Abstract

This work reports on the first time experimental investigation of temperature field inside silicon substrates under particle-induced near-field focusing at a sub-wavelength resolution. The noncontact Raman thermometry technique employing both Raman shift and full width at half maximum (FWHM) methods is employed to investigate the temperature rise in silicon beneath silica particles. Silica particles of three diameters (400, 800 and 1210 nm), each under four laser energy fluxes of 2.5 × 108, 3.8 ×108, 6.9 ×108 and 8.6 ×108 W/m2, are used to investigate the effects of particle size and laser energy flux. The experimental results indicate that as the particle size or the laser energy flux increases, the temperature rise inside the substrate goes higher. Maximum temperature rises of 55.8 K (based on Raman FWHM method) and 29.3K (based on Raman shift method) are observed inside the silicon under particles of 1210 nm diameter with an incident laser of 8.6 × 108 W/m2. The difference is largely due to the stress inside the silicon caused by the laser heating. To explore the mechanism of heating at the sub-wavelength scale, high-fidelity simulations are conducted on the enhanced electric and temperature fields. Modeling results agree with experiment qualitatively, and discussions are provided about the reasons for their discrepancy.

© 2012 OSA

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  6. V. M. Shelekhina, O. A. Prokhorov, P. A. Vityaz, A. P. Stupak, S. V. Gaponenko, and N. V. Gaponenko, “Towards 3D photonic crystals,” Synth. Met.124(1), 137–139 (2001).
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2011

Y. N. Yue, X. W. Chen, and X. W. Wang, “Noncontact sub-10 nm temperature measurement in near-field laser heating,” ACS Nano5(6), 4466–4475 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. N. Yue, J. C. Zhang, and X. W. Wang, “Micro/nanoscale spatial resolution temperature probing for the interfacial thermal characterization of epitaxial graphene on 4H-SiC,” Small7(23), 3324–3333 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. Aminuzzaman, A. Watanabe, and T. Miyashita, “Direct writing of conductive silver micropatterns on flexible polyimide film by laser-induced pyrolysis of silver nanoparticle-dispersed film,” J. Nanopart. Res.12(3), 931–938 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett.10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jeong, L. Hu, H. R. Lee, E. Garnett, J. W. Choi, and Y. Cui, “Fast and scalable printing of large area monolayer nanoparticles for nanotexturing applications,” Nano Lett.10(8), 2989–2994 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Khachadorian, H. Scheel, A. Colli, A. Vierck, and C. Thomsen, “Temperature dependence of first- and second-order Raman scattering in silicon nanowires,” Physica Status Solidi B247(11-12), 3084–3088 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

G. Doerk, C. Carraro, and R. Maboudian, “Temperature dependence of Raman spectra for individual silicon nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B80(7), 073306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, L. Chen, H. Yang, Q. Guo, W. Zhou, and M. Tao, “Spherical antireflection coatings by large-area convective assembly of monolayer silica microspheres,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(1), 85–91 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, M. X. Tang, and Y. Cui, “Wafer-scale silicon nanopillars and nanocones by Langmuir–Blodgett assembly and etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(13), 133109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Bauer, A. M. Gigler, C. Richter, and R. W. Stark, “Visualizing stress in silicon micro cantilevers using scanning confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Microelectron. Eng.85(5-6), 1443–1446 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Xia and L. Jiang, “Bio−inspired, smart, multiscale interfacial materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(15), 2842–2858 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. McLeod and C. B. Arnold, “Subwavelength direct-write nanopatterning using optically trapped microspheres,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(7), 413–417 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. S. Park, S. O. Meade, E. Segal, and M. J. Sailor, “Porous silicon-based polymer replicas formed by bead patterning,” Physica Status Solidi A204(5), 1383–1387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, B. Peng, and B. Wang, “Raman spectra and temperature-dependent raman scattering of silicon nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(16), 5855–5858 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Abel, S. Graham, J. R. Serrano, S. P. Kearney, and L. M. Phinney, “Raman thermometry of polysilicon microelectromechanical systems in the presence of an evolving stress,” J. Heat Trans.129(3), 329–334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Beechem, S. Graham, S. P. Kearney, L. M. Phinney, and J. R. Serrano, “Invited article: simultaneous mapping of temperature and stress in microdevices using micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(6), 061301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. Huang, A. R. Tao, S. Connor, R. He, and P. Yang, “A general method for assembling single colloidal particle lines,” Nano Lett.6(3), 524–529 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Su, J. Sha, G. Pan, J. Liu, D. Yang, C. Dickinson, and W. Zhou, “Temperature-dependent Raman scattering of silicon nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(3), 1229–1234 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

L. P. Li, Y. F. Lu, D. W. Doerr, D. R. Alexander, J. Shi, and J. C. Li, “Fabrication of hemispherical cavity arrays on silicon substrates using laser-assisted nanoimprinting of self-assembled particles,” Nanotechnology15(3), 333–336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Li, Y. F. Lu, D. W. Doerr, and D. R. Alexander, “Laser-assisted nanopatterning of aluminium using particle-induced near-field optical enhancement and nanoimprinting,” Nanotechnology15(11), 1655–1660 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Li, Y. F. Lu, D. W. Doerr, D. R. Alexander, and X. Y. Chen, “Parametric investigation of laser nanoimprinting of hemispherical cavity arrays,” J. Appl. Phys.96(9), 5144–5151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Prevo and O. D. Velev, “Controlled, rapid deposition of structured coatings from micro- and nanoparticle suspensions,” Langmuir20(6), 2099–2107 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

V. Ng, Y. Lee, B. Chen, and A. Adeyeye, “Nanostructure array fabrication with temperature-controlled self-assembly techniques,” Nanotechnology13(5), 554–558 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Piglmayer, R. Denk, and D. Bäuerle, “Laser-induced surface patterning by means of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4693–4695 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Huang, M. H. Hong, B. S. Luk’yanchuk, Y. W. Zheng, W. D. Song, Y. F. Lu, and T. C. Chong, “Pulsed laser-assisted surface structuring with optical near-field enhanced effects,” J. Appl. Phys.92(5), 2495–2500 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Konstantinović, S. Bersier, X. Wang, M. Hayne, P. Lievens, R. Silverans, and V. Moshchalkov, “Raman scattering in cluster-deposited nanogranular silicon films,” Phys. Rev. B66(16), 161311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. J. Münzer, M. Mosbacher, M. Bertsch, J. Zimmermann, P. Leiderer, and J. Boneberg, “Local field enhancement effects for nanostructuring of surfaces,” J. Microsc.202(1), 129–135 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shelekhina, O. A. Prokhorov, P. A. Vityaz, A. P. Stupak, S. V. Gaponenko, and N. V. Gaponenko, “Towards 3D photonic crystals,” Synth. Met.124(1), 137–139 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

B. S. Luk'yanchuk, Y. W. Zheng, and Y. F. Lu, “Laser cleaning of solid surface: Optical resonance and near-field effects,” High-Power Laser Ablation III.4065, 576–587 (2000).

1999

D. R. Halfpenny and D. M. Kane, “A quantitative analysis of single pulse ultraviolet dry laser cleaning,” J. Appl. Phys.86(12), 6641–6646 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Dimitrov, T. Miwa, and K. Nagayama, “A comparison between the optical properties of amorphous and crystalline monolayers of silica particles,” Langmuir15(16), 5257–5264 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hulteen, D. A. Treichel, M. T. Smith, M. L. Duval, T. R. Jensen, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere lithography: Size-tunable silver nanoparticle and surface cluster arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B103(19), 3854–3863 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. X. Yang, D. H. Gracias, P. W. Jacobs, and G. A. Somorjai, “Lithographic fabrication of model systems in heterogeneous catalysis and surface science studies,” Langmuir14(6), 1458–1464 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, W. Zhang, L. J. Guo, and L. Zhuang, “Sub-10 nm imprint lithography and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B15(6), 2897–2904 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Bogomolov, S. V. Gaponenko, I. N. Germanenko, A. M. Kapitonov, E. P. Petrov, N. V. Gaponenko, A. V. Prokofiev, A. N. Ponyavina, N. I. Silvanovich, and S. M. Samoilovich, “Photonic band gap phenomenon and optical properties of artificial opals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics55(6), 7619–7625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. S. Xie, “Theory of nanometric optical tweezers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.79(4), 645–648 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. S. Dimitrov and K. Nagayama, “Continuous convective assembling of fine particles into two-dimensional arrays on solid surfaces,” Langmuir12(5), 1303–1311 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Bar, S. Rubin, R. W. Cutts, T. N. Taylor, and T. A. Zawodzinski., “Dendrimer-modified silicon oxide surfaces as platforms for the deposition of gold and silver colloid monolayers: preparation method, characterization, and correlation between microstructure and optical properties,” Langmuir12(5), 1172–1179 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Endo, M. Ono, T. Yamada, H. Kawamura, K. Kobara, and T. Kawamura, “A study of antireflective and antistatic coating with ultrafine particles,” Adv. Powder Technol.7(2), 131–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

R. Micheletto, H. Fukuda, and M. Ohtsu, “A simple method for the production of a 2-dimensional, ordered array of small latex-particles,” Langmuir11(9), 3333–3336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hulteen and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere lithography: A materials general fabrication process for periodic particle array surfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A13(3), 1553–1558 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

N. Denkov, O. Velev, P. Kralchevski, I. Ivanov, H. Yoshimura, and K. Nagayama, “Mechanism of formation of 2-dimensional crystals from latex-particles on substrates,” Langmuir8(12), 3183–3190 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

S. Hayashi, Y. Kumamoto, T. Suzuki, and T. Hirai, “Imaging by polystyrene latex-particles,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.144(2), 538–547 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Tang and I. P. Herman, “Raman microprobe scattering of solid silicon and germanium at the melting temperature,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter43(3), 2299–2304 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

H. W. Deckman, J. H. Dunsmuir, S. Garoff, J. A. Mchenry, and D. G. Peiffer, “Macromolecular self-organized assemblies,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B6(1), 333–336 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984

J. Menéndez and M. Cardona, “Temperature dependence of the first-order Raman scattering by phonons in Si, Ge, and α-Sn: Anharmonic effects,” Phys. Rev. B29(4), 2051–2059 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

M. Balkanski, R. Wallis, and E. Haro, “Anharmonic effects in light scattering due to optical phonons in silicon,” Phys. Rev. B28(4), 1928–1934 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

R. Tsu and J. G. Hernandez, “Temperature dependence of silicon Raman lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett.41(11), 1016–1018 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Deckman, “Natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.41(4), 377–379 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

U. C. Fischer and H. Zingsheim, “Submicroscopic pattern replication with visible light,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol.19(4), 881–885 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1972

R. K. Iler, “Adhesion of submicron silica particles on glass,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.38(2), 496–501 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970

T. Hart, R. Aggarwal, and B. Lax, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in silicon,” Phys. Rev. B1(2), 638–642 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1966

P. G. Klemens, “Anharmonic decay of optical phonons,” Phys. Rev.148(2), 845–848 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1964

J. V. Sanders, “Colour of precious opal,” Nature204(4964), 1151–1153 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1908

G. Mie, “Contributions to the optics of turbid media, particularly of colloidal metal solutions,” Ann. Phys. 25, 377–445 (1908).

Abel, M. R.

M. R. Abel, S. Graham, J. R. Serrano, S. P. Kearney, and L. M. Phinney, “Raman thermometry of polysilicon microelectromechanical systems in the presence of an evolving stress,” J. Heat Trans.129(3), 329–334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adeyeye, A.

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S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, W. Zhang, L. J. Guo, and L. Zhuang, “Sub-10 nm imprint lithography and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B15(6), 2897–2904 (1997).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A typical scanning electron microscope image of 2-D monolayer array of silica particles with a diameter of 800nm assembled on a silicon wafer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup for near-field heating and temperature probing (not to scale). A sample that is set on a 3-D piezo-actuated nano-stage is located under the focused laser beam from a Raman spectrometer. The sample is a monolayer of silica particles formed on a silicon substrate. The incident laser, which is used as both temperature probing and heating source, is focused on the substrate by the particles. The laser beam is polarized with the strongest intensity along the x-axis. The spot size of the incident laser is about 2 × 4 µm2 in the x-y plane on the sample. The substrate is heated by the laser in a sub-wavelength region (r ~200 nm) right beneath the particles. During the experiment, the laser beam is fixed, and the sample moves vertically in the z direction controlled by the 3-D nano-stage electrically without any touch of the sample and other equipment. The step of movement is 0.53 μm in a range of about 10 μm, covering the laser focal depth. The temperature rise inside the substrate achieves the highest value at the focal spot.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variations of (a) Raman FWHM, (b) Raman shift and (c) Raman intensity for bare silicon under laser irradiation along the z direction location around the laser focal spot. The laser is incident at room temperature with an energy flux of 8.6 × 108 W/m2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Calibration for Raman shift and FWHM of silicon against temperature. The slope of the linear fitting for Raman shift against temperature is −0.022 cm−1/K. For FWHM against temperature, it is 0.0082 cm−1/K. (b) A comparison of Raman spectra between bare silicon and silicon under silica particles. The diameter of silica particle is 1210 nm. The solid curves are the Gaussian fittings for the experimental Raman data. The difference of the two straight lines shows that the Raman peak shifts due to temperature rise in near-field heating.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The relationship between temperature rise in silicon against (a) energy flux of incident laser and (b) diameter of silica particle. The upper figures show the temperature rise assessed based on the Raman FWHM, and the lower figures are based on the Raman shift method.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Electric field distribution inside the substrates and particles of (a) 400, (b) 800 and (c) 1210 nm diameter. In figures (a), (b) and (c), the upper figures are top view of the substrates beneath the particles, and the lower figures are central cross-section view of the particles and substrates. The amplitude of electric field is equal to the enhancement factor. (d) Electric field inside silicon in the r direction (along the magnetic field direction). (e) Electric field inside silicon in the z direction. At points A, B and C, the amplitude of electric field drops to e−1. The z-axis values of A, B and C are 878, 1094 and 1013 nm, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temperature distributions inside silicon substrates under particles of (a) 400, (b) 800 and (c) 1210 nm diameter. In figures (a), (b) and (c), the upper figures are top view of the substrates beneath the particles, and the lower figures are central cross-section view of the substrates. (d) Temperature profile inside silicon in the radial direction. (e) Temperature profile inside silicon in the vertical direction. The initial temperature of the substrates is 300 K.

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