Abstract

While freely propagating photons cannot be focused below their diffraction limit, surface-plasmon polaritons follow the metallic surface to which they are bound, and can lead to extremely sub-wavelength energy volumes. These properties are lost at long mid-infrared and THz wavelengths where metals behave as quasi-perfect conductors, but can in principle be recovered by artificially tailoring the surface-plasmon dispersion. We demonstrate - in the important mid-infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum - the generation onto a semiconductor chip of plasmonic excitations which can travel along long distances, on bent paths, to be finally focused into a sub-wavelength volume. The demonstration of these advanced functionalities is supported by full near-field characterizations of the electromagnetic field distribution on the surface of the active plasmonic device.

© 2012 OSA

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  20. FDTD simulations have been performed with the commercial software package LUMERICAL.
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  24. A. Bousseksou, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, Y. De Wilde, Y. Chassagneux, C. Sirtori, G. Patriarche, G. Beaudoin, and I. Sagnes, “A semiconductor laser device for the generation of surface-plasmons upon electrical injection,” Opt. Express 17, 9391–9400 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. D. Dey, J. Kohoutek, R.M. Gelfand, A. Bonakdar, and H. Mohseni, “Composite nano-antenna integrated with quantum cascade laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1580–1582 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillen-brand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5, 283–287 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (4)

S. C. Kehr, Y. M. Liu, L. W. Martin, P. Yu, M. Gajek, S.-Y. Yang, C.-H. Yang, M. T. Wenzel, R. Jacob, H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Helm, X. Zhang, L. M. Eng, and R. Ramesh, “Near-field examination of perovskite-based superlenses and superlens-enhanced probe-object coupling,” Nat. Commun. 2, 249 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E.M. G. Brock, E. Hendry, and A. P. Hibbins, “Subwavelength lateral confinement of microwave surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Moreau, M. Bahriz, R. Colombelli, P. A. Lemoine, Y. De Wilde, L. R. Wilson, and A. B. Krysa, “Direct imaging of a laser mode via midinfrared near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 201114 (2007).

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillen-brand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5, 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (10)

D. Dey, J. Kohoutek, R.M. Gelfand, A. Bonakdar, and H. Mohseni, “Composite nano-antenna integrated with quantum cascade laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1580–1582 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Martin-Cano, M. L. Nesterov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and E. Moreno, “Domino plasmons for subwavelengthterahertz circuitry,” Opt. Express 18, 754–764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhao, O. M. Eldaiki, R. Yang, and Z. Lu, “Deep subwavelength waveguiding and focusing based on designer surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 18, 21498–21503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Krenz, R.L. Olmon, B. A. Lail, M.B. Raschke, and G. D. Boreman, “Near-field measurement of infrared coplanar strip transmission line attenuation and propagation constants,” Opt. Express 18, 21678–21686 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams,” Nat. Mater. 9, 730–735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Hartartling, J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Tetienne, A. Bousseksou, D. Costantini, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, I. Moldovan-Doyen, Y. De Wilde, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, and I. Sagnes, “Injection of midinfrared surface plasmon polaritons with an integrated device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4, 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 9, 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

V. S. Volkov, J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Plasmonic candle: towards efficient nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” New J. Phys. 11, 113043 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Bousseksou, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, Y. De Wilde, Y. Chassagneux, C. Sirtori, G. Patriarche, G. Beaudoin, and I. Sagnes, “A semiconductor laser device for the generation of surface-plasmons upon electrical injection,” Opt. Express 17, 9391–9400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

E. Moreno, S. Rodrigo, S. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin- Moreno, and F. Garcia-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. Maier, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminati, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, J.-P. Mulet, K. Joulain, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, “Thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscopy,” Nature 444, 740–743 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

N. Janunts, K. Baghdasaryan, K. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Commun. 253, 118–124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308, 670–672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia de Abajo and J. J. Saenz, “Electromagnetic surface modes in structured perfect-conductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 233901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and M. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, and L. Aigouy, “Apertureless near-field scanning optical microscope based on a quartz tuning fork,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3889–3891 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 182, 321–328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aigouy, L.

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, and L. Aigouy, “Apertureless near-field scanning optical microscope based on a quartz tuning fork,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3889–3891 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alonso-Gonzalez, P.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillen-brand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5, 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, S. R.

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. Maier, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arzubiaga, L.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillen-brand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5, 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Babuty, A.

J.-P. Tetienne, A. Bousseksou, D. Costantini, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, I. Moldovan-Doyen, Y. De Wilde, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, and I. Sagnes, “Injection of midinfrared surface plasmon polaritons with an integrated device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Bousseksou, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, Y. De Wilde, Y. Chassagneux, C. Sirtori, G. Patriarche, G. Beaudoin, and I. Sagnes, “A semiconductor laser device for the generation of surface-plasmons upon electrical injection,” Opt. Express 17, 9391–9400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baghdasaryan, K.

N. Janunts, K. Baghdasaryan, K. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Commun. 253, 118–124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bahriz, M.

V. Moreau, M. Bahriz, R. Colombelli, P. A. Lemoine, Y. De Wilde, L. R. Wilson, and A. B. Krysa, “Direct imaging of a laser mode via midinfrared near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 201114 (2007).

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaudoin, G.

J.-P. Tetienne, A. Bousseksou, D. Costantini, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, I. Moldovan-Doyen, Y. De Wilde, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, and I. Sagnes, “Injection of midinfrared surface plasmon polaritons with an integrated device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Bousseksou, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, Y. De Wilde, Y. Chassagneux, C. Sirtori, G. Patriarche, G. Beaudoin, and I. Sagnes, “A semiconductor laser device for the generation of surface-plasmons upon electrical injection,” Opt. Express 17, 9391–9400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonakdar, A.

D. Dey, J. Kohoutek, R.M. Gelfand, A. Bonakdar, and H. Mohseni, “Composite nano-antenna integrated with quantum cascade laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1580–1582 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G. D.

Bousseksou, A.

J.-P. Tetienne, A. Bousseksou, D. Costantini, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, I. Moldovan-Doyen, Y. De Wilde, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, and I. Sagnes, “Injection of midinfrared surface plasmon polaritons with an integrated device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Bousseksou, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, Y. De Wilde, Y. Chassagneux, C. Sirtori, G. Patriarche, G. Beaudoin, and I. Sagnes, “A semiconductor laser device for the generation of surface-plasmons upon electrical injection,” Opt. Express 17, 9391–9400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S.

E. Moreno, S. Rodrigo, S. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin- Moreno, and F. Garcia-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4, 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Volkov, J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Plasmonic candle: towards efficient nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” New J. Phys. 11, 113043 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brock, E.M. G.

E.M. G. Brock, E. Hendry, and A. P. Hibbins, “Subwavelength lateral confinement of microwave surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunets, I.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 9, 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams,” Nat. Mater. 9, 730–735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carminati, R.

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminati, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, J.-P. Mulet, K. Joulain, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, “Thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscopy,” Nature 444, 740–743 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casanova, F.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillen-brand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5, 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cebula, M.

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Hartartling, J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chassagneux, Y.

Chen, Y.

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminati, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, J.-P. Mulet, K. Joulain, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, “Thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscopy,” Nature 444, 740–743 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chuvilin, A.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillen-brand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5, 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Colombelli, R.

V. Moreau, M. Bahriz, R. Colombelli, P. A. Lemoine, Y. De Wilde, L. R. Wilson, and A. B. Krysa, “Direct imaging of a laser mode via midinfrared near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 201114 (2007).

J.-P. Tetienne, A. Bousseksou, D. Costantini, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, I. Moldovan-Doyen, Y. De Wilde, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, and I. Sagnes, “Injection of midinfrared surface plasmon polaritons with an integrated device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Bousseksou, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, Y. De Wilde, Y. Chassagneux, C. Sirtori, G. Patriarche, G. Beaudoin, and I. Sagnes, “A semiconductor laser device for the generation of surface-plasmons upon electrical injection,” Opt. Express 17, 9391–9400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costantini, D.

J.-P. Tetienne, A. Bousseksou, D. Costantini, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, I. Moldovan-Doyen, Y. De Wilde, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, and I. Sagnes, “Injection of midinfrared surface plasmon polaritons with an integrated device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cvitkovic, A.

Davies, A. G.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams,” Nat. Mater. 9, 730–735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Wilde, Y.

V. Moreau, M. Bahriz, R. Colombelli, P. A. Lemoine, Y. De Wilde, L. R. Wilson, and A. B. Krysa, “Direct imaging of a laser mode via midinfrared near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 201114 (2007).

J.-P. Tetienne, A. Bousseksou, D. Costantini, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, I. Moldovan-Doyen, Y. De Wilde, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, and I. Sagnes, “Injection of midinfrared surface plasmon polaritons with an integrated device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Bousseksou, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, Y. De Wilde, Y. Chassagneux, C. Sirtori, G. Patriarche, G. Beaudoin, and I. Sagnes, “A semiconductor laser device for the generation of surface-plasmons upon electrical injection,” Opt. Express 17, 9391–9400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminati, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, J.-P. Mulet, K. Joulain, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, “Thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscopy,” Nature 444, 740–743 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, and L. Aigouy, “Apertureless near-field scanning optical microscope based on a quartz tuning fork,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3889–3891 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dey, D.

D. Dey, J. Kohoutek, R.M. Gelfand, A. Bonakdar, and H. Mohseni, “Composite nano-antenna integrated with quantum cascade laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1580–1582 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eldaiki, O. M.

Eng, L. M.

S. C. Kehr, Y. M. Liu, L. W. Martin, P. Yu, M. Gajek, S.-Y. Yang, C.-H. Yang, M. T. Wenzel, R. Jacob, H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Helm, X. Zhang, L. M. Eng, and R. Ramesh, “Near-field examination of perovskite-based superlenses and superlens-enhanced probe-object coupling,” Nat. Commun. 2, 249 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Hartartling, J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Evans, B. R.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308, 670–672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, J. A.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams,” Nat. Mater. 9, 730–735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernandez-Dominguez, A. I.

D. Martin-Cano, M. L. Nesterov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and E. Moreno, “Domino plasmons for subwavelengthterahertz circuitry,” Opt. Express 18, 754–764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. Maier, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Formanek, F.

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminati, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, J.-P. Mulet, K. Joulain, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, “Thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscopy,” Nature 444, 740–743 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, and L. Aigouy, “Apertureless near-field scanning optical microscope based on a quartz tuning fork,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3889–3891 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gajek, M.

S. C. Kehr, Y. M. Liu, L. W. Martin, P. Yu, M. Gajek, S.-Y. Yang, C.-H. Yang, M. T. Wenzel, R. Jacob, H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Helm, X. Zhang, L. M. Eng, and R. Ramesh, “Near-field examination of perovskite-based superlenses and superlens-enhanced probe-object coupling,” Nat. Commun. 2, 249 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia de Abajo, F. J.

F. J. Garcia de Abajo and J. J. Saenz, “Electromagnetic surface modes in structured perfect-conductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 233901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F.

E. Moreno, S. Rodrigo, S. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin- Moreno, and F. Garcia-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

D. Martin-Cano, M. L. Nesterov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and E. Moreno, “Domino plasmons for subwavelengthterahertz circuitry,” Opt. Express 18, 754–764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Volkov, J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Plasmonic candle: towards efficient nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” New J. Phys. 11, 113043 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. Maier, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, M.

J.B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and M. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelfand, R.M.

D. Dey, J. Kohoutek, R.M. Gelfand, A. Bonakdar, and H. Mohseni, “Composite nano-antenna integrated with quantum cascade laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1580–1582 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gosciniak, J.

V. S. Volkov, J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Plasmonic candle: towards efficient nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” New J. Phys. 11, 113043 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grafstrom, S.

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Hartartling, J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gralak, B.

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminati, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, J.-P. Mulet, K. Joulain, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, “Thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscopy,” Nature 444, 740–743 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4, 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Greffet, J.-J.

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminati, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, J.-P. Mulet, K. Joulain, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, “Thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscopy,” Nature 444, 740–743 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartartling, T.

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Hartartling, J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

N. Janunts, K. Baghdasaryan, K. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Commun. 253, 118–124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Helm, M.

S. C. Kehr, Y. M. Liu, L. W. Martin, P. Yu, M. Gajek, S.-Y. Yang, C.-H. Yang, M. T. Wenzel, R. Jacob, H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Helm, X. Zhang, L. M. Eng, and R. Ramesh, “Near-field examination of perovskite-based superlenses and superlens-enhanced probe-object coupling,” Nat. Commun. 2, 249 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Hartartling, J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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E.M. G. Brock, E. Hendry, and A. P. Hibbins, “Subwavelength lateral confinement of microwave surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051108 (2011).
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Hibbins, A. P.

E.M. G. Brock, E. Hendry, and A. P. Hibbins, “Subwavelength lateral confinement of microwave surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051108 (2011).
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A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308, 670–672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillenbrand, R.

Hillen-brand, R.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillen-brand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5, 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hueso, L. E.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillen-brand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5, 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, R.

S. C. Kehr, Y. M. Liu, L. W. Martin, P. Yu, M. Gajek, S.-Y. Yang, C.-H. Yang, M. T. Wenzel, R. Jacob, H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Helm, X. Zhang, L. M. Eng, and R. Ramesh, “Near-field examination of perovskite-based superlenses and superlens-enhanced probe-object coupling,” Nat. Commun. 2, 249 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janunts, N.

N. Janunts, K. Baghdasaryan, K. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Commun. 253, 118–124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Joulain, K.

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminati, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, J.-P. Mulet, K. Joulain, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, “Thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscopy,” Nature 444, 740–743 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jun, Y. C.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kats, M. A.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams,” Nat. Mater. 9, 730–735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kehr, S. C.

S. C. Kehr, Y. M. Liu, L. W. Martin, P. Yu, M. Gajek, S.-Y. Yang, C.-H. Yang, M. T. Wenzel, R. Jacob, H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Helm, X. Zhang, L. M. Eng, and R. Ramesh, “Near-field examination of perovskite-based superlenses and superlens-enhanced probe-object coupling,” Nat. Commun. 2, 249 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Hartartling, J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 182, 321–328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams,” Nat. Mater. 9, 730–735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knoll, B.

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 182, 321–328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kohoutek, J.

D. Dey, J. Kohoutek, R.M. Gelfand, A. Bonakdar, and H. Mohseni, “Composite nano-antenna integrated with quantum cascade laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1580–1582 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krenz, P. M.

Krysa, A. B.

V. Moreau, M. Bahriz, R. Colombelli, P. A. Lemoine, Y. De Wilde, L. R. Wilson, and A. B. Krysa, “Direct imaging of a laser mode via midinfrared near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 201114 (2007).

Lail, B. A.

Largeau, L.

J.-P. Tetienne, A. Bousseksou, D. Costantini, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, I. Moldovan-Doyen, Y. De Wilde, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, and I. Sagnes, “Injection of midinfrared surface plasmon polaritons with an integrated device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lemoine, P. A.

V. Moreau, M. Bahriz, R. Colombelli, P. A. Lemoine, Y. De Wilde, L. R. Wilson, and A. B. Krysa, “Direct imaging of a laser mode via midinfrared near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 201114 (2007).

Lemoine, P.-A.

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminati, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, J.-P. Mulet, K. Joulain, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, “Thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscopy,” Nature 444, 740–743 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams,” Nat. Mater. 9, 730–735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linfield, E. H.

N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams,” Nat. Mater. 9, 730–735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. M.

S. C. Kehr, Y. M. Liu, L. W. Martin, P. Yu, M. Gajek, S.-Y. Yang, C.-H. Yang, M. T. Wenzel, R. Jacob, H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Helm, X. Zhang, L. M. Eng, and R. Ramesh, “Near-field examination of perovskite-based superlenses and superlens-enhanced probe-object coupling,” Nat. Commun. 2, 249 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Z.

Maier, S.

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. Maier, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martin, L. W.

S. C. Kehr, Y. M. Liu, L. W. Martin, P. Yu, M. Gajek, S.-Y. Yang, C.-H. Yang, M. T. Wenzel, R. Jacob, H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Helm, X. Zhang, L. M. Eng, and R. Ramesh, “Near-field examination of perovskite-based superlenses and superlens-enhanced probe-object coupling,” Nat. Commun. 2, 249 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin- Moreno, L.

E. Moreno, S. Rodrigo, S. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin- Moreno, and F. Garcia-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin-Cano, D.

Martin-Moreno, L.

D. Martin-Cano, M. L. Nesterov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and E. Moreno, “Domino plasmons for subwavelengthterahertz circuitry,” Opt. Express 18, 754–764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Volkov, J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Plasmonic candle: towards efficient nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” New J. Phys. 11, 113043 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. Maier, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and M. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mauguin, O.

J.-P. Tetienne, A. Bousseksou, D. Costantini, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, I. Moldovan-Doyen, Y. De Wilde, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, and I. Sagnes, “Injection of midinfrared surface plasmon polaritons with an integrated device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mieth, O.

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Hartartling, J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mohseni, H.

D. Dey, J. Kohoutek, R.M. Gelfand, A. Bonakdar, and H. Mohseni, “Composite nano-antenna integrated with quantum cascade laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1580–1582 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moldovan-Doyen, I.

J.-P. Tetienne, A. Bousseksou, D. Costantini, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, I. Moldovan-Doyen, Y. De Wilde, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, and I. Sagnes, “Injection of midinfrared surface plasmon polaritons with an integrated device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moreau, V.

V. Moreau, M. Bahriz, R. Colombelli, P. A. Lemoine, Y. De Wilde, L. R. Wilson, and A. B. Krysa, “Direct imaging of a laser mode via midinfrared near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 201114 (2007).

Moreno, E.

D. Martin-Cano, M. L. Nesterov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and E. Moreno, “Domino plasmons for subwavelengthterahertz circuitry,” Opt. Express 18, 754–764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, S. Rodrigo, S. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin- Moreno, and F. Garcia-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mulet, J.-P.

Y. De Wilde, F. Formanek, R. Carminati, B. Gralak, P.-A. Lemoine, J.-P. Mulet, K. Joulain, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, “Thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscopy,” Nature 444, 740–743 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nerkararyan, K.

N. Janunts, K. Baghdasaryan, K. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Commun. 253, 118–124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nesterov, M. L.

Ocelic, N.

Olmon, R.L.

Patriarche, G.

Pendry, J.B.

J.B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and M. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 9, 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ramesh, R.

S. C. Kehr, Y. M. Liu, L. W. Martin, P. Yu, M. Gajek, S.-Y. Yang, C.-H. Yang, M. T. Wenzel, R. Jacob, H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Helm, X. Zhang, L. M. Eng, and R. Ramesh, “Near-field examination of perovskite-based superlenses and superlens-enhanced probe-object coupling,” Nat. Commun. 2, 249 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raschke, M.B.

Rodrigo, S.

E. Moreno, S. Rodrigo, S. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin- Moreno, and F. Garcia-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodrigo, S. G.

V. S. Volkov, J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Plasmonic candle: towards efficient nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” New J. Phys. 11, 113043 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Saenz, J. J.

F. J. Garcia de Abajo and J. J. Saenz, “Electromagnetic surface modes in structured perfect-conductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 233901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

J.-P. Tetienne, A. Bousseksou, D. Costantini, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, I. Moldovan-Doyen, Y. De Wilde, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, and I. Sagnes, “Injection of midinfrared surface plasmon polaritons with an integrated device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Bousseksou, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, Y. De Wilde, Y. Chassagneux, C. Sirtori, G. Patriarche, G. Beaudoin, and I. Sagnes, “A semiconductor laser device for the generation of surface-plasmons upon electrical injection,” Opt. Express 17, 9391–9400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sambles, J. R.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308, 670–672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitz, J.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 9, 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schnell, M.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillen-brand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared energy with tapered transmission lines,” Nat. Photonics 5, 283–287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidel, J.

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Hartartling, J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

J.-P. Tetienne, A. Bousseksou, D. Costantini, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, I. Moldovan-Doyen, Y. De Wilde, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, and I. Sagnes, “Injection of midinfrared surface plasmon polaritons with an integrated device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Bousseksou, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, Y. De Wilde, Y. Chassagneux, C. Sirtori, G. Patriarche, G. Beaudoin, and I. Sagnes, “A semiconductor laser device for the generation of surface-plasmons upon electrical injection,” Opt. Express 17, 9391–9400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stehr, D.

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Hartartling, J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tetienne, J.-P.

J.-P. Tetienne, A. Bousseksou, D. Costantini, R. Colombelli, A. Babuty, I. Moldovan-Doyen, Y. De Wilde, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, and I. Sagnes, “Injection of midinfrared surface plasmon polaritons with an integrated device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van Loon, R. V. A.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 9, 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

V. S. Volkov, J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Plasmonic candle: towards efficient nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” New J. Phys. 11, 113043 (2009).
[CrossRef]

von Ribbeck, H.-G.

S. C. Kehr, Y. M. Liu, L. W. Martin, P. Yu, M. Gajek, S.-Y. Yang, C.-H. Yang, M. T. Wenzel, R. Jacob, H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Helm, X. Zhang, L. M. Eng, and R. Ramesh, “Near-field examination of perovskite-based superlenses and superlens-enhanced probe-object coupling,” Nat. Commun. 2, 249 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walters, R. J.

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[CrossRef]

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N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams,” Nat. Mater. 9, 730–735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenzel, M. T.

S. C. Kehr, Y. M. Liu, L. W. Martin, P. Yu, M. Gajek, S.-Y. Yang, C.-H. Yang, M. T. Wenzel, R. Jacob, H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Helm, X. Zhang, L. M. Eng, and R. Ramesh, “Near-field examination of perovskite-based superlenses and superlens-enhanced probe-object coupling,” Nat. Commun. 2, 249 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, C. R.

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. Maier, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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V. Moreau, M. Bahriz, R. Colombelli, P. A. Lemoine, Y. De Wilde, L. R. Wilson, and A. B. Krysa, “Direct imaging of a laser mode via midinfrared near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 201114 (2007).

Winnerl, S.

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Hartartling, J. Seidel, S. Grafstrom, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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S. C. Kehr, Y. M. Liu, L. W. Martin, P. Yu, M. Gajek, S.-Y. Yang, C.-H. Yang, M. T. Wenzel, R. Jacob, H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Helm, X. Zhang, L. M. Eng, and R. Ramesh, “Near-field examination of perovskite-based superlenses and superlens-enhanced probe-object coupling,” Nat. Commun. 2, 249 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Yang, S.-Y.

S. C. Kehr, Y. M. Liu, L. W. Martin, P. Yu, M. Gajek, S.-Y. Yang, C.-H. Yang, M. T. Wenzel, R. Jacob, H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Helm, X. Zhang, L. M. Eng, and R. Ramesh, “Near-field examination of perovskite-based superlenses and superlens-enhanced probe-object coupling,” Nat. Commun. 2, 249 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams,” Nat. Mater. 9, 730–735 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, P.

S. C. Kehr, Y. M. Liu, L. W. Martin, P. Yu, M. Gajek, S.-Y. Yang, C.-H. Yang, M. T. Wenzel, R. Jacob, H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Helm, X. Zhang, L. M. Eng, and R. Ramesh, “Near-field examination of perovskite-based superlenses and superlens-enhanced probe-object coupling,” Nat. Commun. 2, 249 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

S. C. Kehr, Y. M. Liu, L. W. Martin, P. Yu, M. Gajek, S.-Y. Yang, C.-H. Yang, M. T. Wenzel, R. Jacob, H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Helm, X. Zhang, L. M. Eng, and R. Ramesh, “Near-field examination of perovskite-based superlenses and superlens-enhanced probe-object coupling,” Nat. Commun. 2, 249 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, W.

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E.M. G. Brock, E. Hendry, and A. P. Hibbins, “Subwavelength lateral confinement of microwave surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051108 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. Yu, Q. J. Wang, M. A. Kats, J. A. Fan, S. P. Khanna, L. Li, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and F. Capasso, “Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams,” Nat. Mater. 9, 730–735 (2010).
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[CrossRef]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. Maier, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 175–179 (2008).
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Other (2)

FDTD simulations have been performed with the commercial software package LUMERICAL.

H. C. Liu and F. Capasso, Eds. Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells: Physics and Device Applications (Academic Press, 1999).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Dispersion relation of designer’s SPPs for a fixed grating period a =2 μm, d =1 μm and various grating depth h. Bottom inset: schematics of the metal grating and definition of the geometric parameters. Top inset: Effect of the dispersion relation on the confinement: larger wavevectors yield increased field confinements. (b) Schematics of the device and operating principle. (c,d) Scanning electronic microscope image of the sub-wavelength metal grating (c, cross section) and of the focusing end of the device (d). (e) Voltage-current (solid blue line) and light-current (dashed red line) characteristics at room-temperature of a 1400-μm-long and 22-μm-wide device. Inset: Typical emission spectrum at RT. The measurements are performed in pulsed mode (50 ns pulses, 84 kHz repetition rate), using a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer equipped with a liquid-nitrogen-cooled HgCdTe detector. The laser threshold current density is 1.8 kA/cm2

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a,b) Near-field optical signal demodulated at the second harmonic frequency of the tip, S2f_tip, and AFM topography of the focusing grating device. The s-NSOM is operated with a tungsten tip oscillating at a frequency ftip with amplitude 100 nm. (c) 1D cross-section of the near-field signal performed at the funnel end along the y axis, as highlighted by the white dotted arrows in the inset of Fig. 2(d). (d) 1D cross section of the near-field signal performed along the x-axis following approximately the dashed white line in Fig. 1(a). The signal at the funnel-end (right side of the figure) is on average 5 times more intense than on the funnel beginning. Inset: Close-up of the s-NSOM image around the funnel-end of the focusing grating. (e) Finite element 3D calculation of the focusing grating device. The image in the inset shows the electric field intensity (|Enorm|2) recorded at a distance of 0.1 μm above the sub-wavelength grating. The main figure shows a 1D cross section for comparison with the data in panel d, showing a good qualitative agreement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a,b) Near-field optical signal demodulated with a lock-in amplifier at the laser modulation frequency, Sf_laser. The scattered near-field signal is measured as a function of the x–z tip position, while the y position is fixed. z0 is the absolute z coordinate (measured at each x position) corresponding to the situation where the tip is in contact with the sample surface. Hence, |z– z0| is the distance between the tip and the sample surface. The color map intensity is in μV (micro-Volts) and it corresponds to the lock-in amplifier signal. Panel (a) reports the measurements on the sub-wavelength grating. The solid black line is the simultaneously acquired grating profile obtained by measuring z0 as a function of x. Panel (b) reports the measurements on a metallic unpatterned section of a reference device. The measurements are performed with the same tip and at identical laser injection currents. (c) Finite-elements numerical simulations of the electric field intensity |Enorm|2 on the sub-wavelength grating. The geometric and wavelength parameters are in agreement with the measured device shown in Fig. 3(a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Miscroscope (left), topographic (center) and NSOM (right) images of a typical curvilinear device.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross-section of the field-distribution (squared norm of the electric field) for 5 transverse modes sustained by the plasmonic waveguide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(A) NSOM image of a stright plasmonic waveguide with only one transverse mode propagating. (B) 1D cross section of the NSOM signal, and exponential fit of the decay length

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