. Arai, J. Isoya, H. Hosono, Y. Abe, and H. Imagawa, “Generation of E’ centers and oxygen hole centers in synthetic silica glasses by γ irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(5), 3116–3123 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Imai, K. Arai, H. Imagawa, H. Hosono, and Y. Abe, “Two types of oxygen-deficient centers in synthetic silica glass,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 38(17), 12772–12775 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishii, Y.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Isoya, J.

H. Imai, K. Arai, J. Isoya, H. Hosono, Y. Abe, and H. Imagawa, “Generation of E’ centers and oxygen hole centers in synthetic silica glasses by γ irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(5), 3116–3123 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jetschke, S.

Kajihara, K.

L. Skuja, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, and K. Kajihara, “Defects in oxide glasses,” Phys. Stat. Sol. C 1, 15–24 (1998).

Keister, K. E.

Kirchhof, J.

Kokuoz, B.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koponen, J. J.

Kumata, K.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. W.

J. W. Lee, G. H. Sigel, and J. Li, “Processing-induced defects in optical waveguide materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 57–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leich, M.

Li, J.

J. W. Lee, G. H. Sigel, and J. Li, “Processing-induced defects in optical waveguide materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 57–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Magne, S.

S. Magne, Y. Ouerdane, M. Druetta, J. P. Goure, P. Ferdinand, and G. Monnom, “Cooperative luminescence in a ytterbium-doped silica fibre,” Opt. Commun. 111(3-4), 310–316 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Manek-Hönninger, I.

Matthewson, M. J.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McMillen, C.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miniscalco, W. J.

W. J. Miniscalco, “Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(2), 234–250 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mizuguchi, M.

D. L. Griscom and M. Mizuguchi, “Determination of the visible range optical absorption spectrum of peroxy radicals in gamma-irradiated fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 66–77 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Monnom, G.

S. Magne, Y. Ouerdane, M. Druetta, J. P. Goure, P. Ferdinand, and G. Monnom, “Cooperative luminescence in a ytterbium-doped silica fibre,” Opt. Commun. 111(3-4), 310–316 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Namikawa, H.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

Norin, L.

Ouerdane, Y.

S. Magne, Y. Ouerdane, M. Druetta, J. P. Goure, P. Ferdinand, and G. Monnom, “Cooperative luminescence in a ytterbium-doped silica fibre,” Opt. Commun. 111(3-4), 310–316 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pare, C.

C. Pare, “Influence of inner cladding shape and stress-applying parts on the pump absorption of a double-clad fiber amplifier,” Proc. SPIE 5260, 272–277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D.

Podgorski, M.

Rybaltovsky, A. O.

A. V. Amossov and A. O. Rybaltovsky, “Oxygen deficient centers in silica glasses: a review of their properties and structure,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 75–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, J. K.

Salin, F.

Sanamyan, T.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schwuchow, A.

Sigel, G. H.

J. W. Lee, G. H. Sigel, and J. Li, “Processing-induced defects in optical waveguide materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 57–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Skuja, L.

L. Skuja, “Optically active oxygen-deficiency-related centers in amorphous silicon dioxide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 16–48 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Skuja, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, and K. Kajihara, “Defects in oxide glasses,” Phys. Stat. Sol. C 1, 15–24 (1998).

Söderlund, M. J.

Sones, C.

Stolen, R.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Su, Z.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tammela, S. K. T.

Tritt, T. M.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Unger, S.

Weeks, R. A.

H. Hosono and R. A. Weeks, “Bleaching of peroxy radical in SiO2 glass with 5 eV light,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 116(2-3), 289–292 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S.

Zhang, J.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, M. Daw, Z. Su, T. M. Tritt, M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, T. Sanamyan, and M. J. Matthewson, “On the fabrication of all-glass optical fibers from crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

W. J. Miniscalco, “Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(2), 234–250 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (5)

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