Abstract

The counteraction between the increased carrier localization effect due to the change of composition nanostructure in the quantum wells (QWs), which is caused by the thermal annealing process, and the enhanced quantum-confined Stark effect in the QWs due to the increased piezoelectric field, which is caused by the increased p-type layer thickness, when the p-type layer is grown at a high temperature on the InGaN/GaN QWs of a high-indium light-emitting diode (LED) is demonstrated. Temperature- and excitation power-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements are performed on three groups of sample, including 1) the samples with both effects of thermal annealing and increased p-type thickness, 2) those only with the similar thermal annealing process, and 3) those with increased overgrowth thickness and minimized thermal annealing effect. From the comparisons of emission wavelength, internal quantum efficiency (IQE), spectral shift with increasing PL excitation level, and calibrated activation energy of carrier localization between various samples in the three groups, one can clearly see the individual effects of thermal annealing and increased p-type layer thickness. The counteraction leads to increased IQE and blue-shifted emission spectrum with increasing p-type thickness when the thickness is below a certain value (20-nm p-AlGaN plus 60-nm p-GaN under our growth conditions). Beyond this thickness, the IQE value decreases and the emission spectrum red shifts with increasing p-type thickness.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  37. F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Spontaneous versus piezoelectric polarization in III-V nitrides: Conceptual aspects and practical consequences,” Phys. Status Solidi B 216(1), 391–398 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  38. C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, H. S. Chen, K. Y. Chen, W. L. Chung, W. M. Chang, J. J. Huang, Y. F. Yao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Emission efficiency dependence on the overgrown p-GaN thickness in a high-indium InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1757–1759 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, H. S. Chen, K. Y. Chen, W. L. Chung, W. M. Chang, J. J. Huang, Y. F. Yao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Emission efficiency dependence on the overgrown p-GaN thickness in a high-indium InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1757–1759 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

S. Chiaria, E. Furno, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Design criteria for near-ultraviolet GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 57(1), 60–70 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

Y. K. Kuo, J. Y. Chang, M. C. Tsai, and S. H. Yen, “Advantages of blue InGaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes with InGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

J. B. Limb, W. Lee, J. H. Ryou, D. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Comparison of GaN and In0.04Ga0.96N p-layers on the electrical and electroluminescence properties of green light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 36(4), 426–430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. K. Park, M. K. Kwon, J. O. Kim, S. B. Seo, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, S. J. Park, and Y. S. Kim, “Green light-emitting diodes with self-assembled In-rich InGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Cho, Y. P. Sun, H. M. Kim, T. W. Kang, E.-K. Suh, H. J. Lee, R. J. Choi, and Y. B. Hahn, “High quantum efficiency of violet-blue to green light emission in InGaN quantum well structures grown by graded-indium-content profiling method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

H. C. Wang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, and C. C. Yang, “Carrier capture times of the localized states in an InGaN thin film with indium-rich nanocluster structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Sasaki, S. Shibakawa, Y. Kawakami, K. Nishizuka, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Equation for internal quantum efficiency and its temperature dependence of luminescence, and application to InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 8719–8723 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

M. Rao, D. Kim, and S. Mahajan, “Compositional dependence of phase separation in InGaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1961–1963 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Feng, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Lu, S. J. Liu, E. C. Lin, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Cluster size and composition variations in yellow and red light-emitting InGaN thin films upon thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5388–5396 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J.-R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K.-J. Ma, S.-C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C.-C. Pan, and J.-I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Wang, S. J. Lin, Y. C. Lu, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Yang, and K. J. Ma, “Carrier relaxation in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with nanometer-scale cluster structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(8), 1371–1373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Y. Chung, Y.-S. Lin, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, E.-C. Lin, C. C. Yang, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, and J.-S. Tsang, “Quantum-well-width dependencies of postgrowth thermal annealing effects of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 9693–9696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

P. Ruterana, S. Kret, A. Vivet, G. Maciejewski, and P. Dluzewski, “Composition fluctuation in InGaN quantum wells made from molecular beam or metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 8979–8985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, G. Marutsuki, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Spatial and temporal luminescence dynamics in an InxGa1−xN single quantum well probed by near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(23), 4353–4355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, Y.-Y. Chung, C.-W. Liu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C. C. Yang, M.-H. Mao, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, J.-S. Tsang, and T. E. Weirich, “Quasiregular quantum-dot-like structure formation with postgrowth thermal annealing of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(14), 2571–2573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

C. K. Choi, B. D. Little, Y. H. Kwon, J. B. Lam, J. J. Song, Y. C. Chang, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy and time-resolved photoluminescence of an InxGa1-xN/GaN double heterostructure,” Phys. Rev. B 63(19), 195302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 64(8), 085207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

H. P. D. Schenk, M. Leroux, and P. de Mierry, “Luminescence and absorption in InGaN epitaxial layers and the van Roosbroeck–Shockley relation,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(3), 1525–1543 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Teles, J. Furthmuller, L. M. R. Scolfaro, J. R. Leite, and F. Bechstedt, “First-principles calculations of the thermodynamic and structural properties of strained InxGa1-xN and AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), 2475–2485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C.-C. Chou, C.-M. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (5)

P. Riblet, H. Hirayama, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, T. Sugano, and Y. Aoyagi, “Determination of photoluminescence mechanism in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2241–2243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Goldys, M. Godlewski, R. Langer, A. Barski, P. Bergman, and B. Monemar, “Analysis of the red optical emission in cubic GaN grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 60(8), 5464–5469 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Leroux, N. Grandjean, B. Beaumont, G. Nataf, F. Semond, J. Massies, and P. Gibart, “Temperature quenching of photoluminescence intensities in undoped and doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3721–3728 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Spontaneous versus piezoelectric polarization in III-V nitrides: Conceptual aspects and practical consequences,” Phys. Status Solidi B 216(1), 391–398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

S. Fujita, M. Funato, D. C. Park, Y. Ikenaga, and S. Fujita, “Electrical characterization of MOVPE-grown p-type GaN:Mg against annealing temperature,” MRS Proc. 537, G6.31 (1998).

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature- dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, S. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, “Recombination dynamics of localized excitons in In0.20Ga0.80N/In0.05Ga0.95N multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 55(4), R1938–R1941 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, “Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence spectra of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(16), 2346–2348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

I. H. Ho and G. B. Stringfellow, “Solid phase immiscibility in GaInN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(18), 2701–2703 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abare, A. C.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aoyagi, Y.

P. Riblet, H. Hirayama, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, T. Sugano, and Y. Aoyagi, “Determination of photoluminescence mechanism in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2241–2243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barski, A.

E. M. Goldys, M. Godlewski, R. Langer, A. Barski, P. Bergman, and B. Monemar, “Analysis of the red optical emission in cubic GaN grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 60(8), 5464–5469 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beaumont, B.

M. Leroux, N. Grandjean, B. Beaumont, G. Nataf, F. Semond, J. Massies, and P. Gibart, “Temperature quenching of photoluminescence intensities in undoped and doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3721–3728 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bechstedt, F.

L. K. Teles, J. Furthmuller, L. M. R. Scolfaro, J. R. Leite, and F. Bechstedt, “First-principles calculations of the thermodynamic and structural properties of strained InxGa1-xN and AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), 2475–2485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bellotti, E.

S. Chiaria, E. Furno, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Design criteria for near-ultraviolet GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 57(1), 60–70 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, P.

E. M. Goldys, M. Godlewski, R. Langer, A. Barski, P. Bergman, and B. Monemar, “Analysis of the red optical emission in cubic GaN grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 60(8), 5464–5469 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 64(8), 085207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Spontaneous versus piezoelectric polarization in III-V nitrides: Conceptual aspects and practical consequences,” Phys. Status Solidi B 216(1), 391–398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. Y.

Y. K. Kuo, J. Y. Chang, M. C. Tsai, and S. H. Yen, “Advantages of blue InGaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes with InGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. M.

C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, H. S. Chen, K. Y. Chen, W. L. Chung, W. M. Chang, J. J. Huang, Y. F. Yao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Emission efficiency dependence on the overgrown p-GaN thickness in a high-indium InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1757–1759 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. C.

C. K. Choi, B. D. Little, Y. H. Kwon, J. B. Lam, J. J. Song, Y. C. Chang, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy and time-resolved photoluminescence of an InxGa1-xN/GaN double heterostructure,” Phys. Rev. B 63(19), 195302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. Y.

C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, H. S. Chen, K. Y. Chen, W. L. Chung, W. M. Chang, J. J. Huang, Y. F. Yao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Emission efficiency dependence on the overgrown p-GaN thickness in a high-indium InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1757–1759 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Wang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, and C. C. Yang, “Carrier capture times of the localized states in an InGaN thin film with indium-rich nanocluster structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. S.

C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, H. S. Chen, K. Y. Chen, W. L. Chung, W. M. Chang, J. J. Huang, Y. F. Yao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Emission efficiency dependence on the overgrown p-GaN thickness in a high-indium InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1757–1759 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. Y.

C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, H. S. Chen, K. Y. Chen, W. L. Chung, W. M. Chang, J. J. Huang, Y. F. Yao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Emission efficiency dependence on the overgrown p-GaN thickness in a high-indium InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1757–1759 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. C.

S. W. Feng, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Lu, S. J. Liu, E. C. Lin, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Cluster size and composition variations in yellow and red light-emitting InGaN thin films upon thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5388–5396 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J.-R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K.-J. Ma, S.-C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C.-C. Pan, and J.-I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. C.

H. C. Wang, S. J. Lin, Y. C. Lu, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Yang, and K. J. Ma, “Carrier relaxation in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with nanometer-scale cluster structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(8), 1371–1373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J.-R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K.-J. Ma, S.-C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C.-C. Pan, and J.-I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.-C.

Y.-Y. Chung, Y.-S. Lin, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, E.-C. Lin, C. C. Yang, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, and J.-S. Tsang, “Quantum-well-width dependencies of postgrowth thermal annealing effects of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 9693–9696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, Y.-Y. Chung, C.-W. Liu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C. C. Yang, M.-H. Mao, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, J.-S. Tsang, and T. E. Weirich, “Quasiregular quantum-dot-like structure formation with postgrowth thermal annealing of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(14), 2571–2573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C.-C. Chou, C.-M. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chiaria, S.

S. Chiaria, E. Furno, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Design criteria for near-ultraviolet GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 57(1), 60–70 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S.

S. Chichibu, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, “Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence spectra of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(16), 2346–2348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y. H.

Y. H. Cho, Y. P. Sun, H. M. Kim, T. W. Kang, E.-K. Suh, H. J. Lee, R. J. Choi, and Y. B. Hahn, “High quantum efficiency of violet-blue to green light emission in InGaN quantum well structures grown by graded-indium-content profiling method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature- dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C. K.

C. K. Choi, B. D. Little, Y. H. Kwon, J. B. Lam, J. J. Song, Y. C. Chang, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy and time-resolved photoluminescence of an InxGa1-xN/GaN double heterostructure,” Phys. Rev. B 63(19), 195302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Choi, R. J.

Y. H. Cho, Y. P. Sun, H. M. Kim, T. W. Kang, E.-K. Suh, H. J. Lee, R. J. Choi, and Y. B. Hahn, “High quantum efficiency of violet-blue to green light emission in InGaN quantum well structures grown by graded-indium-content profiling method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C.-C.

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C.-C. Chou, C.-M. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, H.-W.

Y.-Y. Chung, Y.-S. Lin, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, E.-C. Lin, C. C. Yang, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, and J.-S. Tsang, “Quantum-well-width dependencies of postgrowth thermal annealing effects of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 9693–9696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, Y.-Y. Chung, C.-W. Liu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C. C. Yang, M.-H. Mao, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, J.-S. Tsang, and T. E. Weirich, “Quasiregular quantum-dot-like structure formation with postgrowth thermal annealing of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(14), 2571–2573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chung, W. L.

C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, H. S. Chen, K. Y. Chen, W. L. Chung, W. M. Chang, J. J. Huang, Y. F. Yao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Emission efficiency dependence on the overgrown p-GaN thickness in a high-indium InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1757–1759 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.-Y.

Y.-Y. Chung, Y.-S. Lin, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, E.-C. Lin, C. C. Yang, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, and J.-S. Tsang, “Quantum-well-width dependencies of postgrowth thermal annealing effects of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 9693–9696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, Y.-Y. Chung, C.-W. Liu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C. C. Yang, M.-H. Mao, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, J.-S. Tsang, and T. E. Weirich, “Quasiregular quantum-dot-like structure formation with postgrowth thermal annealing of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(14), 2571–2573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chyi, J.-I.

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J.-R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K.-J. Ma, S.-C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C.-C. Pan, and J.-I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C.-C. Chou, C.-M. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Mierry, P.

H. P. D. Schenk, M. Leroux, and P. de Mierry, “Luminescence and absorption in InGaN epitaxial layers and the van Roosbroeck–Shockley relation,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(3), 1525–1543 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Della Sala, F.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

C. K. Choi, B. D. Little, Y. H. Kwon, J. B. Lam, J. J. Song, Y. C. Chang, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy and time-resolved photoluminescence of an InxGa1-xN/GaN double heterostructure,” Phys. Rev. B 63(19), 195302 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature- dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Di Carlo, A.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dluzewski, P.

P. Ruterana, S. Kret, A. Vivet, G. Maciejewski, and P. Dluzewski, “Composition fluctuation in InGaN quantum wells made from molecular beam or metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 8979–8985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R. D.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Limb, W. Lee, J. H. Ryou, D. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Comparison of GaN and In0.04Ga0.96N p-layers on the electrical and electroluminescence properties of green light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 36(4), 426–430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Q.

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
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Feng, S. W.

S. W. Feng, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Lu, S. J. Liu, E. C. Lin, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Cluster size and composition variations in yellow and red light-emitting InGaN thin films upon thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5388–5396 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, S.-W.

Y.-Y. Chung, Y.-S. Lin, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, E.-C. Lin, C. C. Yang, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, and J.-S. Tsang, “Quantum-well-width dependencies of postgrowth thermal annealing effects of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 9693–9696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, Y.-Y. Chung, C.-W. Liu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C. C. Yang, M.-H. Mao, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, J.-S. Tsang, and T. E. Weirich, “Quasiregular quantum-dot-like structure formation with postgrowth thermal annealing of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(14), 2571–2573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C.-C. Chou, C.-M. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentini, V.

F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 64(8), 085207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Spontaneous versus piezoelectric polarization in III-V nitrides: Conceptual aspects and practical consequences,” Phys. Status Solidi B 216(1), 391–398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. J.

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature- dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. M.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fleischer, S. B.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, S.

A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, G. Marutsuki, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Spatial and temporal luminescence dynamics in an InxGa1−xN single quantum well probed by near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(23), 4353–4355 (2002).
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S. Fujita, M. Funato, D. C. Park, Y. Ikenaga, and S. Fujita, “Electrical characterization of MOVPE-grown p-type GaN:Mg against annealing temperature,” MRS Proc. 537, G6.31 (1998).

S. Fujita, M. Funato, D. C. Park, Y. Ikenaga, and S. Fujita, “Electrical characterization of MOVPE-grown p-type GaN:Mg against annealing temperature,” MRS Proc. 537, G6.31 (1998).

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, S. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, “Recombination dynamics of localized excitons in In0.20Ga0.80N/In0.05Ga0.95N multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 55(4), R1938–R1941 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, S. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, “Recombination dynamics of localized excitons in In0.20Ga0.80N/In0.05Ga0.95N multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 55(4), R1938–R1941 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Funato, M.

S. Fujita, M. Funato, D. C. Park, Y. Ikenaga, and S. Fujita, “Electrical characterization of MOVPE-grown p-type GaN:Mg against annealing temperature,” MRS Proc. 537, G6.31 (1998).

Furno, E.

S. Chiaria, E. Furno, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Design criteria for near-ultraviolet GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 57(1), 60–70 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Furthmuller, J.

L. K. Teles, J. Furthmuller, L. M. R. Scolfaro, J. R. Leite, and F. Bechstedt, “First-principles calculations of the thermodynamic and structural properties of strained InxGa1-xN and AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), 2475–2485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gainer, G. H.

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature- dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gibart, P.

M. Leroux, N. Grandjean, B. Beaumont, G. Nataf, F. Semond, J. Massies, and P. Gibart, “Temperature quenching of photoluminescence intensities in undoped and doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3721–3728 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goano, M.

S. Chiaria, E. Furno, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Design criteria for near-ultraviolet GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 57(1), 60–70 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Godlewski, M.

E. M. Goldys, M. Godlewski, R. Langer, A. Barski, P. Bergman, and B. Monemar, “Analysis of the red optical emission in cubic GaN grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 60(8), 5464–5469 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goldys, E. M.

E. M. Goldys, M. Godlewski, R. Langer, A. Barski, P. Bergman, and B. Monemar, “Analysis of the red optical emission in cubic GaN grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 60(8), 5464–5469 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grandjean, N.

M. Leroux, N. Grandjean, B. Beaumont, G. Nataf, F. Semond, J. Massies, and P. Gibart, “Temperature quenching of photoluminescence intensities in undoped and doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3721–3728 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, Y. B.

Y. H. Cho, Y. P. Sun, H. M. Kim, T. W. Kang, E.-K. Suh, H. J. Lee, R. J. Choi, and Y. B. Hahn, “High quantum efficiency of violet-blue to green light emission in InGaN quantum well structures grown by graded-indium-content profiling method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hirata, A.

P. Riblet, H. Hirayama, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, T. Sugano, and Y. Aoyagi, “Determination of photoluminescence mechanism in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2241–2243 (1999).
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Hirayama, H.

P. Riblet, H. Hirayama, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, T. Sugano, and Y. Aoyagi, “Determination of photoluminescence mechanism in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(15), 2241–2243 (1999).
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I. H. Ho and G. B. Stringfellow, “Solid phase immiscibility in GaInN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(18), 2701–2703 (1996).
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Hsu, C.

Y.-Y. Chung, Y.-S. Lin, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, E.-C. Lin, C. C. Yang, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, and J.-S. Tsang, “Quantum-well-width dependencies of postgrowth thermal annealing effects of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 9693–9696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, Y.-Y. Chung, C.-W. Liu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C. C. Yang, M.-H. Mao, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, J.-S. Tsang, and T. E. Weirich, “Quasiregular quantum-dot-like structure formation with postgrowth thermal annealing of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(14), 2571–2573 (2002).
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Y. H. Cho, Y. P. Sun, H. M. Kim, T. W. Kang, E.-K. Suh, H. J. Lee, R. J. Choi, and Y. B. Hahn, “High quantum efficiency of violet-blue to green light emission in InGaN quantum well structures grown by graded-indium-content profiling method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011912 (2007).
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C. K. Choi, B. D. Little, Y. H. Kwon, J. B. Lam, J. J. Song, Y. C. Chang, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy and time-resolved photoluminescence of an InxGa1-xN/GaN double heterostructure,” Phys. Rev. B 63(19), 195302 (2001).
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C. K. Choi, B. D. Little, Y. H. Kwon, J. B. Lam, J. J. Song, Y. C. Chang, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy and time-resolved photoluminescence of an InxGa1-xN/GaN double heterostructure,” Phys. Rev. B 63(19), 195302 (2001).
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[CrossRef]

Lee, H. J.

Y. H. Cho, Y. P. Sun, H. M. Kim, T. W. Kang, E.-K. Suh, H. J. Lee, R. J. Choi, and Y. B. Hahn, “High quantum efficiency of violet-blue to green light emission in InGaN quantum well structures grown by graded-indium-content profiling method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011912 (2007).
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J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
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Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C.-C. Chou, C.-M. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
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Lim, J. H.

I. K. Park, M. K. Kwon, J. O. Kim, S. B. Seo, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, S. J. Park, and Y. S. Kim, “Green light-emitting diodes with self-assembled In-rich InGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133105 (2007).
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J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
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J. B. Limb, W. Lee, J. H. Ryou, D. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Comparison of GaN and In0.04Ga0.96N p-layers on the electrical and electroluminescence properties of green light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 36(4), 426–430 (2007).
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S. W. Feng, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Lu, S. J. Liu, E. C. Lin, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Cluster size and composition variations in yellow and red light-emitting InGaN thin films upon thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5388–5396 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, E.-C.

Y.-Y. Chung, Y.-S. Lin, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, E.-C. Lin, C. C. Yang, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, and J.-S. Tsang, “Quantum-well-width dependencies of postgrowth thermal annealing effects of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 9693–9696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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S. W. Feng, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Lu, S. J. Liu, E. C. Lin, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Cluster size and composition variations in yellow and red light-emitting InGaN thin films upon thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5388–5396 (2004).
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Lin, S. J.

H. C. Wang, S. J. Lin, Y. C. Lu, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Yang, and K. J. Ma, “Carrier relaxation in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with nanometer-scale cluster structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(8), 1371–1373 (2004).
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Y.-Y. Chung, Y.-S. Lin, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, E.-C. Lin, C. C. Yang, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, and J.-S. Tsang, “Quantum-well-width dependencies of postgrowth thermal annealing effects of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 9693–9696 (2003).
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Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, Y.-Y. Chung, C.-W. Liu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C. C. Yang, M.-H. Mao, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, J.-S. Tsang, and T. E. Weirich, “Quasiregular quantum-dot-like structure formation with postgrowth thermal annealing of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(14), 2571–2573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C.-C. Chou, C.-M. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. D.

C. K. Choi, B. D. Little, Y. H. Kwon, J. B. Lam, J. J. Song, Y. C. Chang, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy and time-resolved photoluminescence of an InxGa1-xN/GaN double heterostructure,” Phys. Rev. B 63(19), 195302 (2001).
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Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, Y.-Y. Chung, C.-W. Liu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C. C. Yang, M.-H. Mao, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, J.-S. Tsang, and T. E. Weirich, “Quasiregular quantum-dot-like structure formation with postgrowth thermal annealing of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(14), 2571–2573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. P.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. J.

S. W. Feng, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Lu, S. J. Liu, E. C. Lin, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Cluster size and composition variations in yellow and red light-emitting InGaN thin films upon thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5388–5396 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. F.

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. C.

H. C. Wang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, and C. C. Yang, “Carrier capture times of the localized states in an InGaN thin film with indium-rich nanocluster structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Wang, S. J. Lin, Y. C. Lu, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Yang, and K. J. Ma, “Carrier relaxation in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with nanometer-scale cluster structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(8), 1371–1373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Feng, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Lu, S. J. Liu, E. C. Lin, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Cluster size and composition variations in yellow and red light-emitting InGaN thin films upon thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5388–5396 (2004).
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Ma, K. J.

H. C. Wang, S. J. Lin, Y. C. Lu, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Yang, and K. J. Ma, “Carrier relaxation in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with nanometer-scale cluster structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(8), 1371–1373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Feng, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Lu, S. J. Liu, E. C. Lin, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Cluster size and composition variations in yellow and red light-emitting InGaN thin films upon thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5388–5396 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, K.-J.

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J.-R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K.-J. Ma, S.-C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C.-C. Pan, and J.-I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Y. Chung, Y.-S. Lin, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, E.-C. Lin, C. C. Yang, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, and J.-S. Tsang, “Quantum-well-width dependencies of postgrowth thermal annealing effects of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 9693–9696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, Y.-Y. Chung, C.-W. Liu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C. C. Yang, M.-H. Mao, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, J.-S. Tsang, and T. E. Weirich, “Quasiregular quantum-dot-like structure formation with postgrowth thermal annealing of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(14), 2571–2573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C.-C. Chou, C.-M. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maciejewski, G.

P. Ruterana, S. Kret, A. Vivet, G. Maciejewski, and P. Dluzewski, “Composition fluctuation in InGaN quantum wells made from molecular beam or metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 8979–8985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mahajan, S.

M. Rao, D. Kim, and S. Mahajan, “Compositional dependence of phase separation in InGaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1961–1963 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mao, M.-H.

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, Y.-Y. Chung, C.-W. Liu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C. C. Yang, M.-H. Mao, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, J.-S. Tsang, and T. E. Weirich, “Quasiregular quantum-dot-like structure formation with postgrowth thermal annealing of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(14), 2571–2573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marutsuki, G.

A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, G. Marutsuki, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Spatial and temporal luminescence dynamics in an InxGa1−xN single quantum well probed by near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(23), 4353–4355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Massies, J.

M. Leroux, N. Grandjean, B. Beaumont, G. Nataf, F. Semond, J. Massies, and P. Gibart, “Temperature quenching of photoluminescence intensities in undoped and doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3721–3728 (1999).
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A. Sasaki, S. Shibakawa, Y. Kawakami, K. Nishizuka, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Equation for internal quantum efficiency and its temperature dependence of luminescence, and application to InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 8719–8723 (2006).
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S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
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X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
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I. K. Park, M. K. Kwon, J. O. Kim, S. B. Seo, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, S. J. Park, and Y. S. Kim, “Green light-emitting diodes with self-assembled In-rich InGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133105 (2007).
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I. K. Park, M. K. Kwon, J. O. Kim, S. B. Seo, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, S. J. Park, and Y. S. Kim, “Green light-emitting diodes with self-assembled In-rich InGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133105 (2007).
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Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J.-R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K.-J. Ma, S.-C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C.-C. Pan, and J.-I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
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T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
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A. Sasaki, S. Shibakawa, Y. Kawakami, K. Nishizuka, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Equation for internal quantum efficiency and its temperature dependence of luminescence, and application to InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 8719–8723 (2006).
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S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
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M. Leroux, N. Grandjean, B. Beaumont, G. Nataf, F. Semond, J. Massies, and P. Gibart, “Temperature quenching of photoluminescence intensities in undoped and doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3721–3728 (1999).
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I. K. Park, M. K. Kwon, J. O. Kim, S. B. Seo, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, S. J. Park, and Y. S. Kim, “Green light-emitting diodes with self-assembled In-rich InGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133105 (2007).
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S. W. Feng, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Lu, S. J. Liu, E. C. Lin, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Cluster size and composition variations in yellow and red light-emitting InGaN thin films upon thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5388–5396 (2004).
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Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J.-R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K.-J. Ma, S.-C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C.-C. Pan, and J.-I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
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A. Sasaki, S. Shibakawa, Y. Kawakami, K. Nishizuka, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Equation for internal quantum efficiency and its temperature dependence of luminescence, and application to InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 8719–8723 (2006).
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X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
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C. K. Choi, B. D. Little, Y. H. Kwon, J. B. Lam, J. J. Song, Y. C. Chang, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy and time-resolved photoluminescence of an InxGa1-xN/GaN double heterostructure,” Phys. Rev. B 63(19), 195302 (2001).
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Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature- dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
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S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
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S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
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S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
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T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
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T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-confined Stark effect due to piezoelectric fields in GaInN strained quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
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S. W. Feng, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Lu, S. J. Liu, E. C. Lin, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Cluster size and composition variations in yellow and red light-emitting InGaN thin films upon thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5388–5396 (2004).
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L. K. Teles, J. Furthmuller, L. M. R. Scolfaro, J. R. Leite, and F. Bechstedt, “First-principles calculations of the thermodynamic and structural properties of strained InxGa1-xN and AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 62(4), 2475–2485 (2000).
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S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
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P. Ruterana, S. Kret, A. Vivet, G. Maciejewski, and P. Dluzewski, “Composition fluctuation in InGaN quantum wells made from molecular beam or metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 8979–8985 (2002).
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S. Chichibu, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, “Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence spectra of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(16), 2346–2348 (1997).
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S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
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Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, Y.-Y. Chung, C.-W. Liu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C. C. Yang, M.-H. Mao, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, J.-S. Tsang, and T. E. Weirich, “Quasiregular quantum-dot-like structure formation with postgrowth thermal annealing of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(14), 2571–2573 (2002).
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T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J.-R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K.-J. Ma, S.-C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C.-C. Pan, and J.-I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
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T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
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Yamada, Y.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
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T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
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Yamaoka, Y.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
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C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, H. S. Chen, K. Y. Chen, W. L. Chung, W. M. Chang, J. J. Huang, Y. F. Yao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Emission efficiency dependence on the overgrown p-GaN thickness in a high-indium InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1757–1759 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Wang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, and C. C. Yang, “Carrier capture times of the localized states in an InGaN thin film with indium-rich nanocluster structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Wang, S. J. Lin, Y. C. Lu, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Yang, and K. J. Ma, “Carrier relaxation in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with nanometer-scale cluster structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(8), 1371–1373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J.-R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K.-J. Ma, S.-C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C.-C. Pan, and J.-I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Feng, T. Y. Tang, Y. C. Lu, S. J. Liu, E. C. Lin, C. C. Yang, K. J. Ma, C. H. Shen, L. C. Chen, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Cluster size and composition variations in yellow and red light-emitting InGaN thin films upon thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5388–5396 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Y. Chung, Y.-S. Lin, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, E.-C. Lin, C. C. Yang, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, and J.-S. Tsang, “Quantum-well-width dependencies of postgrowth thermal annealing effects of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 9693–9696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, Y.-Y. Chung, C.-W. Liu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C. C. Yang, M.-H. Mao, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, J.-S. Tsang, and T. E. Weirich, “Quasiregular quantum-dot-like structure formation with postgrowth thermal annealing of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(14), 2571–2573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C.-C. Chou, C.-M. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.-R.

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[CrossRef]

Yao, Y. F.

C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, H. S. Chen, K. Y. Chen, W. L. Chung, W. M. Chang, J. J. Huang, Y. F. Yao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Emission efficiency dependence on the overgrown p-GaN thickness in a high-indium InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1757–1759 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yen, S. H.

Y. K. Kuo, J. Y. Chang, M. C. Tsai, and S. H. Yen, “Advantages of blue InGaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes with InGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Limb, W. Lee, J. H. Ryou, D. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Comparison of GaN and In0.04Ga0.96N p-layers on the electrical and electroluminescence properties of green light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 36(4), 426–430 (2007).
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Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, Y.-Y. Chung, C.-W. Liu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C. C. Yang, M.-H. Mao, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, J.-S. Tsang, and T. E. Weirich, “Quasiregular quantum-dot-like structure formation with postgrowth thermal annealing of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(14), 2571–2573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J.-R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K.-J. Ma, S.-C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C.-C. Pan, and J.-I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Wang, S. J. Lin, Y. C. Lu, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Yang, and K. J. Ma, “Carrier relaxation in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with nanometer-scale cluster structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(8), 1371–1373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Wang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, and C. C. Yang, “Carrier capture times of the localized states in an InGaN thin film with indium-rich nanocluster structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lin, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, C.-C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C.-C. Chou, C.-M. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “S-shaped temperature- dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. K. Park, M. K. Kwon, J. O. Kim, S. B. Seo, J. Y. Kim, J. H. Lim, S. J. Park, and Y. S. Kim, “Green light-emitting diodes with self-assembled In-rich InGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 133105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Cho, Y. P. Sun, H. M. Kim, T. W. Kang, E.-K. Suh, H. J. Lee, R. J. Choi, and Y. B. Hahn, “High quantum efficiency of violet-blue to green light emission in InGaN quantum well structures grown by graded-indium-content profiling method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
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X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kuo, J. Y. Chang, M. C. Tsai, and S. H. Yen, “Advantages of blue InGaN multiple-quantum well light-emitting diodes with InGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, H. S. Chen, K. Y. Chen, W. L. Chung, W. M. Chang, J. J. Huang, Y. F. Yao, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Emission efficiency dependence on the overgrown p-GaN thickness in a high-indium InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1757–1759 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

S. Chiaria, E. Furno, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Design criteria for near-ultraviolet GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 57(1), 60–70 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

Y.-Y. Chung, Y.-S. Lin, S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, E.-C. Lin, C. C. Yang, K.-J. Ma, C. Hsu, H.-W. Chuang, C.-T. Kuo, and J.-S. Tsang, “Quantum-well-width dependencies of postgrowth thermal annealing effects of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 9693–9696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Ruterana, S. Kret, A. Vivet, G. Maciejewski, and P. Dluzewski, “Composition fluctuation in InGaN quantum wells made from molecular beam or metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(11), 8979–8985 (2002).
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J. Electron. Mater. (1)

J. B. Limb, W. Lee, J. H. Ryou, D. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Comparison of GaN and In0.04Ga0.96N p-layers on the electrical and electroluminescence properties of green light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 36(4), 426–430 (2007).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

XRD patterns in the (0002) plane for samples A-F.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temperature-dependent variations of PL spectral peak energy for samples A-F.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variations of normalized integrated PL intensity with temperature for samples A-F.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variations of PL spectral peak energy with excitation power level for samples A-F.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Curves used for fitting the Arrhenius plots of samples A-F with the fitting parameters shown in Table 1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temperature-dependent variations of PL spectral peak energy for samples FA-FE. The corresponding data of sample F are also shown for comparison.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Variations of PL spectral peak energy with excitation power level for samples FA-FE. The corresponding data of sample F are also shown for comparison.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Variations of normalized integrated PL intensity with temperature for samples FA-FE. The corresponding data of sample F are also shown for comparison.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Temperature-dependent variations of PL spectral peak energy for samples E’A-E’D and E’.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Variations of PL spectral peak energy with excitation power level for samples E’A-E’D and E’.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Variations of normalized integrated PL intensity with temperature for samples E’A-E’D and E’.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Simulation results of potential diagrams of samples A-F.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Structure parameters and the characterization results of samples A-F

Tables Icon

Table 2 Structure parameters and the characterization results of samples FA-FEa

Tables Icon

Table 3 Structure parameters and the characterization results of samples E’A-E’D and E’

Tables Icon

Table 4 Simulation results of the first QW (the one closest to the p-type layer) based on the software APSYS assuming that the average indium content in the QWs is 22%

Equations (1)

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I( T )= I 0 1+αexp( E A1 /kT )+βexp( E A2 /kT ) .

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