Abstract

The authors investigate light absorption in organic solar cells in which indium tin oxide (ITO) is replaced by a new metallic architecture (grating) as a transparent electrode. Different from typical metal nanowire gratings, our gratings consist of metal nanowalls with nanoscale footprint and (sub)microscale height [Adv. Mater. 23, 2469 (2011)], thus ensuring high optical transmittance and electrical conductivity. Simulations reveal that a broadband and polarization-insensitive light absorption enhancement is achieved via two mechanisms, when such silver nanowall gratings are employed in P3HT:PCBM based solar cells. Overall absorption enhanced by ~23% compared to a reference cell with ITO electrode.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2011

P. Kuang, J.-M. Park, W. Leung, R. C. Mahadevapuram, K. S. Nalwa, T.-G. Kim, S. Chaudhary, K.-M. Ho, and K. Constant, “A new architecture for transparent electrodes: relieving the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(21), 2469–2473 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Nalwa, J. M. Park, K. M. Ho, and S. Chaudhary, “On realizing higher efficiency polymer solar cells using a textured substrate platform,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(1), 112–116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Sefunc, A. K. Okyay, and H. V. Demir, “Plasmonic backcontact grating for P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells enabling strong optical absorption increased in all polarizations,” Opt. Express19(15), 14200–14209 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

A. W. Hains, J. Liu, A. B. F. Martinson, M. D. Irwin, and T. J. Marks, “Anode interfacial tuning via electron-blocking/hole-transport layers and indium tin oxide surface treatment in bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(4), 595–606 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

M. R. Lee, R. D. Eckert, K. Forberich, G. Dennler, C. J. Brabec, and R. A. Gaudiana, “Solar power wires based on organic photovoltaic materials,” Science324(5924), 232–235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kirchartz, K. Taretto, and U. Rau, “Efficiency limits of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(41), 17958–17966 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F.-C. Chen, J.-L. Wu, C.-L. Lee, Y. Hong, C.-H. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Plasmonic-enhanced polymer photovoltaic devices incorporating solution-processable metal nanoparticle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 013305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, P. Bienstman, and B. Maes, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with thin active layers,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 073109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S. H. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 123308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Reilly, J. Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. O’Connor, C. Haughn, K.-H. An, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Transparent and conductive electrodes based on unpatterned, thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 223304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Wu, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(26), 263302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Hauch, P. Schilinsky, S. A. Choulis, R. Childers, M. Biele, and C. J. Brabec, “Flexible organic P3HT:PCBM bulk-heterojunction modules with more than 1 year outdoor lifetime,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(7), 727–731 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface Plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Moulé and K. Meerholz, “Interference method for the determination of the complex refractive index of thin polymer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Z. Ye, X. Hu, M. Li, K. M. Ho, and P. Yang, “Propagation of guided modes in curved nanoribbon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(24), 241108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Rowell, M. A. Topinka, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Prall, G. Dennler, N. S. Sariciftci, L. Hu, and G. Gruner, “Organic solar cells with carbon nanotube network electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(23), 233506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater.4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Reyes-Reyes, K. Kim, and D. L. Carroll, “High-efficiency photovoltaic devices based on annealed poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 blends,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(8), 083506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, “Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7519–7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Z. Y. Li and L. L. Lin, “Photonic band structures solved by a plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.67(4), 046607 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

L. A. A. Pettersson, S. Ghosh, and O. Inganäs, “Optical anisotropy in thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–poly(4-styrenesulfonate),” Org. Electron.3(3-4), 143–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater.11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: Enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

An, K.-H.

B. O’Connor, C. Haughn, K.-H. An, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Transparent and conductive electrodes based on unpatterned, thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 223304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Z.

J. B. Wu, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(26), 263302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Becerril, H. A.

J. B. Wu, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(26), 263302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biele, M.

J. A. Hauch, P. Schilinsky, S. A. Choulis, R. Childers, M. Biele, and C. J. Brabec, “Flexible organic P3HT:PCBM bulk-heterojunction modules with more than 1 year outdoor lifetime,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(7), 727–731 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

H. Shen, P. Bienstman, and B. Maes, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with thin active layers,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 073109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

M. R. Lee, R. D. Eckert, K. Forberich, G. Dennler, C. J. Brabec, and R. A. Gaudiana, “Solar power wires based on organic photovoltaic materials,” Science324(5924), 232–235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Hauch, P. Schilinsky, S. A. Choulis, R. Childers, M. Biele, and C. J. Brabec, “Flexible organic P3HT:PCBM bulk-heterojunction modules with more than 1 year outdoor lifetime,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(7), 727–731 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater.11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, D. L.

M. Reyes-Reyes, K. Kim, and D. L. Carroll, “High-efficiency photovoltaic devices based on annealed poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 blends,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(8), 083506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Catchpole, K. R.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface Plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhary, S.

K. S. Nalwa, J. M. Park, K. M. Ho, and S. Chaudhary, “On realizing higher efficiency polymer solar cells using a textured substrate platform,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(1), 112–116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kuang, J.-M. Park, W. Leung, R. C. Mahadevapuram, K. S. Nalwa, T.-G. Kim, S. Chaudhary, K.-M. Ho, and K. Constant, “A new architecture for transparent electrodes: relieving the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(21), 2469–2473 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, F.-C.

F.-C. Chen, J.-L. Wu, C.-L. Lee, Y. Hong, C.-H. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Plasmonic-enhanced polymer photovoltaic devices incorporating solution-processable metal nanoparticle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 013305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

J. B. Wu, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(26), 263302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Childers, R.

J. A. Hauch, P. Schilinsky, S. A. Choulis, R. Childers, M. Biele, and C. J. Brabec, “Flexible organic P3HT:PCBM bulk-heterojunction modules with more than 1 year outdoor lifetime,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(7), 727–731 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choulis, S. A.

J. A. Hauch, P. Schilinsky, S. A. Choulis, R. Childers, M. Biele, and C. J. Brabec, “Flexible organic P3HT:PCBM bulk-heterojunction modules with more than 1 year outdoor lifetime,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(7), 727–731 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Constant, K.

P. Kuang, J.-M. Park, W. Leung, R. C. Mahadevapuram, K. S. Nalwa, T.-G. Kim, S. Chaudhary, K.-M. Ho, and K. Constant, “A new architecture for transparent electrodes: relieving the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(21), 2469–2473 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cook, S.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Demir, H. V.

Dennler, G.

M. R. Lee, R. D. Eckert, K. Forberich, G. Dennler, C. J. Brabec, and R. A. Gaudiana, “Solar power wires based on organic photovoltaic materials,” Science324(5924), 232–235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Rowell, M. A. Topinka, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Prall, G. Dennler, N. S. Sariciftci, L. Hu, and G. Gruner, “Organic solar cells with carbon nanotube network electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(23), 233506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Durrant, J. R.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eckert, R. D.

M. R. Lee, R. D. Eckert, K. Forberich, G. Dennler, C. J. Brabec, and R. A. Gaudiana, “Solar power wires based on organic photovoltaic materials,” Science324(5924), 232–235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emery, K.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater.4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Forberich, K.

M. R. Lee, R. D. Eckert, K. Forberich, G. Dennler, C. J. Brabec, and R. A. Gaudiana, “Solar power wires based on organic photovoltaic materials,” Science324(5924), 232–235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forrest, S. R.

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, “Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7519–7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: Enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gaudiana, R. A.

M. R. Lee, R. D. Eckert, K. Forberich, G. Dennler, C. J. Brabec, and R. A. Gaudiana, “Solar power wires based on organic photovoltaic materials,” Science324(5924), 232–235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, S.

L. A. A. Pettersson, S. Ghosh, and O. Inganäs, “Optical anisotropy in thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–poly(4-styrenesulfonate),” Org. Electron.3(3-4), 143–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Giles, M.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface Plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gruner, G.

M. W. Rowell, M. A. Topinka, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Prall, G. Dennler, N. S. Sariciftci, L. Hu, and G. Gruner, “Organic solar cells with carbon nanotube network electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(23), 233506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

M. G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ha, C.-S.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hains, A. W.

A. W. Hains, J. Liu, A. B. F. Martinson, M. D. Irwin, and T. J. Marks, “Anode interfacial tuning via electron-blocking/hole-transport layers and indium tin oxide surface treatment in bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(4), 595–606 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hauch, J. A.

J. A. Hauch, P. Schilinsky, S. A. Choulis, R. Childers, M. Biele, and C. J. Brabec, “Flexible organic P3HT:PCBM bulk-heterojunction modules with more than 1 year outdoor lifetime,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(7), 727–731 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haughn, C.

B. O’Connor, C. Haughn, K.-H. An, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Transparent and conductive electrodes based on unpatterned, thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 223304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: Enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. M.

K. S. Nalwa, J. M. Park, K. M. Ho, and S. Chaudhary, “On realizing higher efficiency polymer solar cells using a textured substrate platform,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(1), 112–116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Ye, X. Hu, M. Li, K. M. Ho, and P. Yang, “Propagation of guided modes in curved nanoribbon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(24), 241108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K.-M.

P. Kuang, J.-M. Park, W. Leung, R. C. Mahadevapuram, K. S. Nalwa, T.-G. Kim, S. Chaudhary, K.-M. Ho, and K. Constant, “A new architecture for transparent electrodes: relieving the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(21), 2469–2473 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holmes, R. J.

N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S. H. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 123308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Y.

F.-C. Chen, J.-L. Wu, C.-L. Lee, Y. Hong, C.-H. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Plasmonic-enhanced polymer photovoltaic devices incorporating solution-processable metal nanoparticle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 013305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

M. W. Rowell, M. A. Topinka, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Prall, G. Dennler, N. S. Sariciftci, L. Hu, and G. Gruner, “Organic solar cells with carbon nanotube network electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(23), 233506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

Z. Ye, X. Hu, M. Li, K. M. Ho, and P. Yang, “Propagation of guided modes in curved nanoribbon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(24), 241108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater.4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. H.

F.-C. Chen, J.-L. Wu, C.-L. Lee, Y. Hong, C.-H. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Plasmonic-enhanced polymer photovoltaic devices incorporating solution-processable metal nanoparticle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 013305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hummelen, J. C.

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater.11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: Enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Inganäs, O.

L. A. A. Pettersson, S. Ghosh, and O. Inganäs, “Optical anisotropy in thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–poly(4-styrenesulfonate),” Org. Electron.3(3-4), 143–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Irwin, M. D.

A. W. Hains, J. Liu, A. B. F. Martinson, M. D. Irwin, and T. J. Marks, “Anode interfacial tuning via electron-blocking/hole-transport layers and indium tin oxide surface treatment in bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(4), 595–606 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, M. G.

M. G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

M. Reyes-Reyes, K. Kim, and D. L. Carroll, “High-efficiency photovoltaic devices based on annealed poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 blends,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(8), 083506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.-G.

P. Kuang, J.-M. Park, W. Leung, R. C. Mahadevapuram, K. S. Nalwa, T.-G. Kim, S. Chaudhary, K.-M. Ho, and K. Constant, “A new architecture for transparent electrodes: relieving the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(21), 2469–2473 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kirchartz, T.

T. Kirchartz, K. Taretto, and U. Rau, “Efficiency limits of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(41), 17958–17966 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuang, P.

P. Kuang, J.-M. Park, W. Leung, R. C. Mahadevapuram, K. S. Nalwa, T.-G. Kim, S. Chaudhary, K.-M. Ho, and K. Constant, “A new architecture for transparent electrodes: relieving the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(21), 2469–2473 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, C.-H.

F.-C. Chen, J.-L. Wu, C.-L. Lee, Y. Hong, C.-H. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Plasmonic-enhanced polymer photovoltaic devices incorporating solution-processable metal nanoparticle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 013305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lagemaat, J.

T. H. Reilly, J. Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-L.

F.-C. Chen, J.-L. Wu, C.-L. Lee, Y. Hong, C.-H. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Plasmonic-enhanced polymer photovoltaic devices incorporating solution-processable metal nanoparticle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 013305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. R.

M. R. Lee, R. D. Eckert, K. Forberich, G. Dennler, C. J. Brabec, and R. A. Gaudiana, “Solar power wires based on organic photovoltaic materials,” Science324(5924), 232–235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leung, W.

P. Kuang, J.-M. Park, W. Leung, R. C. Mahadevapuram, K. S. Nalwa, T.-G. Kim, S. Chaudhary, K.-M. Ho, and K. Constant, “A new architecture for transparent electrodes: relieving the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(21), 2469–2473 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, G.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater.4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

Z. Ye, X. Hu, M. Li, K. M. Ho, and P. Yang, “Propagation of guided modes in curved nanoribbon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(24), 241108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Li and L. L. Lin, “Photonic band structures solved by a plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.67(4), 046607 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, L. L.

Z. Y. Li and L. L. Lin, “Photonic band structures solved by a plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.67(4), 046607 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindquist, N. C.

N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S. H. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 123308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

A. W. Hains, J. Liu, A. B. F. Martinson, M. D. Irwin, and T. J. Marks, “Anode interfacial tuning via electron-blocking/hole-transport layers and indium tin oxide surface treatment in bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(4), 595–606 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

J. B. Wu, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(26), 263302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luhman, W. A.

N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S. H. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 123308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

M. G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maes, B.

H. Shen, P. Bienstman, and B. Maes, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with thin active layers,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 073109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mahadevapuram, R. C.

P. Kuang, J.-M. Park, W. Leung, R. C. Mahadevapuram, K. S. Nalwa, T.-G. Kim, S. Chaudhary, K.-M. Ho, and K. Constant, “A new architecture for transparent electrodes: relieving the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(21), 2469–2473 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marks, T. J.

A. W. Hains, J. Liu, A. B. F. Martinson, M. D. Irwin, and T. J. Marks, “Anode interfacial tuning via electron-blocking/hole-transport layers and indium tin oxide surface treatment in bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(4), 595–606 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martinson, A. B. F.

A. W. Hains, J. Liu, A. B. F. Martinson, M. D. Irwin, and T. J. Marks, “Anode interfacial tuning via electron-blocking/hole-transport layers and indium tin oxide surface treatment in bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(4), 595–606 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mcculloch, I.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M. D.

M. W. Rowell, M. A. Topinka, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Prall, G. Dennler, N. S. Sariciftci, L. Hu, and G. Gruner, “Organic solar cells with carbon nanotube network electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(23), 233506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

A. J. Moulé and K. Meerholz, “Interference method for the determination of the complex refractive index of thin polymer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morfa, A. J.

T. H. Reilly, J. Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moriarty, T.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater.4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moulé, A. J.

A. J. Moulé and K. Meerholz, “Interference method for the determination of the complex refractive index of thin polymer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nalwa, K. S.

P. Kuang, J.-M. Park, W. Leung, R. C. Mahadevapuram, K. S. Nalwa, T.-G. Kim, S. Chaudhary, K.-M. Ho, and K. Constant, “A new architecture for transparent electrodes: relieving the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(21), 2469–2473 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Nalwa, J. M. Park, K. M. Ho, and S. Chaudhary, “On realizing higher efficiency polymer solar cells using a textured substrate platform,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(1), 112–116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, B.

B. O’Connor, C. Haughn, K.-H. An, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Transparent and conductive electrodes based on unpatterned, thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 223304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S. H.

N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S. H. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 123308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Okyay, A. K.

Park, H. J.

M. G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J. M.

K. S. Nalwa, J. M. Park, K. M. Ho, and S. Chaudhary, “On realizing higher efficiency polymer solar cells using a textured substrate platform,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(1), 112–116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.-M.

P. Kuang, J.-M. Park, W. Leung, R. C. Mahadevapuram, K. S. Nalwa, T.-G. Kim, S. Chaudhary, K.-M. Ho, and K. Constant, “A new architecture for transparent electrodes: relieving the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(21), 2469–2473 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pettersson, L. A. A.

L. A. A. Pettersson, S. Ghosh, and O. Inganäs, “Optical anisotropy in thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–poly(4-styrenesulfonate),” Org. Electron.3(3-4), 143–148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peumans, P.

J. B. Wu, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(26), 263302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, “Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7519–7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pillai, S.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface Plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pipe, K. P.

B. O’Connor, C. Haughn, K.-H. An, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Transparent and conductive electrodes based on unpatterned, thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 223304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prall, H. J.

M. W. Rowell, M. A. Topinka, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Prall, G. Dennler, N. S. Sariciftci, L. Hu, and G. Gruner, “Organic solar cells with carbon nanotube network electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(23), 233506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rand, B. P.

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, “Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7519–7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rau, U.

T. Kirchartz, K. Taretto, and U. Rau, “Efficiency limits of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(41), 17958–17966 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ree, M.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reilly, T. H.

T. H. Reilly, J. Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reyes-Reyes, M.

M. Reyes-Reyes, K. Kim, and D. L. Carroll, “High-efficiency photovoltaic devices based on annealed poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 blends,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(8), 083506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rowell, M. W.

M. W. Rowell, M. A. Topinka, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Prall, G. Dennler, N. S. Sariciftci, L. Hu, and G. Gruner, “Organic solar cells with carbon nanotube network electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(23), 233506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rowlen, K. L.

T. H. Reilly, J. Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sariciftci, N. S.

M. W. Rowell, M. A. Topinka, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Prall, G. Dennler, N. S. Sariciftci, L. Hu, and G. Gruner, “Organic solar cells with carbon nanotube network electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(23), 233506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater.11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schilinsky, P.

J. A. Hauch, P. Schilinsky, S. A. Choulis, R. Childers, M. Biele, and C. J. Brabec, “Flexible organic P3HT:PCBM bulk-heterojunction modules with more than 1 year outdoor lifetime,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(7), 727–731 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sefunc, M. A.

Shen, H.

H. Shen, P. Bienstman, and B. Maes, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with thin active layers,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 073109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shrotriya, V.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater.4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shtein, M.

B. O’Connor, C. Haughn, K.-H. An, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Transparent and conductive electrodes based on unpatterned, thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 223304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taretto, K.

T. Kirchartz, K. Taretto, and U. Rau, “Efficiency limits of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(41), 17958–17966 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tenent, R. C.

T. H. Reilly, J. Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Topinka, M. A.

M. W. Rowell, M. A. Topinka, M. D. McGehee, H. J. Prall, G. Dennler, N. S. Sariciftci, L. Hu, and G. Gruner, “Organic solar cells with carbon nanotube network electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(23), 233506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trupke, T.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface Plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tuladhar, S. M.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. Mcculloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. B.

J. B. Wu, H. A. Becerril, Z. Bao, Z. Liu, Y. Chen, and P. Peumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(26), 263302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.-L.

F.-C. Chen, J.-L. Wu, C.-L. Lee, Y. Hong, C.-H. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Plasmonic-enhanced polymer photovoltaic devices incorporating solution-processable metal nanoparticle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 013305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wudl, F.

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: Enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xu, T.

M. G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

Z. Ye, X. Hu, M. Li, K. M. Ho, and P. Yang, “Propagation of guided modes in curved nanoribbon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(24), 241108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater.4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater.4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Z.

Z. Ye, X. Hu, M. Li, K. M. Ho, and P. Yang, “Propagation of guided modes in curved nanoribbon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(24), 241108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: Enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater.11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Hains, J. Liu, A. B. F. Martinson, M. D. Irwin, and T. J. Marks, “Anode interfacial tuning via electron-blocking/hole-transport layers and indium tin oxide surface treatment in bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(4), 595–606 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

M. G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kuang, J.-M. Park, W. Leung, R. C. Mahadevapuram, K. S. Nalwa, T.-G. Kim, S. Chaudhary, K.-M. Ho, and K. Constant, “A new architecture for transparent electrodes: relieving the trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(21), 2469–2473 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Nalwa, J. M. Park, K. M. Ho, and S. Chaudhary, “On realizing higher efficiency polymer solar cells using a textured substrate platform,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(1), 112–116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

N. C. Lindquist, W. A. Luhman, S. H. Oh, and R. J. Holmes, “Plasmonic nanocavity arrays for enhanced efficiency in organic photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 123308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Conventional metal grating electrodes with nanowire/nanoribbons of width W and thickness T. Electrical conductivity increases with increasing W, at the cost of optical transmittance. Electrical conductivity also increases with increasing T, but at the cost of substrate smoothness required for solution processing conformal OPV layers. (b) Proposed metallic grating with nanowalls of thickness T and height H. Spaces between nanowalls are filled with a transparent polymeric matrix, providing a flat top surface for device fabrication (fabrication of such structures was reported in Ref. 4). Optical transmittance and electrical conductivity are largely decoupled because electrical conductivity can be increased by increasing H, which does not affect optical transmittance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Top view of our 1-D metal grating with period a and metal thickness t. (b) Side view of a P3HT:PCBM based OPV cell, with the metal grating replacing ITO as the electrode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Steady-state E-field intensity distribution across a common P3HT:PCBM based cell with ITO as top electrode at normal incidence. The light wavelengths are (a) 500 nm and (b) 700 nm, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption enhancements versus wavelength with varying geometric parameters and polarizations. (a,b) Enhancement with varying feature period a and fixed t,d2,d3. (c,d) Enhancement with varying silver walls’ thickness t and fixed a,d2,d3. (e,f) Enhancement with varying nanograting’s thickness d2 and fixed a,t,d3. (g,h) Enhancement with varying P3HT:PCBM blends’ thickness d3 and fixed a,t,d2. (a,c,e,g) TE incidences. (b,d,f,h) TM incidences.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mapping the absorption enhancement with varying grating period and thickness of P3HT:PCBM. (a,b) Absorption enhancement with both wavelength and nanograting period a for TE and TM incidences, respectively. (c,d) Enhancement versus both wavelength and thickness of P3HT:PCBM d3 for TE and TM incidences, respectively. The silver walls’ thickness t and nanograting’s height d2 are 20 nm and 300 nm, respectively. The dash dot lines indicate the regions where the absorption is suppressed (F(λ)<1).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time-averaged electric field distribution across the cell structure at normal incidence. (a,c) A cell with Ag grating is illuminated at wavelengths of 670 nm at TE and 630 nm at TM polarizations, respectively. (b,d) A normal cell with 150 nm thick ITO is illuminated at wavelengths of 670 nm and 630 nm as a reference. The Ag nanograting has a = 440nm, t = 20nm, d2 = 300nm, and the P3HT:PCBM blends has d3 = 160nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The absorption enhancement factor with/without a 30 nm thick PEDOT:PSS layer for both TE and TM polarizations. The system parameters are a = 440nm, t = 20nm, d2 = 300nm, d3 = 160nm.

Equations (1)

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F tot = 1 2 ( I(λ) F TE (λ)dλ + I(λ) F TM (λ)dλ ) I(λ)dλ ,

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