Abstract

Resonant guided wave networks (RGWNs) are demonstrated to operate based on dielectric waveguides, broadening the scope of this optical design approach beyond plasmonics. The intersection of two dielectric waveguides that is modified by a tuned scattering particle is shown to function as an equal power splitting element, a key enabler of resonant guided wave networks. We describe structures composed of two types of waveguides, Si slabs and SOI ribs, at the telecom frequencies using both, Au and etch, based scatterers.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. E. Yablonovitch, “Photonic crystals: semiconductors of light,” Sci. Am. 285(6), 46–51, 54–55 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd ed. (Princeton, 2008).
  3. V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. Feigenbaum and H. A. Atwater, “Resonant guided wave networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(14), 147402 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. Feigenbaum, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Programming of inhomogeneous resonant guided wave networks,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25584–25595 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. Feigenbaum and M. Orenstein, “Modeling of Complementary (Void) Plasmon Waveguiding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(9), 2547–2562 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Feigenbaum and M. Orenstein, “Perfect 4-way splitting in nano plasmonic X-junctions,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17948–17953 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Transmission to TE1 is calculated using point monitor at the center of the waveguide for the Ez component (where TE2 amplitude is zero). The total transmission is calculated using a line monitor across the waveguide and integrating over the power normal to it.
  12. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1998).

2010 (3)

E. Feigenbaum and H. A. Atwater, “Resonant guided wave networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(14), 147402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Feigenbaum, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Programming of inhomogeneous resonant guided wave networks,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25584–25595 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, “Photonic crystals: semiconductors of light,” Sci. Am. 285(6), 46–51, 54–55 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

E. Feigenbaum and H. A. Atwater, “Resonant guided wave networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(14), 147402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Feigenbaum, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Programming of inhomogeneous resonant guided wave networks,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25584–25595 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burgos, S. P.

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feigenbaum, E.

Orenstein, M.

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, “Photonic crystals: semiconductors of light,” Sci. Am. 285(6), 46–51, 54–55 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Mater. (1)

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Feigenbaum and H. A. Atwater, “Resonant guided wave networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(14), 147402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sci. Am. (1)

E. Yablonovitch, “Photonic crystals: semiconductors of light,” Sci. Am. 285(6), 46–51, 54–55 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd ed. (Princeton, 2008).

Transmission to TE1 is calculated using point monitor at the center of the waveguide for the Ez component (where TE2 amplitude is zero). The total transmission is calculated using a line monitor across the waveguide and integrating over the power normal to it.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1998).

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MPG (856 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (907 KB)     
» Media 3: MPG (3211 KB)     

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of resonant guided wave networks (RGWNs): a) RGWN composed of nine power splitting elements which functions as a color router; b) power splitting of an incoming wave between the four terminals; c) implementation of the power splitting element for the plasmonic mode in two intersecting MIM waveguides; d) a possible implementation for photonic modes based on modifying the intersection with a scattering particle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Power splitting at the intersection of two equal width Si-air slabs without a scattering element at λ = 1.5 µm as a function of their width: a) effective index of the slab modes; field transmission to the different terminals and the FOM for equal power splitting for (b) TE1 and (c) TM1 excitation; d) the fraction of scattered power for TM1 (blue) and TE1 (red) excitation (see Appendix A for more details).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Power splitting at the intersection of two 180nm wide Si-air slabs modified by a radial Au particle at the junction: (a) FOM of equal splitting and (b) Fraction of scattered power as a function of the Au particle radius and the Si cladding layer thickness. c) snapshot of the E-field out-of-plane component at the incidence of equal power splitting for a pulse excitation with the lowest TE polarization mode from terminal ‘B’ (Media 1). The intersection of the two 180 nm Si slabs is modified with a 60 nm radius Au particle as indicated by the structure overlay, and also by a white star on the parameter space in figures ‘a’ and ‘b’. λ = 1.5µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Power splitting at the intersection of two 180 nm wide Si-air slabs modified by a radial etch scattering element at the junction: (a) FOM of equal splitting and (b) Fraction of scattered power as a function of the air particle radius and the Si cladding layer thickness. c) snapshot of the E-field out-of-plane component at the incidence of equal power splitting for a pulse excitation with the lowest TE polarization mode from terminal ‘B’ (Media 2). The intersection of the two 180 nm Si slabs is modified with a 140 nm radius air particle and 60 nm cladding layer as indicated by the structure overlay, and also by a white star on the parameter space in figures ‘a’ and ‘b’. λ = 1.5µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Power splitting at the intersection of two 500 nm × 220 nm (width × thickness) Si rib waveguides modified by a cylindrical Au scattering element at the junction: (a) FOM of equal splitting and (b) fraction of scattered power as a function of the air particle radius and the Si cladding layer thickness. c) power snapshot for a 2x2 RGWN composed of four power splitting elements with 125 nm Au particle radius and 350 Si cladding layer (Media 3). The monitor plane is 100nm above the Si-SiO2 interface. A snapshot of the power splitting at one element and the modal cross-section are brought as insets. λ = 1.5µm.

Fig. A1
Fig. A1

Power splitting at the unmodified intersection of two equal width Au-air-Au (MIM) plasmonic waveguides at λ = 1.5µm as a function of their gap width: a) effective index of the TM0 plasmonic mode of the MIM waveguide; b) FOM for equal power splitting and the fraction of scattered power; c) bandwidth of the transmission to sideways terminals.

Fig. A2
Fig. A2

Power splitting at the intersection of two 180nm wide Si-air slabs modified by a radial Au particle at the junction: a) bandwidth of the transmission to sideways terminals; phase difference of the split wave between the outputs of the (b) forward and backwards terminals and (c) sideways and backwards terminals.

Fig. A3
Fig. A3

Power splitting at the intersection of two 180 nm wide Si-air slabs modified by a radial etch scattering element at the junction: a) bandwidth of the transmission to sideways terminals; phase difference of the split wave between the outputs of the (b) forward and backwards terminals and (c) sideways and backwards terminals.

Fig. A4
Fig. A4

Power splitting at the intersection of two (500 nm × 220 nm) Si rib waveguides modified by a cylindrical Au scattering element at the junction: a) bandwidth of the transmission to sideways terminals; phase difference of the split wave between the outputs of the (b) forward and backwards terminals and (c) sideways and backwards terminals.

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