Abstract

We describe a Ti:sapphire laser pumped directly with a pair of 1.2W 445nm laser diodes. With over 30mW average power at 800 nm and a measured pulsewidth of 15fs, Kerr-lens-modelocked pulses are available with dramatically decreased pump cost. We propose a simple model to explain the observed highly stable Kerr-lens modelocking in spite of the fact that both the mode-locked and continuous-wave modes are smaller than the pump mode in the crystal.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. P. F. Moulton, “Spectroscopic and laser characteristics of Ti:Al2O3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 125–133 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, “60-fsec pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 42–44 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. Resan, E. Coadou, S. Petersen, and A. Thomas, “Ultrashort pulse Ti:sapphire oscillators pumped by optically pumped semiconductor (OPS) pump lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6871, 687116–687118 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Müller, O. Jensen, A. Unterhuber, T. Le, A. Stingl, K. Hasler, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, P. Andersen, and P. Petersen, “Frequency-doubled DBR-tapered diode laser for direct pumping of Ti:sapphire lasers generating sub-20 fs pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 12156–12163 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. K. Samanta, S. Chaitanya Kumar, K. Devi, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “High-power, continuous-wave Ti:sapphire laser pumped by fiber-laser green source at 532nm,” Opt. Laser Eng. 50, 215–219 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Dymott and A. Ferguson, “Self-mode-locked diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1988–1990 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Wagenblast, R. Ell, U. Morgner, F. Grawert, and F. Kärtner, “Diode-pumped 10-fs Cr3+:LiCAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1713–1715 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. U. Demirbas, M. Schmalz, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, G. Petrich, L. Kolodziejski, J. Fujimoto, F. Kärtner, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Femtosecond Cr:LiSAF and Cr:LiCAF lasers pumped by tapered diode lasers,” Opt. Express 19, 20444–20461 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Honninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, and G. Mourou, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Naumov, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, “Directly diode-pumped Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr4+:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1276–1278 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. Paschke, B. Sumpf, and F. Dittmar, “Nearly diffraction limited 980-nm tapered diode lasers with an output power of 7.7 W,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 1223–1227(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S.-i. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Matsushita, and T. Mukai, “Blue InGaN-based laser diodes with an emission wavelength of 450 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 22–24 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Roth, A. Maclean, D. Burns, and A. Kemp, “Directly diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3334–3336 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. Roth, A. Maclean, D. Burns, and A. Kemp, “Direct diode-laser pumping of a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 304–306 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. T. Asaki, C.-P. Huang, D. Garvey, J. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Generation of 11-fs pulses from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 977–979 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. Read, F. Blonigen, N. Riccelli, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Low-threshold operation of an ultrashort-pulse mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 489–491 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Kowalevicz, T. Schibli, F. Kärtner, and J. Fujimoto, “Ultralow-threshold Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:Al2O3 laser,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2037–2039 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Piché and F. Salin, “Self-mode locking of solid-state lasers without apertures,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1041–1043 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. Namiki, E. Ippen, H. Haus, and C. Yu, “Energy rate equations for mode-locked lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2099–2111 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Moulton, “An investigation of the Co:MgF2 laser system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1582–1595 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  21. O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers (Springer Verlag, 2009).
  22. A. Alfrey, “Modeling of longitudinally pumped CW Ti:Sapphire laser oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 760–766 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

G. K. Samanta, S. Chaitanya Kumar, K. Devi, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “High-power, continuous-wave Ti:sapphire laser pumped by fiber-laser green source at 532nm,” Opt. Laser Eng. 50, 215–219 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

B. Resan, E. Coadou, S. Petersen, and A. Thomas, “Ultrashort pulse Ti:sapphire oscillators pumped by optically pumped semiconductor (OPS) pump lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6871, 687116–687118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

K. Paschke, B. Sumpf, and F. Dittmar, “Nearly diffraction limited 980-nm tapered diode lasers with an output power of 7.7 W,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 1223–1227(2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S.-i. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Matsushita, and T. Mukai, “Blue InGaN-based laser diodes with an emission wavelength of 450 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 22–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. Honninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, and G. Mourou, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

A. Alfrey, “Modeling of longitudinally pumped CW Ti:Sapphire laser oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 760–766 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

P. Moulton, “An investigation of the Co:MgF2 laser system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1582–1595 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Alfrey, A.

A. Alfrey, “Modeling of longitudinally pumped CW Ti:Sapphire laser oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 760–766 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, P.

Asaki, M. T.

Biswal, S.

C. Honninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, and G. Mourou, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blonigen, F.

Braun, A.

C. Honninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, and G. Mourou, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burns, D.

Chaitanya Kumar, S.

G. K. Samanta, S. Chaitanya Kumar, K. Devi, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “High-power, continuous-wave Ti:sapphire laser pumped by fiber-laser green source at 532nm,” Opt. Laser Eng. 50, 215–219 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Coadou, E.

B. Resan, E. Coadou, S. Petersen, and A. Thomas, “Ultrashort pulse Ti:sapphire oscillators pumped by optically pumped semiconductor (OPS) pump lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6871, 687116–687118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Demirbas, U.

Devi, K.

G. K. Samanta, S. Chaitanya Kumar, K. Devi, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “High-power, continuous-wave Ti:sapphire laser pumped by fiber-laser green source at 532nm,” Opt. Laser Eng. 50, 215–219 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dittmar, F.

K. Paschke, B. Sumpf, and F. Dittmar, “Nearly diffraction limited 980-nm tapered diode lasers with an output power of 7.7 W,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 1223–1227(2005).
[CrossRef]

Dymott, M.

Ebrahim-Zadeh, M.

G. K. Samanta, S. Chaitanya Kumar, K. Devi, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “High-power, continuous-wave Ti:sapphire laser pumped by fiber-laser green source at 532nm,” Opt. Laser Eng. 50, 215–219 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ell, R.

Erbert, G.

Ferguson, A.

Fujimoto, J.

Garvey, D.

Graf, M.

C. Honninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, and G. Mourou, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grawert, F.

Hasler, K.

Haus, H.

Honninger, C.

C. Honninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, and G. Mourou, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-P.

Ippen, E.

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S.-i. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Matsushita, and T. Mukai, “Blue InGaN-based laser diodes with an emission wavelength of 450 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 22–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, O.

Kapteyn, H.

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kärtner, F.

Kean, P. N.

Kemp, A.

Kolodziejski, L.

Kowalevicz, A.

Le, T.

Leitenstorfer, A.

Maclean, A.

Matsushita, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S.-i. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Matsushita, and T. Mukai, “Blue InGaN-based laser diodes with an emission wavelength of 450 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 22–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

Morier-Genoud, F.

C. Honninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, and G. Mourou, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moser, M.

C. Honninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, and G. Mourou, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moulton, P.

P. Moulton, “An investigation of the Co:MgF2 laser system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1582–1595 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Moulton, P. F.

Mourou, G.

C. Honninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, and G. Mourou, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S.-i. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Matsushita, and T. Mukai, “Blue InGaN-based laser diodes with an emission wavelength of 450 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 22–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Müller, A.

Murnane, M.

Murnane, M. M.

Nagahama, S.-i.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S.-i. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Matsushita, and T. Mukai, “Blue InGaN-based laser diodes with an emission wavelength of 450 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 22–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S.-i. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Matsushita, and T. Mukai, “Blue InGaN-based laser diodes with an emission wavelength of 450 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 22–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Namiki, S.

Naumov, S.

Nees, J.

C. Honninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, and G. Mourou, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paschke, K.

K. Paschke, B. Sumpf, and F. Dittmar, “Nearly diffraction limited 980-nm tapered diode lasers with an output power of 7.7 W,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 1223–1227(2005).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

C. Honninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, and G. Mourou, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, P.

Petersen, S.

B. Resan, E. Coadou, S. Petersen, and A. Thomas, “Ultrashort pulse Ti:sapphire oscillators pumped by optically pumped semiconductor (OPS) pump lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6871, 687116–687118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petrich, G.

Piché, M.

Read, K.

Resan, B.

B. Resan, E. Coadou, S. Petersen, and A. Thomas, “Ultrashort pulse Ti:sapphire oscillators pumped by optically pumped semiconductor (OPS) pump lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6871, 687116–687118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Riccelli, N.

Roth, P.

Salin, F.

Samanta, G. K.

G. K. Samanta, S. Chaitanya Kumar, K. Devi, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “High-power, continuous-wave Ti:sapphire laser pumped by fiber-laser green source at 532nm,” Opt. Laser Eng. 50, 215–219 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schibli, T.

Schmalz, M.

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S.-i. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Matsushita, and T. Mukai, “Blue InGaN-based laser diodes with an emission wavelength of 450 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 22–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

Sorokin, E.

Sorokina, I. T.

Spence, D. E.

Stingl, A.

Sumpf, B.

Svelto, O.

O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers (Springer Verlag, 2009).

Thomas, A.

B. Resan, E. Coadou, S. Petersen, and A. Thomas, “Ultrashort pulse Ti:sapphire oscillators pumped by optically pumped semiconductor (OPS) pump lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6871, 687116–687118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Unterhuber, A.

Wagenblast, P.

Yu, C.

Zhang, G.

C. Honninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, and G. Mourou, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. Honninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, and G. Mourou, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S.-i. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Matsushita, and T. Mukai, “Blue InGaN-based laser diodes with an emission wavelength of 450 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 22–24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

P. Moulton, “An investigation of the Co:MgF2 laser system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1582–1595 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Alfrey, “Modeling of longitudinally pumped CW Ti:Sapphire laser oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 760–766 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Paschke, B. Sumpf, and F. Dittmar, “Nearly diffraction limited 980-nm tapered diode lasers with an output power of 7.7 W,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 1223–1227(2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Laser Eng. (1)

G. K. Samanta, S. Chaitanya Kumar, K. Devi, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “High-power, continuous-wave Ti:sapphire laser pumped by fiber-laser green source at 532nm,” Opt. Laser Eng. 50, 215–219 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (10)

M. Dymott and A. Ferguson, “Self-mode-locked diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1988–1990 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wagenblast, R. Ell, U. Morgner, F. Grawert, and F. Kärtner, “Diode-pumped 10-fs Cr3+:LiCAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1713–1715 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, “60-fsec pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 42–44 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Naumov, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, “Directly diode-pumped Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr4+:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1276–1278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Roth, A. Maclean, D. Burns, and A. Kemp, “Directly diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3334–3336 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Roth, A. Maclean, D. Burns, and A. Kemp, “Direct diode-laser pumping of a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 304–306 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Asaki, C.-P. Huang, D. Garvey, J. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Generation of 11-fs pulses from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 977–979 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Read, F. Blonigen, N. Riccelli, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Low-threshold operation of an ultrashort-pulse mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 489–491 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kowalevicz, T. Schibli, F. Kärtner, and J. Fujimoto, “Ultralow-threshold Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:Al2O3 laser,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2037–2039 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Piché and F. Salin, “Self-mode locking of solid-state lasers without apertures,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1041–1043 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. Resan, E. Coadou, S. Petersen, and A. Thomas, “Ultrashort pulse Ti:sapphire oscillators pumped by optically pumped semiconductor (OPS) pump lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6871, 687116–687118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers (Springer Verlag, 2009).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Layout for diode-pumping Ti:sapphire laser with two beams. (b) Photograph of laser in operation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Frog trace. (b) Deconvolved temporal intensity and phase (black, blue). c. De-convolved spectral intensity and phase (black, blue). Separately measured spectrum (red).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Output beam profile. (b) X and Y beam width through focus. (c) Output power vs time from start up comparing DDPTS (blue) with Ti:sapphire laser pumped with a diode-pumped Nd:vanadate laser (green).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Variation of the infrared beam and vertical pump mode beam sizes (FWHM) with axial distance within the crystal. Red: CW mode, Purple: mode-locked mode, Blue: vertical (y) pump mode; Dashed: x cross-section, Solid: y cross-section. Due to chromatic aberration in the imaging optics, the exact axial alignment of the blue and IR waists is uncertain. (b) Image of the two crossed pump beams with transverse scale corresponding to size in the crystal. FWHM in the x-direction is approximately 80μm, in the y-direction 24μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Output power vs input power normalized to the minimum threshold power (Pmth) where the laser mode size is negligibly small. Lines correspond to different values of δ = w 0 2 / w p 2 Black: δ = 0.4, Blue: δ = 1, Red: δ = 4 (b) Output power as a function of δ for several values of the pump rate.

Equations (1)

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P mth = γ η p h ν p τ π w p 2 2 σ e

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