Abstract

In this study, we present dual-beam Doppler optical coherence angiography with variable beam separation. Altering beam distance, independently of the scanning protocol, provides a flexible way to select the velocity range of detectable blood flow. This system utilized a one-micrometer wavelength light source to visualize deep into the posterior eye, i.e., the choroid. Two-dimensional choroidal vasculature maps of a human subject acquired with different beam separations, and hence with several velocity ranges, are presented. Combining these maps yields a semi-quantitative visualization of axial velocity of the choroidal circulation. The proposed technique may be useful for identifying choroidal abnormalities that occur in pathological conditions of the eye.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (7)

E. A. T. Say, S. U. Shah, S. Ferenczy, and C. L. Shields, “Optical coherence tomography of retinal and choroidal tumors,” J. Ophthalmol. 2011, 385058 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wang, Z. Ding, M. Geiser, T. Wu, and M. Chen, “Choroidal laser Doppler flowmeter with enhanced sensitivity based on a scattering plate,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, M. Bonesi, E. Götzinger, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Visualization of microvasculature by dual-beam phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1217–1227 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1271–1283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Liu, W. Qi, L. Yu, and Z. Chen, “Real-time bulk-motion-correction free Doppler variance optical coherence tomography for choroidal capillary vasculature imaging,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3657–3666 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jaillon, S. Makita, E.-J. Min, B. H. Lee, and Y. Yasuno, “Enhanced imaging of choroidal vasculature by high-penetration and dual-velocity optical coherence angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1147–1158 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Enfield, E. Jonathan, and M. Leahy, “In vivo imaging of the microcirculation of the volar forearm using correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1184–1193 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (4)

L. M. Sakata, J. Deleon-Ortega, V. Sakata, and C. A. Girkin, “Optical coherence tomography of the retina and optic nerve - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 37(1), 90–99 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Feigl, “Age-related maculopathy - linking aetiology and pathophysiological changes to the ischaemia hypothesis,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 28(1), 63–86 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Tao, K. M. Kennedy, and J. A. Izatt, “Velocity-resolved 3D retinal microvessel imaging using single-pass flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4177–4188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Scanning protocols dedicated to smart velocity ranging in spectral OCT,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23736–23754 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (7)

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. A. Leitgeb, and L. Schmetterer, “Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for measurement of absolute flow velocities in human retinal vessels,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 2967–2969 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Pemp and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow in diabetes and age-related macular degeneration,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 43(3), 295–301 (2008).
[PubMed]

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, “State-of-the-art retinal optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27(1), 45–88 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. de Bruin, D. L. Burnes, J. Loewenstein, Y. Chen, S. Chang, T. C. Chen, D. D. Esmaili, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo three-dimensional imaging of neovascular age-related macular degeneration using optical frequency domain imaging at 1050 nm,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4545–4552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (3)

2005 (4)

2003 (2)

2001 (1)

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

T. A. Ciulla, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, R. P. Danis, L. Kagemann, L. McNulty, L. M. Pratt, and B. J. Martin, “Color Doppler imaging discloses reduced ocular blood flow velocities in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 128(1), 75–80 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (3)

P. Amalric, “The choriocapillaris in the macular area,” Int. Ophthalmol. 6(2), 149–153 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Hayreh, “Physiological anatomy of the choroidal vascular bed,” Int. Ophthalmol. 6(2), 85–93 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. De Laey, “Fluorescein angiography of the choroid in health and disease,” Int. Ophthalmol. 6(2), 125–138 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahnelt, P.

Akiba, M.

Amalric, P.

P. Amalric, “The choriocapillaris in the macular area,” Int. Ophthalmol. 6(2), 149–153 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, L.

Bachmann, A. H.

Bajraszewski, T.

Bardenstein, D. S.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

Barton, J.

Barton, J. K.

Bizheva, K.

Blatter, C.

Bonesi, M.

Bouma, B. E.

Burnes, D. L.

D. M. de Bruin, D. L. Burnes, J. Loewenstein, Y. Chen, S. Chang, T. C. Chen, D. D. Esmaili, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo three-dimensional imaging of neovascular age-related macular degeneration using optical frequency domain imaging at 1050 nm,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4545–4552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Calucci, D.

R. A. Costa, M. Skaf, L. A. Melo, D. Calucci, J. A. Cardillo, J. C. Castro, D. Huang, and M. Wojtkowski, “Retinal assessment using optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 25(3), 325–353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardillo, J. A.

R. A. Costa, M. Skaf, L. A. Melo, D. Calucci, J. A. Cardillo, J. C. Castro, D. Huang, and M. Wojtkowski, “Retinal assessment using optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 25(3), 325–353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castro, J. C.

R. A. Costa, M. Skaf, L. A. Melo, D. Calucci, J. A. Cardillo, J. C. Castro, D. Huang, and M. Wojtkowski, “Retinal assessment using optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 25(3), 325–353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chan, K.-P.

Chang, S.

D. M. de Bruin, D. L. Burnes, J. Loewenstein, Y. Chen, S. Chang, T. C. Chen, D. D. Esmaili, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo three-dimensional imaging of neovascular age-related macular degeneration using optical frequency domain imaging at 1050 nm,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4545–4552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

C. Wang, Z. Ding, M. Geiser, T. Wu, and M. Chen, “Choroidal laser Doppler flowmeter with enhanced sensitivity based on a scattering plate,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

D. M. de Bruin, D. L. Burnes, J. Loewenstein, Y. Chen, S. Chang, T. C. Chen, D. D. Esmaili, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo three-dimensional imaging of neovascular age-related macular degeneration using optical frequency domain imaging at 1050 nm,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4545–4552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

D. M. de Bruin, D. L. Burnes, J. Loewenstein, Y. Chen, S. Chang, T. C. Chen, D. D. Esmaili, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo three-dimensional imaging of neovascular age-related macular degeneration using optical frequency domain imaging at 1050 nm,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4545–4552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Chong, C.

Chung, H. S.

T. A. Ciulla, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, R. P. Danis, L. Kagemann, L. McNulty, L. M. Pratt, and B. J. Martin, “Color Doppler imaging discloses reduced ocular blood flow velocities in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 128(1), 75–80 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciulla, T. A.

T. A. Ciulla, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, R. P. Danis, L. Kagemann, L. McNulty, L. M. Pratt, and B. J. Martin, “Color Doppler imaging discloses reduced ocular blood flow velocities in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 128(1), 75–80 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costa, R. A.

R. A. Costa, M. Skaf, L. A. Melo, D. Calucci, J. A. Cardillo, J. C. Castro, D. Huang, and M. Wojtkowski, “Retinal assessment using optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 25(3), 325–353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danis, R. P.

T. A. Ciulla, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, R. P. Danis, L. Kagemann, L. McNulty, L. M. Pratt, and B. J. Martin, “Color Doppler imaging discloses reduced ocular blood flow velocities in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 128(1), 75–80 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

de Bruin, D. M.

D. M. de Bruin, D. L. Burnes, J. Loewenstein, Y. Chen, S. Chang, T. C. Chen, D. D. Esmaili, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo three-dimensional imaging of neovascular age-related macular degeneration using optical frequency domain imaging at 1050 nm,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4545–4552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Laey, J. J.

J. J. De Laey, “Fluorescein angiography of the choroid in health and disease,” Int. Ophthalmol. 6(2), 125–138 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deleon-Ortega, J.

L. M. Sakata, J. Deleon-Ortega, V. Sakata, and C. A. Girkin, “Optical coherence tomography of the retina and optic nerve - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 37(1), 90–99 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, Z.

C. Wang, Z. Ding, M. Geiser, T. Wu, and M. Chen, “Choroidal laser Doppler flowmeter with enhanced sensitivity based on a scattering plate,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dragostinoff, N.

Drexler, W.

Duker, J. S.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
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J. E. Grunwald, T. I. Metelitsina, J. C. Dupont, G. S. Ying, and M. G. Maguire, “Reduced foveolar choroidal blood flow in eyes with increasing AMD severity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(3), 1033–1038 (2005).
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Enfield, J.

Esmaili, D. D.

D. M. de Bruin, D. L. Burnes, J. Loewenstein, Y. Chen, S. Chang, T. C. Chen, D. D. Esmaili, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo three-dimensional imaging of neovascular age-related macular degeneration using optical frequency domain imaging at 1050 nm,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4545–4552 (2008).
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B. Feigl, “Age-related maculopathy - linking aetiology and pathophysiological changes to the ischaemia hypothesis,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 28(1), 63–86 (2009).
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Ferenczy, S.

E. A. T. Say, S. U. Shah, S. Ferenczy, and C. L. Shields, “Optical coherence tomography of retinal and choroidal tumors,” J. Ophthalmol. 2011, 385058 (2011).
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Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Francis, P.

Friedman, E.

E. Friedman, “A hemodynamic model of the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 124(5), 677–682 (1997).
[PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
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W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, “State-of-the-art retinal optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27(1), 45–88 (2008).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Geiser, M.

C. Wang, Z. Ding, M. Geiser, T. Wu, and M. Chen, “Choroidal laser Doppler flowmeter with enhanced sensitivity based on a scattering plate,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047004 (2011).
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Girkin, C. A.

L. M. Sakata, J. Deleon-Ortega, V. Sakata, and C. A. Girkin, “Optical coherence tomography of the retina and optic nerve - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 37(1), 90–99 (2009).
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Gorczynska, I.

I. Grulkowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Scanning protocols dedicated to smart velocity ranging in spectral OCT,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23736–23754 (2009).
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V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
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Götzinger, E.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Grulkowski, I.

Grunwald, J. E.

J. E. Grunwald, T. I. Metelitsina, J. C. Dupont, G. S. Ying, and M. G. Maguire, “Reduced foveolar choroidal blood flow in eyes with increasing AMD severity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(3), 1033–1038 (2005).
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Harris, A.

T. A. Ciulla, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, R. P. Danis, L. Kagemann, L. McNulty, L. M. Pratt, and B. J. Martin, “Color Doppler imaging discloses reduced ocular blood flow velocities in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 128(1), 75–80 (1999).
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Hayreh, S. S.

S. S. Hayreh, “Physiological anatomy of the choroidal vascular bed,” Int. Ophthalmol. 6(2), 85–93 (1983).
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Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Hermann, B.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Holzwarth, R.

Hong, Y.

Huang, D.

R. A. Costa, M. Skaf, L. A. Melo, D. Calucci, J. A. Cardillo, J. C. Castro, D. Huang, and M. Wojtkowski, “Retinal assessment using optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 25(3), 325–353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Huber, R.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
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Itoh, M.

Izatt, J. A.

Jaillon, F.

Jiang, J.

Jonathan, E.

Kagemann, L.

T. A. Ciulla, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, R. P. Danis, L. Kagemann, L. McNulty, L. M. Pratt, and B. J. Martin, “Color Doppler imaging discloses reduced ocular blood flow velocities in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 128(1), 75–80 (1999).
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Kennedy, K. M.

Khurana, M.

Kim, S.

Knight, J.

Kowalczyk, A.

Kulkarni, M. D.

Lasser, T.

Leahy, M.

Lee, B. H.

Lee, E. C. W.

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Leung, M. K. K.

Lim, H.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

Loewenstein, J.

D. M. de Bruin, D. L. Burnes, J. Loewenstein, Y. Chen, S. Chang, T. C. Chen, D. D. Esmaili, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo three-dimensional imaging of neovascular age-related macular degeneration using optical frequency domain imaging at 1050 nm,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4545–4552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madjarova, V. D.

Maguire, M. G.

J. E. Grunwald, T. I. Metelitsina, J. C. Dupont, G. S. Ying, and M. G. Maguire, “Reduced foveolar choroidal blood flow in eyes with increasing AMD severity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(3), 1033–1038 (2005).
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Makita, S.

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1271–1283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jaillon, S. Makita, E.-J. Min, B. H. Lee, and Y. Yasuno, “Enhanced imaging of choroidal vasculature by high-penetration and dual-velocity optical coherence angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1147–1158 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Kim, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Three-dimensional visualization of choroidal vessels by using standard and ultra-high resolution scattering optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7538–7550 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, Y. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Akiba, M. Miura, and T. Yatagai, “In vivo high-contrast imaging of deep posterior eye by 1-µm swept source optical coherence tomography and scattering optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6121–6139 (2007).
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S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7821–7840 (2006).
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Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K.-P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10652–10664 (2005).
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Mariampillai, A.

Martin, B. J.

T. A. Ciulla, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, R. P. Danis, L. Kagemann, L. McNulty, L. M. Pratt, and B. J. Martin, “Color Doppler imaging discloses reduced ocular blood flow velocities in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 128(1), 75–80 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNulty, L.

T. A. Ciulla, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, R. P. Danis, L. Kagemann, L. McNulty, L. M. Pratt, and B. J. Martin, “Color Doppler imaging discloses reduced ocular blood flow velocities in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 128(1), 75–80 (1999).
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Meemon, P.

Mei, M.

Melo, L. A.

R. A. Costa, M. Skaf, L. A. Melo, D. Calucci, J. A. Cardillo, J. C. Castro, D. Huang, and M. Wojtkowski, “Retinal assessment using optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 25(3), 325–353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metelitsina, T. I.

J. E. Grunwald, T. I. Metelitsina, J. C. Dupont, G. S. Ying, and M. G. Maguire, “Reduced foveolar choroidal blood flow in eyes with increasing AMD severity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(3), 1033–1038 (2005).
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Miura, M.

Moriyama, E. H.

Morosawa, A.

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Munce, N. R.

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Park, B. H.

Pemp, B.

B. Pemp and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow in diabetes and age-related macular degeneration,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 43(3), 295–301 (2008).
[PubMed]

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Pircher, M.

Povãzay, B.

Pratt, L. M.

T. A. Ciulla, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, R. P. Danis, L. Kagemann, L. McNulty, L. M. Pratt, and B. J. Martin, “Color Doppler imaging discloses reduced ocular blood flow velocities in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 128(1), 75–80 (1999).
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Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Qi, W.

Radhakrishnan, S.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

Rolland, J. P.

Rollins, A. M.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

Roth, J. E.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
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Sakai, T.

Sakata, L. M.

L. M. Sakata, J. Deleon-Ortega, V. Sakata, and C. A. Girkin, “Optical coherence tomography of the retina and optic nerve - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 37(1), 90–99 (2009).
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Sakata, V.

L. M. Sakata, J. Deleon-Ortega, V. Sakata, and C. A. Girkin, “Optical coherence tomography of the retina and optic nerve - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 37(1), 90–99 (2009).
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Sattmann, H.

Saxer, C.

Say, E. A. T.

E. A. T. Say, S. U. Shah, S. Ferenczy, and C. L. Shields, “Optical coherence tomography of retinal and choroidal tumors,” J. Ophthalmol. 2011, 385058 (2011).
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Schmetterer, L.

Schubert, C.

Schuman, J. S.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Shah, S. U.

E. A. T. Say, S. U. Shah, S. Ferenczy, and C. L. Shields, “Optical coherence tomography of retinal and choroidal tumors,” J. Ophthalmol. 2011, 385058 (2011).
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Shields, C. L.

E. A. T. Say, S. U. Shah, S. Ferenczy, and C. L. Shields, “Optical coherence tomography of retinal and choroidal tumors,” J. Ophthalmol. 2011, 385058 (2011).
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Skaf, M.

R. A. Costa, M. Skaf, L. A. Melo, D. Calucci, J. A. Cardillo, J. C. Castro, D. Huang, and M. Wojtkowski, “Retinal assessment using optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 25(3), 325–353 (2006).
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Srinivasan, V. J.

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
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Standish, B. A.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Stromski, S.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Szkulmowska, A.

Szkulmowski, M.

Szlag, D.

Tao, Y. K.

Tearney, G. J.

Torzicky, T.

Unterhuber, A.

Villiger, M. L.

Vitkin, I. A.

Wadsworth, W.

Wang, C.

C. Wang, Z. Ding, M. Geiser, T. Wu, and M. Chen, “Choroidal laser Doppler flowmeter with enhanced sensitivity based on a scattering plate,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047004 (2011).
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Wang, R. K.

Welch, A. J.

Werkmeister, R. M.

Westphal, V.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

Wilson, D. J.

Wojtkowski, M.

I. Grulkowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Scanning protocols dedicated to smart velocity ranging in spectral OCT,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23736–23754 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Costa, M. Skaf, L. A. Melo, D. Calucci, J. A. Cardillo, J. C. Castro, D. Huang, and M. Wojtkowski, “Retinal assessment using optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 25(3), 325–353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, T.

C. Wang, Z. Ding, M. Geiser, T. Wu, and M. Chen, “Choroidal laser Doppler flowmeter with enhanced sensitivity based on a scattering plate,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047004 (2011).
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Xiang, S.

Yamanari, M.

Yang, V. X. D.

Yasuno, Y.

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1271–1283 (2011).
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F. Jaillon, S. Makita, E.-J. Min, B. H. Lee, and Y. Yasuno, “Enhanced imaging of choroidal vasculature by high-penetration and dual-velocity optical coherence angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1147–1158 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Kim, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Three-dimensional visualization of choroidal vessels by using standard and ultra-high resolution scattering optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7538–7550 (2007).
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Y. Yasuno, Y. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Akiba, M. Miura, and T. Yatagai, “In vivo high-contrast imaging of deep posterior eye by 1-µm swept source optical coherence tomography and scattering optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6121–6139 (2007).
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S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7821–7840 (2006).
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Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K.-P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10652–10664 (2005).
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Yatagai, T.

Yazdanfar, S.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
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J. E. Grunwald, T. I. Metelitsina, J. C. Dupont, G. S. Ying, and M. G. Maguire, “Reduced foveolar choroidal blood flow in eyes with increasing AMD severity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(3), 1033–1038 (2005).
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Yun, S. H.

Yun, S.-H.

Zawadzki, R.

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Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

T. A. Ciulla, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, R. P. Danis, L. Kagemann, L. McNulty, L. M. Pratt, and B. J. Martin, “Color Doppler imaging discloses reduced ocular blood flow velocities in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 128(1), 75–80 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Friedman, “A hemodynamic model of the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 124(5), 677–682 (1997).
[PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Can. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

B. Pemp and L. Schmetterer, “Ocular blood flow in diabetes and age-related macular degeneration,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 43(3), 295–301 (2008).
[PubMed]

Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. (1)

L. M. Sakata, J. Deleon-Ortega, V. Sakata, and C. A. Girkin, “Optical coherence tomography of the retina and optic nerve - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 37(1), 90–99 (2009).
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S. S. Hayreh, “Physiological anatomy of the choroidal vascular bed,” Int. Ophthalmol. 6(2), 85–93 (1983).
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Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (3)

D. M. de Bruin, D. L. Burnes, J. Loewenstein, Y. Chen, S. Chang, T. C. Chen, D. D. Esmaili, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo three-dimensional imaging of neovascular age-related macular degeneration using optical frequency domain imaging at 1050 nm,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4545–4552 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, I. Gorczynska, R. Huber, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography for three-dimensional and en face imaging of the retina and optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(11), 5103–5110 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Grunwald, T. I. Metelitsina, J. C. Dupont, G. S. Ying, and M. G. Maguire, “Reduced foveolar choroidal blood flow in eyes with increasing AMD severity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(3), 1033–1038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

L. Yu and Z. Chen, “Doppler variance imaging for three-dimensional retina and choroid angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016029 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wang, Z. Ding, M. Geiser, T. Wu, and M. Chen, “Choroidal laser Doppler flowmeter with enhanced sensitivity based on a scattering plate,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ophthalmol. (1)

E. A. T. Say, S. U. Shah, S. Ferenczy, and C. L. Shields, “Optical coherence tomography of retinal and choroidal tumors,” J. Ophthalmol. 2011, 385058 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (16)

S. Zotter, M. Pircher, T. Torzicky, M. Bonesi, E. Götzinger, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Visualization of microvasculature by dual-beam phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1217–1227 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1271–1283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Liu, W. Qi, L. Yu, and Z. Chen, “Real-time bulk-motion-correction free Doppler variance optical coherence tomography for choroidal capillary vasculature imaging,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3657–3666 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Tao, K. M. Kennedy, and J. A. Izatt, “Velocity-resolved 3D retinal microvessel imaging using single-pass flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4177–4188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Scanning protocols dedicated to smart velocity ranging in spectral OCT,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23736–23754 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Povãzay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. Schubert, P. Ahnelt, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, W. Wadsworth, J. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “Enhanced visualization of choroidal vessels using ultrahigh resolution ophthalmic OCT at 1050 nm,” Opt. Express 11(17), 1980–1986 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. Fercher, R. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3116–3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S.-H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm,” Opt. Express 13(11), 3931–3944 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Barton and S. Stromski, “Flow measurement without phase information in optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5234–5239 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K.-P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10652–10664 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. W. Lee, J. F. de Boer, M. Mujat, H. Lim, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo optical frequency domain imaging of human retina and choroid,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4403–4411 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7821–7840 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express 15(2), 408–422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, Y. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Akiba, M. Miura, and T. Yatagai, “In vivo high-contrast imaging of deep posterior eye by 1-µm swept source optical coherence tomography and scattering optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6121–6139 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Kim, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Three-dimensional visualization of choroidal vessels by using standard and ultra-high resolution scattering optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7538–7550 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Prog. Retin. Eye Res. (3)

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, “State-of-the-art retinal optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27(1), 45–88 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Costa, M. Skaf, L. A. Melo, D. Calucci, J. A. Cardillo, J. C. Castro, D. Huang, and M. Wojtkowski, “Retinal assessment using optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 25(3), 325–353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Feigl, “Age-related maculopathy - linking aetiology and pathophysiological changes to the ischaemia hypothesis,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 28(1), 63–86 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, Computational Optics Group, University of Tsukuba, 1–1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305–8573, Japan, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography for birefringence-artifact-free vasculature imaging.”

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