Abstract

Employing a method of in-situ control we propose an approach for the optimization of self-arranged nanogratings in bulk fused silica under the action of ultrashort laser pulses with programmable time envelopes. A parametric study of the influence of the pulse duration and temporal form asymmetries is given. Using the diffraction properties of the laser-triggered subwavelength patterns we monitor and regulate the period and the quality of the periodic nanoscale arrangement via the effective nonlinear excitation dose. Periodicity tuning on tens of nanometers can be achieved by pulse temporal variations, with a minimum around 0.7 ps at the chosen powers. Equally, strong sensitivity to pulse asymmetries is observed. The driving factor is related to increasing carrier densities due to nonlinear confinement and the development of extended nanoroughness domains upon multiple exposure, creating a pulse-dependent effective accumulation dose via a morpho-dimensional effect. The result may impact the associated optical functions.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. P. G. Kazansky and Y. Shimotsuma, “Self-assembled sub-wavelength structures and form birefrigence created by femtosecond laser writing in glass: properties and applications,” J. Ceram. Soc. Japan 116, 1052–1062 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser and Photon. Rev. 2, 26–46 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Cheng, K. Mishchik, C. Mauclair, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Ultrafast laser photoinscription of polarization sensitive devices in bulk silica glass,” Opt. Express 17, 9515–9525 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, “Nanosize structural modifications with polarization functions in ultrafast laser irradiated bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express 18, 24809–24824 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 100, 1–6 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012

2011

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, “Nanosize structural modifications with polarization functions in ultrafast laser irradiated bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express 18, 24809–24824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 100, 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Gerke and R. Piestun, “Aperiodic volume optics,” Nat. Photon. 4, 188–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

P. G. Kazansky and Y. Shimotsuma, “Self-assembled sub-wavelength structures and form birefrigence created by femtosecond laser writing in glass: properties and applications,” J. Ceram. Soc. Japan 116, 1052–1062 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser and Photon. Rev. 2, 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

L. Englert, B. Rethfeld, L. Haag, M. Wollenhaupt, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, “Control of ionization processes in high band gap materials via tailored femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 15, 17855–17862 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, “Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043506/1–7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104/1–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. 19, 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929–1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150, 101–106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

C. W. Siders, N. C. Turner, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. M. Sergeev, “Blue-shifted third-harmonic generation and correlated self-guiding during ultrafast barrier suppression ionization of subatmospheric density noble gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 330–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1983

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ashkenasi, D.

D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150, 101–106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Audouard, E.

G. Cheng, K. Mishchik, C. Mauclair, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Ultrafast laser photoinscription of polarization sensitive devices in bulk silica glass,” Opt. Express 17, 9515–9525 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, “Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043506/1–7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Babine, A.

C. W. Siders, N. C. Turner, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. M. Sergeev, “Blue-shifted third-harmonic generation and correlated self-guiding during ultrafast barrier suppression ionization of subatmospheric density noble gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 330–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baumert, T.

Beresna, M.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104/1–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980).

Boukenter, A.

Bulgakova, N. M.

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, “Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043506/1–7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burakov, I. M.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, “Nanosize structural modifications with polarization functions in ultrafast laser irradiated bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express 18, 24809–24824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, “Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043506/1–7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, G.

Chin, S. L.

Corkum, P. B.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104/1–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

C. W. Siders, N. C. Turner, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. M. Sergeev, “Blue-shifted third-harmonic generation and correlated self-guiding during ultrafast barrier suppression ionization of subatmospheric density noble gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 330–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dreisow, F.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 100, 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Englert, L.

Gerke, T. D.

T. D. Gerke and R. Piestun, “Aperiodic volume optics,” Nat. Photon. 4, 188–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haag, L.

Heinrich, M.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 100, 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hertel, I. V.

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, “Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043506/1–7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. 19, 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hnatovsky, C.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser and Photon. Rev. 2, 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104/1–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huo, G.

Husakou, A.

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, “Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043506/1–7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky and Y. Shimotsuma, “Self-assembled sub-wavelength structures and form birefrigence created by femtosecond laser writing in glass: properties and applications,” J. Ceram. Soc. Japan 116, 1052–1062 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. 19, 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keil, R.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 100, 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Korovin, A. V.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 100, 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, F.

Lorenz, M.

D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150, 101–106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mauclair, C.

Mermillod-Blondin, A.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, “Nanosize structural modifications with polarization functions in ultrafast laser irradiated bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express 18, 24809–24824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, “Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043506/1–7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mishchik, K.

Miura, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 100, 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ouerdane, Y.

Parriaux, O.

Peschel, U.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 100, 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Piestun, R.

T. D. Gerke and R. Piestun, “Aperiodic volume optics,” Nat. Photon. 4, 188–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Preston, J. S.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. 19, 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rajeev, P. P.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104/1–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramirez, L. P. R.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 100, 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104/1–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rethfeld, B.

Richter, S.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 100, 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, “Nanosize structural modifications with polarization functions in ultrafast laser irradiated bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express 18, 24809–24824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, “Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043506/1–7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150, 101–106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sakakura, M.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sarpe-Tudoran, C.

Sergeev, A. M.

C. W. Siders, N. C. Turner, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. M. Sergeev, “Blue-shifted third-harmonic generation and correlated self-guiding during ultrafast barrier suppression ionization of subatmospheric density noble gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 330–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky and Y. Shimotsuma, “Self-assembled sub-wavelength structures and form birefrigence created by femtosecond laser writing in glass: properties and applications,” J. Ceram. Soc. Japan 116, 1052–1062 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. 19, 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Siders, C. W.

C. W. Siders, N. C. Turner, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. M. Sergeev, “Blue-shifted third-harmonic generation and correlated self-guiding during ultrafast barrier suppression ionization of subatmospheric density noble gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 330–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser and Photon. Rev. 2, 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104/1–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A.

C. W. Siders, N. C. Turner, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. M. Sergeev, “Blue-shifted third-harmonic generation and correlated self-guiding during ultrafast barrier suppression ionization of subatmospheric density noble gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 330–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stoian, R.

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, “Nanosize structural modifications with polarization functions in ultrafast laser irradiated bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express 18, 24809–24824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cheng, K. Mishchik, C. Mauclair, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Ultrafast laser photoinscription of polarization sensitive devices in bulk silica glass,” Opt. Express 17, 9515–9525 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, “Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043506/1–7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150, 101–106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser and Photon. Rev. 2, 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. S.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104/1–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 100, 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Turner, N. C.

C. W. Siders, N. C. Turner, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. M. Sergeev, “Blue-shifted third-harmonic generation and correlated self-guiding during ultrafast barrier suppression ionization of subatmospheric density noble gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 330–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, R.

van Driel, H. M.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929–1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980).

Wollenhaupt, M.

Young, J. F.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. 22, 4039–4043 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 100, 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104/1–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150, 101–106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, “Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043506/1–7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Ceram. Soc. Japan

P. G. Kazansky and Y. Shimotsuma, “Self-assembled sub-wavelength structures and form birefrigence created by femtosecond laser writing in glass: properties and applications,” J. Ceram. Soc. Japan 116, 1052–1062 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

C. W. Siders, N. C. Turner, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. M. Sergeev, “Blue-shifted third-harmonic generation and correlated self-guiding during ultrafast barrier suppression ionization of subatmospheric density noble gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 330–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Laser and Photon. Rev.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser and Photon. Rev. 2, 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mod. Phys. Lett.

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. 19, 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon.

T. D. Gerke and R. Piestun, “Aperiodic volume optics,” Nat. Photon. 4, 188–193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929–1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical manifestation of type II traces in fused silica and the underlying nanogratings. (a) PCM trace of type II modifications. (b) Cross-section of the traces showing the nanoscale arrangement (electron microscopy). (c,d) Bulk nanograting patterns induced by radial and azimuthal polarization respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic design of the experimental setup with the IR irradiation and the UV diffraction probing parts. α is the angle of incidence on the gratings with respect to the IR axis, β the diffraction angle (in the material). The inset indicates the typical UV Bragg reflectivity (diffraction efficiency) of the ordered layers with βB being the Bragg angle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) PCM images of static (105 pulses) and scanned traces (5 μm/s, 100 kHz) for various pulse temporal envelopes, with axial XPM snapshots for the longitudinal traces indicating the on-axis birefringence levels. The arrival direction of the photowriting pulses is indicated by the narrow arrow. (b) UV diffraction patterns corresponding to the scanned traces with the periodicity scaling. The IR arrival is located on the left side. The dotted line is an eye guidance. Note the change in the color scale representing the relative luminosity. (c) Calculated maximal electron densities for Gaussian pulses with variable durations at two energy levels, 100 nJ (squares) and 300 nJ (circles). (d) Diffraction patterns from longitudinal traces photoinscribed by sequences of short and double pulses with 0.5 ps separation time at a scan velocity of 50 μm/s and constant average power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PCM images of static (105 pulses) and scanned (5 μm/s) traces (a,b) for negative and positive TOD pulses, with the corresponding UV diffraction patterns originating from longitudinal traces (c,d) and the periodicity scaling. The arrival direction of the laser pulse is indicated by the narrow arrow. The measured pulse forms are equally given (e,f), where the front of the pulse is represented for convenience towards the right side.

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