Abstract

Heteroepitaxial ZnO transparent current spreading layers with low sheet resistances were deposited on GaN-based light emitting diodes using aqueous solution phase epitaxy at temperatures below 90°C. The performance of the LEDs was analyzed and compared to identical devices using electron-beam evaporated indium tin oxide transparent current spreading layers. White LEDs with ZnO layers provided high luminous efficacy–157 lm/W at 0.5A/cm2, and 84.8 lm/W at 35A/cm2, 24% and 50% higher, respectively, than devices with ITO layers. The improvement appears to be due to the enhanced current spreading and low optical absorption provided by the ZnO.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. Z. Fan, S. N. Mohammad, W. Kim, Ö. Aktas, A. Botchkarev, and H. Morkoç, “Very low resistance multilayer Ohmic contact to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(12), 1672 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. H. Zhang and D. E. Brodie, “Effects of annealing ZnO films prepared by ion-beam-assisted reactive deposition,” Thin Solid Films238(1), 95–100 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. O. Caporaletti, “Electrical and optical properties of bias sputtered ZnO thin films,” Sol. Energy Mater.7(1), 65–73 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. J. Andeen, J. H. Kim, F. F. Lange, G. K. L. Goh, and S. Tripathy, “Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth of ZnO in Water at 90°C,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(6), 799–804 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (5)

J.-C. Chen, G.-J. Sheu, F.-S. Hwu, H.-I. Chen, J.-K. Sheu, T.-X. Lee, and C.-C. Sun, “Electrical-optical analysis of a GaN/sapphire LED chip by considering the resistivity of the current-spreading layer,” Opt. Rev.16(2), 213–215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Thompson, J. J. Richardson, S. P. DenBaars, and F. F. Lange, “Light emitting diodes with ZnO current spreading layers deposited from a low temperature aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 042101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Richardson and F. F. Lange, “Controlling low temperature aqueous synthesis of ZnO: 1. thermodynamic analysis,” Cryst. Growth Des.9(6), 2570–2575 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Richardson and F. F. Lange, “Controlling low temperature aqueous synthesis of ZnO: 2. a novel continuous circulation reactor,” Cryst. Growth Des.9(6), 2576–2581 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vampola, N. N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. E. Brinkley, M. Furukawa, R. B. Chung, H. Sato, J. Sonoda, H. Hirasawa, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Highly efficient broad-area blue and white light-emitting diodes on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(2), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. H. Kim, E. M. Kim, D. Andeen, D. Thomson, S. P. DenBaars, and F. F. Lange, “Growth of Heteroepitaxial ZnO Thin Films on GaN-Buffered Al2O3 (0001) Substrates by Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Synthesis at 90°C,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(3), 463–471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. J. Andeen, J. H. Kim, F. F. Lange, G. K. L. Goh, and S. Tripathy, “Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth of ZnO in Water at 90°C,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(6), 799–804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, K. Ip, Y. W. Heo, and T. Steiner, “Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO,” Prog. Mater. Sci.50(3), 293–340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using ingan near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

S. R. Jeon, Y. H. Song, H. J. Jang, G. M. Yang, S. W. Hwang, and S. J. Son, “Lateral current spreading in GaN-based light-emitting diodes utilizing tunnel contact junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(21), 3265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Kim, Y. J. Sung, J. W. Park, and G. Y. Yeom, “A study of transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) contact to p-GaN,” Thin Solid Films398–399, 87–92 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. Kim, J. M. Lee, C. Huh, S. W. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, “Modeling of a GaN-based light-emitting diode for uniform current spreading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(12), 1903–1904 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(26), 3930 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

P. L. Washington, H. C. Ong, J. Y. Dai, and R. P. H. Chang, “Determination of the optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(25), 3261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, M. He, X. Tang, J. B. Halpern, M. G. Spencer, Y. X. Li, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, A. A. Iliadis, and K. A. Jones, “Heteroepitaxy of ZnO on GaN and its implications for fabrication of hybrid optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(3), 348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Z. Fan, S. N. Mohammad, W. Kim, Ö. Aktas, A. Botchkarev, and H. Morkoç, “Very low resistance multilayer Ohmic contact to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(12), 1672 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. H. Zhang and D. E. Brodie, “Effects of annealing ZnO films prepared by ion-beam-assisted reactive deposition,” Thin Solid Films238(1), 95–100 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

O. Caporaletti, “Electrical and optical properties of bias sputtered ZnO thin films,” Sol. Energy Mater.7(1), 65–73 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Abare, A. C.

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(26), 3930 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aktas, Ö.

Z. Fan, S. N. Mohammad, W. Kim, Ö. Aktas, A. Botchkarev, and H. Morkoç, “Very low resistance multilayer Ohmic contact to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(12), 1672 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Andeen, D.

J. H. Kim, E. M. Kim, D. Andeen, D. Thomson, S. P. DenBaars, and F. F. Lange, “Growth of Heteroepitaxial ZnO Thin Films on GaN-Buffered Al2O3 (0001) Substrates by Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Synthesis at 90°C,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(3), 463–471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Andeen, D. J.

D. J. Andeen, J. H. Kim, F. F. Lange, G. K. L. Goh, and S. Tripathy, “Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth of ZnO in Water at 90°C,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(6), 799–804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Botchkarev, A.

Z. Fan, S. N. Mohammad, W. Kim, Ö. Aktas, A. Botchkarev, and H. Morkoç, “Very low resistance multilayer Ohmic contact to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(12), 1672 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brinkley, S. E.

K. J. Vampola, N. N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. E. Brinkley, M. Furukawa, R. B. Chung, H. Sato, J. Sonoda, H. Hirasawa, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Highly efficient broad-area blue and white light-emitting diodes on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(2), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brodie, D. E.

D. H. Zhang and D. E. Brodie, “Effects of annealing ZnO films prepared by ion-beam-assisted reactive deposition,” Thin Solid Films238(1), 95–100 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Buchinsky, O.

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(26), 3930 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Caporaletti, O.

O. Caporaletti, “Electrical and optical properties of bias sputtered ZnO thin films,” Sol. Energy Mater.7(1), 65–73 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

P. L. Washington, H. C. Ong, J. Y. Dai, and R. P. H. Chang, “Determination of the optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(25), 3261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-I.

J.-C. Chen, G.-J. Sheu, F.-S. Hwu, H.-I. Chen, J.-K. Sheu, T.-X. Lee, and C.-C. Sun, “Electrical-optical analysis of a GaN/sapphire LED chip by considering the resistivity of the current-spreading layer,” Opt. Rev.16(2), 213–215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.-C.

J.-C. Chen, G.-J. Sheu, F.-S. Hwu, H.-I. Chen, J.-K. Sheu, T.-X. Lee, and C.-C. Sun, “Electrical-optical analysis of a GaN/sapphire LED chip by considering the resistivity of the current-spreading layer,” Opt. Rev.16(2), 213–215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choopun, S.

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, M. He, X. Tang, J. B. Halpern, M. G. Spencer, Y. X. Li, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, A. A. Iliadis, and K. A. Jones, “Heteroepitaxy of ZnO on GaN and its implications for fabrication of hybrid optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(3), 348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chung, R. B.

K. J. Vampola, N. N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. E. Brinkley, M. Furukawa, R. B. Chung, H. Sato, J. Sonoda, H. Hirasawa, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Highly efficient broad-area blue and white light-emitting diodes on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(2), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, D. A.

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(26), 3930 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(26), 3930 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J. Y.

P. L. Washington, H. C. Ong, J. Y. Dai, and R. P. H. Chang, “Determination of the optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(25), 3261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

D. B. Thompson, J. J. Richardson, S. P. DenBaars, and F. F. Lange, “Light emitting diodes with ZnO current spreading layers deposited from a low temperature aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 042101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vampola, N. N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. E. Brinkley, M. Furukawa, R. B. Chung, H. Sato, J. Sonoda, H. Hirasawa, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Highly efficient broad-area blue and white light-emitting diodes on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(2), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kim, E. M. Kim, D. Andeen, D. Thomson, S. P. DenBaars, and F. F. Lange, “Growth of Heteroepitaxial ZnO Thin Films on GaN-Buffered Al2O3 (0001) Substrates by Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Synthesis at 90°C,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(3), 463–471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(26), 3930 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z.

Z. Fan, S. N. Mohammad, W. Kim, Ö. Aktas, A. Botchkarev, and H. Morkoç, “Very low resistance multilayer Ohmic contact to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(12), 1672 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fellows, N. N.

K. J. Vampola, N. N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. E. Brinkley, M. Furukawa, R. B. Chung, H. Sato, J. Sonoda, H. Hirasawa, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Highly efficient broad-area blue and white light-emitting diodes on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(2), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, M.

K. J. Vampola, N. N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. E. Brinkley, M. Furukawa, R. B. Chung, H. Sato, J. Sonoda, H. Hirasawa, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Highly efficient broad-area blue and white light-emitting diodes on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(2), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goh, G. K. L.

D. J. Andeen, J. H. Kim, F. F. Lange, G. K. L. Goh, and S. Tripathy, “Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth of ZnO in Water at 90°C,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(6), 799–804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Halpern, J. B.

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, M. He, X. Tang, J. B. Halpern, M. G. Spencer, Y. X. Li, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, A. A. Iliadis, and K. A. Jones, “Heteroepitaxy of ZnO on GaN and its implications for fabrication of hybrid optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(3), 348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, M.

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(26), 3930 (1999).
[CrossRef]

He, M.

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, M. He, X. Tang, J. B. Halpern, M. G. Spencer, Y. X. Li, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, A. A. Iliadis, and K. A. Jones, “Heteroepitaxy of ZnO on GaN and its implications for fabrication of hybrid optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(3), 348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heo, Y. W.

S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, K. Ip, Y. W. Heo, and T. Steiner, “Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO,” Prog. Mater. Sci.50(3), 293–340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hirasawa, H.

K. J. Vampola, N. N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. E. Brinkley, M. Furukawa, R. B. Chung, H. Sato, J. Sonoda, H. Hirasawa, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Highly efficient broad-area blue and white light-emitting diodes on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(2), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huh, C.

H. Kim, J. M. Lee, C. Huh, S. W. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, “Modeling of a GaN-based light-emitting diode for uniform current spreading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(12), 1903–1904 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, H.

H. Kim, J. M. Lee, C. Huh, S. W. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, “Modeling of a GaN-based light-emitting diode for uniform current spreading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(12), 1903–1904 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S. W.

S. R. Jeon, Y. H. Song, H. J. Jang, G. M. Yang, S. W. Hwang, and S. J. Son, “Lateral current spreading in GaN-based light-emitting diodes utilizing tunnel contact junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(21), 3265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hwu, F.-S.

J.-C. Chen, G.-J. Sheu, F.-S. Hwu, H.-I. Chen, J.-K. Sheu, T.-X. Lee, and C.-C. Sun, “Electrical-optical analysis of a GaN/sapphire LED chip by considering the resistivity of the current-spreading layer,” Opt. Rev.16(2), 213–215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iliadis, A. A.

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, M. He, X. Tang, J. B. Halpern, M. G. Spencer, Y. X. Li, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, A. A. Iliadis, and K. A. Jones, “Heteroepitaxy of ZnO on GaN and its implications for fabrication of hybrid optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(3), 348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ip, K.

S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, K. Ip, Y. W. Heo, and T. Steiner, “Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO,” Prog. Mater. Sci.50(3), 293–340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iza, M.

K. J. Vampola, N. N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. E. Brinkley, M. Furukawa, R. B. Chung, H. Sato, J. Sonoda, H. Hirasawa, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Highly efficient broad-area blue and white light-emitting diodes on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(2), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Izuno, K.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using ingan near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jang, H. J.

S. R. Jeon, Y. H. Song, H. J. Jang, G. M. Yang, S. W. Hwang, and S. J. Son, “Lateral current spreading in GaN-based light-emitting diodes utilizing tunnel contact junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(21), 3265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S. R.

S. R. Jeon, Y. H. Song, H. J. Jang, G. M. Yang, S. W. Hwang, and S. J. Son, “Lateral current spreading in GaN-based light-emitting diodes utilizing tunnel contact junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(21), 3265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jones, K. A.

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, M. He, X. Tang, J. B. Halpern, M. G. Spencer, Y. X. Li, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, A. A. Iliadis, and K. A. Jones, “Heteroepitaxy of ZnO on GaN and its implications for fabrication of hybrid optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(3), 348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. J.

H. Kim, J. M. Lee, C. Huh, S. W. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, “Modeling of a GaN-based light-emitting diode for uniform current spreading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(12), 1903–1904 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. W.

D. W. Kim, Y. J. Sung, J. W. Park, and G. Y. Yeom, “A study of transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) contact to p-GaN,” Thin Solid Films398–399, 87–92 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E. M.

J. H. Kim, E. M. Kim, D. Andeen, D. Thomson, S. P. DenBaars, and F. F. Lange, “Growth of Heteroepitaxial ZnO Thin Films on GaN-Buffered Al2O3 (0001) Substrates by Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Synthesis at 90°C,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(3), 463–471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, J. M. Lee, C. Huh, S. W. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, “Modeling of a GaN-based light-emitting diode for uniform current spreading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(12), 1903–1904 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

J. H. Kim, E. M. Kim, D. Andeen, D. Thomson, S. P. DenBaars, and F. F. Lange, “Growth of Heteroepitaxial ZnO Thin Films on GaN-Buffered Al2O3 (0001) Substrates by Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Synthesis at 90°C,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(3), 463–471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Andeen, J. H. Kim, F. F. Lange, G. K. L. Goh, and S. Tripathy, “Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth of ZnO in Water at 90°C,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(6), 799–804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. W.

H. Kim, J. M. Lee, C. Huh, S. W. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, “Modeling of a GaN-based light-emitting diode for uniform current spreading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(12), 1903–1904 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W.

Z. Fan, S. N. Mohammad, W. Kim, Ö. Aktas, A. Botchkarev, and H. Morkoç, “Very low resistance multilayer Ohmic contact to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(12), 1672 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lange, F. F.

J. J. Richardson and F. F. Lange, “Controlling low temperature aqueous synthesis of ZnO: 2. a novel continuous circulation reactor,” Cryst. Growth Des.9(6), 2576–2581 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Thompson, J. J. Richardson, S. P. DenBaars, and F. F. Lange, “Light emitting diodes with ZnO current spreading layers deposited from a low temperature aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 042101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Richardson and F. F. Lange, “Controlling low temperature aqueous synthesis of ZnO: 1. thermodynamic analysis,” Cryst. Growth Des.9(6), 2570–2575 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kim, E. M. Kim, D. Andeen, D. Thomson, S. P. DenBaars, and F. F. Lange, “Growth of Heteroepitaxial ZnO Thin Films on GaN-Buffered Al2O3 (0001) Substrates by Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Synthesis at 90°C,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(3), 463–471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Andeen, J. H. Kim, F. F. Lange, G. K. L. Goh, and S. Tripathy, “Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth of ZnO in Water at 90°C,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(6), 799–804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. M.

H. Kim, J. M. Lee, C. Huh, S. W. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, “Modeling of a GaN-based light-emitting diode for uniform current spreading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(12), 1903–1904 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.-X.

J.-C. Chen, G.-J. Sheu, F.-S. Hwu, H.-I. Chen, J.-K. Sheu, T.-X. Lee, and C.-C. Sun, “Electrical-optical analysis of a GaN/sapphire LED chip by considering the resistivity of the current-spreading layer,” Opt. Rev.16(2), 213–215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. X.

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, M. He, X. Tang, J. B. Halpern, M. G. Spencer, Y. X. Li, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, A. A. Iliadis, and K. A. Jones, “Heteroepitaxy of ZnO on GaN and its implications for fabrication of hybrid optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(3), 348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Margalith, T.

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(26), 3930 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Masui, H.

K. J. Vampola, N. N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. E. Brinkley, M. Furukawa, R. B. Chung, H. Sato, J. Sonoda, H. Hirasawa, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Highly efficient broad-area blue and white light-emitting diodes on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(2), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mohammad, S. N.

Z. Fan, S. N. Mohammad, W. Kim, Ö. Aktas, A. Botchkarev, and H. Morkoç, “Very low resistance multilayer Ohmic contact to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(12), 1672 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

Z. Fan, S. N. Mohammad, W. Kim, Ö. Aktas, A. Botchkarev, and H. Morkoç, “Very low resistance multilayer Ohmic contact to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(12), 1672 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using ingan near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murazaki, Y.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using ingan near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

K. J. Vampola, N. N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. E. Brinkley, M. Furukawa, R. B. Chung, H. Sato, J. Sonoda, H. Hirasawa, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Highly efficient broad-area blue and white light-emitting diodes on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(2), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using ingan near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Niki, I.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using ingan near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Norton, D. P.

S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, K. Ip, Y. W. Heo, and T. Steiner, “Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO,” Prog. Mater. Sci.50(3), 293–340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ong, H. C.

P. L. Washington, H. C. Ong, J. Y. Dai, and R. P. H. Chang, “Determination of the optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(25), 3261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. W.

D. W. Kim, Y. J. Sung, J. W. Park, and G. Y. Yeom, “A study of transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) contact to p-GaN,” Thin Solid Films398–399, 87–92 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

H. Kim, J. M. Lee, C. Huh, S. W. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, “Modeling of a GaN-based light-emitting diode for uniform current spreading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(12), 1903–1904 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, K. Ip, Y. W. Heo, and T. Steiner, “Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO,” Prog. Mater. Sci.50(3), 293–340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, J. J.

J. J. Richardson and F. F. Lange, “Controlling low temperature aqueous synthesis of ZnO: 2. a novel continuous circulation reactor,” Cryst. Growth Des.9(6), 2576–2581 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Richardson and F. F. Lange, “Controlling low temperature aqueous synthesis of ZnO: 1. thermodynamic analysis,” Cryst. Growth Des.9(6), 2570–2575 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Thompson, J. J. Richardson, S. P. DenBaars, and F. F. Lange, “Light emitting diodes with ZnO current spreading layers deposited from a low temperature aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 042101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salamanca-Riba, L. G.

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, M. He, X. Tang, J. B. Halpern, M. G. Spencer, Y. X. Li, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, A. A. Iliadis, and K. A. Jones, “Heteroepitaxy of ZnO on GaN and its implications for fabrication of hybrid optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(3), 348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

K. J. Vampola, N. N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. E. Brinkley, M. Furukawa, R. B. Chung, H. Sato, J. Sonoda, H. Hirasawa, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Highly efficient broad-area blue and white light-emitting diodes on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(2), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R. P.

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, M. He, X. Tang, J. B. Halpern, M. G. Spencer, Y. X. Li, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, A. A. Iliadis, and K. A. Jones, “Heteroepitaxy of ZnO on GaN and its implications for fabrication of hybrid optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(3), 348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, G.-J.

J.-C. Chen, G.-J. Sheu, F.-S. Hwu, H.-I. Chen, J.-K. Sheu, T.-X. Lee, and C.-C. Sun, “Electrical-optical analysis of a GaN/sapphire LED chip by considering the resistivity of the current-spreading layer,” Opt. Rev.16(2), 213–215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J.-K.

J.-C. Chen, G.-J. Sheu, F.-S. Hwu, H.-I. Chen, J.-K. Sheu, T.-X. Lee, and C.-C. Sun, “Electrical-optical analysis of a GaN/sapphire LED chip by considering the resistivity of the current-spreading layer,” Opt. Rev.16(2), 213–215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Son, S. J.

S. R. Jeon, Y. H. Song, H. J. Jang, G. M. Yang, S. W. Hwang, and S. J. Son, “Lateral current spreading in GaN-based light-emitting diodes utilizing tunnel contact junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(21), 3265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. H.

S. R. Jeon, Y. H. Song, H. J. Jang, G. M. Yang, S. W. Hwang, and S. J. Son, “Lateral current spreading in GaN-based light-emitting diodes utilizing tunnel contact junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(21), 3265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sonoda, J.

K. J. Vampola, N. N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. E. Brinkley, M. Furukawa, R. B. Chung, H. Sato, J. Sonoda, H. Hirasawa, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Highly efficient broad-area blue and white light-emitting diodes on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(2), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, M. G.

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, M. He, X. Tang, J. B. Halpern, M. G. Spencer, Y. X. Li, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, A. A. Iliadis, and K. A. Jones, “Heteroepitaxy of ZnO on GaN and its implications for fabrication of hybrid optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(3), 348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Steiner, T.

S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, K. Ip, Y. W. Heo, and T. Steiner, “Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO,” Prog. Mater. Sci.50(3), 293–340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.-C.

J.-C. Chen, G.-J. Sheu, F.-S. Hwu, H.-I. Chen, J.-K. Sheu, T.-X. Lee, and C.-C. Sun, “Electrical-optical analysis of a GaN/sapphire LED chip by considering the resistivity of the current-spreading layer,” Opt. Rev.16(2), 213–215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sung, Y. J.

D. W. Kim, Y. J. Sung, J. W. Park, and G. Y. Yeom, “A study of transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) contact to p-GaN,” Thin Solid Films398–399, 87–92 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Talyansky, V.

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, M. He, X. Tang, J. B. Halpern, M. G. Spencer, Y. X. Li, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, A. A. Iliadis, and K. A. Jones, “Heteroepitaxy of ZnO on GaN and its implications for fabrication of hybrid optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(3), 348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tang, X.

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, M. He, X. Tang, J. B. Halpern, M. G. Spencer, Y. X. Li, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, A. A. Iliadis, and K. A. Jones, “Heteroepitaxy of ZnO on GaN and its implications for fabrication of hybrid optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(3), 348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, D. B.

D. B. Thompson, J. J. Richardson, S. P. DenBaars, and F. F. Lange, “Light emitting diodes with ZnO current spreading layers deposited from a low temperature aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 042101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D.

J. H. Kim, E. M. Kim, D. Andeen, D. Thomson, S. P. DenBaars, and F. F. Lange, “Growth of Heteroepitaxial ZnO Thin Films on GaN-Buffered Al2O3 (0001) Substrates by Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Synthesis at 90°C,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(3), 463–471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S.

D. J. Andeen, J. H. Kim, F. F. Lange, G. K. L. Goh, and S. Tripathy, “Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth of ZnO in Water at 90°C,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(6), 799–804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vampola, K. J.

K. J. Vampola, N. N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. E. Brinkley, M. Furukawa, R. B. Chung, H. Sato, J. Sonoda, H. Hirasawa, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Highly efficient broad-area blue and white light-emitting diodes on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(2), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Venkatesan, T.

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, M. He, X. Tang, J. B. Halpern, M. G. Spencer, Y. X. Li, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, A. A. Iliadis, and K. A. Jones, “Heteroepitaxy of ZnO on GaN and its implications for fabrication of hybrid optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(3), 348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vispute, R. D.

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, M. He, X. Tang, J. B. Halpern, M. G. Spencer, Y. X. Li, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, A. A. Iliadis, and K. A. Jones, “Heteroepitaxy of ZnO on GaN and its implications for fabrication of hybrid optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(3), 348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Washington, P. L.

P. L. Washington, H. C. Ong, J. Y. Dai, and R. P. H. Chang, “Determination of the optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(25), 3261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using ingan near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. M.

S. R. Jeon, Y. H. Song, H. J. Jang, G. M. Yang, S. W. Hwang, and S. J. Son, “Lateral current spreading in GaN-based light-emitting diodes utilizing tunnel contact junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(21), 3265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yeom, G. Y.

D. W. Kim, Y. J. Sung, J. W. Park, and G. Y. Yeom, “A study of transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) contact to p-GaN,” Thin Solid Films398–399, 87–92 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. H.

D. H. Zhang and D. E. Brodie, “Effects of annealing ZnO films prepared by ion-beam-assisted reactive deposition,” Thin Solid Films238(1), 95–100 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

J. H. Kim, E. M. Kim, D. Andeen, D. Thomson, S. P. DenBaars, and F. F. Lange, “Growth of Heteroepitaxial ZnO Thin Films on GaN-Buffered Al2O3 (0001) Substrates by Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Synthesis at 90°C,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(3), 463–471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Andeen, J. H. Kim, F. F. Lange, G. K. L. Goh, and S. Tripathy, “Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth of ZnO in Water at 90°C,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(6), 799–804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

D. B. Thompson, J. J. Richardson, S. P. DenBaars, and F. F. Lange, “Light emitting diodes with ZnO current spreading layers deposited from a low temperature aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Express2, 042101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

Z. Fan, S. N. Mohammad, W. Kim, Ö. Aktas, A. Botchkarev, and H. Morkoç, “Very low resistance multilayer Ohmic contact to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(12), 1672 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Jeon, Y. H. Song, H. J. Jang, G. M. Yang, S. W. Hwang, and S. J. Son, “Lateral current spreading in GaN-based light-emitting diodes utilizing tunnel contact junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(21), 3265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J. M. Lee, C. Huh, S. W. Kim, D. J. Kim, S. J. Park, and H. Hwang, “Modeling of a GaN-based light-emitting diode for uniform current spreading,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(12), 1903–1904 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(26), 3930 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Washington, H. C. Ong, J. Y. Dai, and R. P. H. Chang, “Determination of the optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(25), 3261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Vispute, V. Talyansky, S. Choopun, R. P. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, M. He, X. Tang, J. B. Halpern, M. G. Spencer, Y. X. Li, L. G. Salamanca-Riba, A. A. Iliadis, and K. A. Jones, “Heteroepitaxy of ZnO on GaN and its implications for fabrication of hybrid optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(3), 348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Growth Des. (2)

J. J. Richardson and F. F. Lange, “Controlling low temperature aqueous synthesis of ZnO: 1. thermodynamic analysis,” Cryst. Growth Des.9(6), 2570–2575 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Richardson and F. F. Lange, “Controlling low temperature aqueous synthesis of ZnO: 2. a novel continuous circulation reactor,” Cryst. Growth Des.9(6), 2576–2581 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using ingan near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 2, No. 4A), L371–L373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev. (1)

J.-C. Chen, G.-J. Sheu, F.-S. Hwu, H.-I. Chen, J.-K. Sheu, T.-X. Lee, and C.-C. Sun, “Electrical-optical analysis of a GaN/sapphire LED chip by considering the resistivity of the current-spreading layer,” Opt. Rev.16(2), 213–215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

K. J. Vampola, N. N. Fellows, H. Masui, S. E. Brinkley, M. Furukawa, R. B. Chung, H. Sato, J. Sonoda, H. Hirasawa, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Highly efficient broad-area blue and white light-emitting diodes on bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(2), 200–202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Mater. Sci. (1)

S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, K. Ip, Y. W. Heo, and T. Steiner, “Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO,” Prog. Mater. Sci.50(3), 293–340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. (1)

O. Caporaletti, “Electrical and optical properties of bias sputtered ZnO thin films,” Sol. Energy Mater.7(1), 65–73 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

D. H. Zhang and D. E. Brodie, “Effects of annealing ZnO films prepared by ion-beam-assisted reactive deposition,” Thin Solid Films238(1), 95–100 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Kim, Y. J. Sung, J. W. Park, and G. Y. Yeom, “A study of transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) contact to p-GaN,” Thin Solid Films398–399, 87–92 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Nakamura, S. Pearton, and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode: The Complete Story, 2nd ed. (Springer, 2000)

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