Abstract

A compact and efficient source of amplitude-squeezed light is described. It employs a semi-monolithic degenerate MgO:LiNbO3 optical parametric amplifier pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm. Injection-seeding of the amplifier by a 1064 nm wave permits active stabilization of the cavity length and stable operation. At a pump power of 380 mW, a maximum noise reduction of 6.5 dB in the amplitude fluctuations of the 0.2 mW 1064 nm wave was detected. The average detected noise reduction in continuous operation over 14 minutes was 6.2 dB. Taking the detection efficiency into account, this corresponds to a squeezing of 7.2 dB in the emitted wave.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. See special issues on squeezed states of light: J. Opt. Soc. Am. B4 (1987), J. Mod. Opt.34 (1987).
  2. See e.g. D.C. Kilper, D.G. Steel, R. Craig, and D.R. Scifres, Opt. Lett.21, 1283–5 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. F. Marin, A. Bramati, E. Giacobino, T.-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, J.-F. Roch, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett75, 4606–9 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. L.-A. Wu, M. Xiao, and H. J. Kimble, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B4, 1465–75 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  5. E.S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H.J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. B55, 279–90 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  6. Z.Y. Ou, S.F. Pereira, and H.J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. B55, 265–78 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  7. T.J. Kane and R.L. Byer, Opt. Lett.10, 65–7 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. C. D. Nabors and R. M. Shelby, Phys. Rev. A42, 556 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. P. Kiirz, R. Paschotta, K. Fiedler, and J. Mlynek, Europhys. Lett.24, 449–54 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kiirz, K. Fiedler, H.-A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett.72, 3807 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. K. Schneider, R. Bruckmeier, H. Hansen, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Opt. Lett.21, 1396 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. R. Bruckmeier, K. Schneider, H. Hansen, M. Schalke, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Appl. Phys. B64, 203 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  13. R. Bruckmeier, H. Hansen, and S. Schiller, Phys. Rev. Lett.79, 1463 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. Schneider, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, M. Bode, and I. Freitag, Opt. Lett.21, 1999 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. G. Breitenbach and S. Schiller, J. Mod. Opt.44, 2207 (1997).

Bachor, H.-A.

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kiirz, K. Fiedler, H.-A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett.72, 3807 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bode, M.

K. Schneider, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, M. Bode, and I. Freitag, Opt. Lett.21, 1999 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bramati, A.

F. Marin, A. Bramati, E. Giacobino, T.-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, J.-F. Roch, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett75, 4606–9 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breitenbach, G.

G. Breitenbach and S. Schiller, J. Mod. Opt.44, 2207 (1997).

Bruckmeier, R.

R. Bruckmeier, K. Schneider, H. Hansen, M. Schalke, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Appl. Phys. B64, 203 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. Bruckmeier, H. Hansen, and S. Schiller, Phys. Rev. Lett.79, 1463 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Schneider, R. Bruckmeier, H. Hansen, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Opt. Lett.21, 1396 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Byer, R.L.

T.J. Kane and R.L. Byer, Opt. Lett.10, 65–7 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carri, J.

E.S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H.J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. B55, 279–90 (1992).
[Crossref]

Collett, M.

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kiirz, K. Fiedler, H.-A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett.72, 3807 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Craig, R.

See e.g. D.C. Kilper, D.G. Steel, R. Craig, and D.R. Scifres, Opt. Lett.21, 1283–5 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fiedler, K.

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kiirz, K. Fiedler, H.-A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett.72, 3807 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kiirz, R. Paschotta, K. Fiedler, and J. Mlynek, Europhys. Lett.24, 449–54 (1993).
[Crossref]

Freitag, I.

K. Schneider, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, M. Bode, and I. Freitag, Opt. Lett.21, 1999 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giacobino, E.

F. Marin, A. Bramati, E. Giacobino, T.-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, J.-F. Roch, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett75, 4606–9 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grangier, P.

F. Marin, A. Bramati, E. Giacobino, T.-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, J.-F. Roch, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett75, 4606–9 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hansen, H.

K. Schneider, R. Bruckmeier, H. Hansen, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Opt. Lett.21, 1396 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Bruckmeier, H. Hansen, and S. Schiller, Phys. Rev. Lett.79, 1463 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. Bruckmeier, K. Schneider, H. Hansen, M. Schalke, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Appl. Phys. B64, 203 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kane, T.J.

T.J. Kane and R.L. Byer, Opt. Lett.10, 65–7 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiirz, P.

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kiirz, K. Fiedler, H.-A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett.72, 3807 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kiirz, R. Paschotta, K. Fiedler, and J. Mlynek, Europhys. Lett.24, 449–54 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kilper, D.C.

See e.g. D.C. Kilper, D.G. Steel, R. Craig, and D.R. Scifres, Opt. Lett.21, 1283–5 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimble, H. J.

L.-A. Wu, M. Xiao, and H. J. Kimble, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B4, 1465–75 (1987).
[Crossref]

Kimble, H.J.

E.S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H.J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. B55, 279–90 (1992).
[Crossref]

Z.Y. Ou, S.F. Pereira, and H.J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. B55, 265–78 (1992).
[Crossref]

Marin, F.

F. Marin, A. Bramati, E. Giacobino, T.-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, J.-F. Roch, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett75, 4606–9 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mlynek, J.

P. Kiirz, R. Paschotta, K. Fiedler, and J. Mlynek, Europhys. Lett.24, 449–54 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kiirz, K. Fiedler, H.-A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett.72, 3807 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Schneider, R. Bruckmeier, H. Hansen, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Opt. Lett.21, 1396 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Bruckmeier, K. Schneider, H. Hansen, M. Schalke, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Appl. Phys. B64, 203 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Schneider, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, M. Bode, and I. Freitag, Opt. Lett.21, 1999 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nabors, C. D.

C. D. Nabors and R. M. Shelby, Phys. Rev. A42, 556 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ou, Z.Y.

Z.Y. Ou, S.F. Pereira, and H.J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. B55, 265–78 (1992).
[Crossref]

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kiirz, K. Fiedler, H.-A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett.72, 3807 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kiirz, R. Paschotta, K. Fiedler, and J. Mlynek, Europhys. Lett.24, 449–54 (1993).
[Crossref]

Pereira, S.F.

Z.Y. Ou, S.F. Pereira, and H.J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. B55, 265–78 (1992).
[Crossref]

Poizat, J.-Ph.

F. Marin, A. Bramati, E. Giacobino, T.-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, J.-F. Roch, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett75, 4606–9 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polzik, E.S.

E.S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H.J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. B55, 279–90 (1992).
[Crossref]

Roch, J.-F.

F. Marin, A. Bramati, E. Giacobino, T.-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, J.-F. Roch, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett75, 4606–9 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schalke, M.

R. Bruckmeier, K. Schneider, H. Hansen, M. Schalke, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Appl. Phys. B64, 203 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schiller, S.

R. Bruckmeier, K. Schneider, H. Hansen, M. Schalke, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Appl. Phys. B64, 203 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. Bruckmeier, H. Hansen, and S. Schiller, Phys. Rev. Lett.79, 1463 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Schneider, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, M. Bode, and I. Freitag, Opt. Lett.21, 1999 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Breitenbach and S. Schiller, J. Mod. Opt.44, 2207 (1997).

K. Schneider, R. Bruckmeier, H. Hansen, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Opt. Lett.21, 1396 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schneider, K.

K. Schneider, R. Bruckmeier, H. Hansen, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Opt. Lett.21, 1396 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Schneider, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, M. Bode, and I. Freitag, Opt. Lett.21, 1999 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Bruckmeier, K. Schneider, H. Hansen, M. Schalke, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Appl. Phys. B64, 203 (1997).
[Crossref]

Scifres, D.R.

See e.g. D.C. Kilper, D.G. Steel, R. Craig, and D.R. Scifres, Opt. Lett.21, 1283–5 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shelby, R. M.

C. D. Nabors and R. M. Shelby, Phys. Rev. A42, 556 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steel, D.G.

See e.g. D.C. Kilper, D.G. Steel, R. Craig, and D.R. Scifres, Opt. Lett.21, 1283–5 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, L.-A.

L.-A. Wu, M. Xiao, and H. J. Kimble, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B4, 1465–75 (1987).
[Crossref]

Xiao, M.

L.-A. Wu, M. Xiao, and H. J. Kimble, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B4, 1465–75 (1987).
[Crossref]

Zhang, T.-C.

F. Marin, A. Bramati, E. Giacobino, T.-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, J.-F. Roch, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett75, 4606–9 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (15)

See special issues on squeezed states of light: J. Opt. Soc. Am. B4 (1987), J. Mod. Opt.34 (1987).

See e.g. D.C. Kilper, D.G. Steel, R. Craig, and D.R. Scifres, Opt. Lett.21, 1283–5 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Marin, A. Bramati, E. Giacobino, T.-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, J.-F. Roch, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett75, 4606–9 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.-A. Wu, M. Xiao, and H. J. Kimble, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B4, 1465–75 (1987).
[Crossref]

E.S. Polzik, J. Carri, and H.J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. B55, 279–90 (1992).
[Crossref]

Z.Y. Ou, S.F. Pereira, and H.J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. B55, 265–78 (1992).
[Crossref]

T.J. Kane and R.L. Byer, Opt. Lett.10, 65–7 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Nabors and R. M. Shelby, Phys. Rev. A42, 556 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kiirz, R. Paschotta, K. Fiedler, and J. Mlynek, Europhys. Lett.24, 449–54 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kiirz, K. Fiedler, H.-A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett.72, 3807 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Schneider, R. Bruckmeier, H. Hansen, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Opt. Lett.21, 1396 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Bruckmeier, K. Schneider, H. Hansen, M. Schalke, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, Appl. Phys. B64, 203 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. Bruckmeier, H. Hansen, and S. Schiller, Phys. Rev. Lett.79, 1463 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Schneider, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, M. Bode, and I. Freitag, Opt. Lett.21, 1999 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Breitenbach and S. Schiller, J. Mod. Opt.44, 2207 (1997).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the squeezer. The laser is a 1.5 W monolithic nonplanar Nd:YAG laser. Both doubler and OPA employ MgO:LiNbO3 crystals. Crystal temperatures are accurately controlled by ovens (not shown). The crystals are electro-optically modulated by r.f. sources via electrodes (not shown). PZT: piezoelectric actuator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Accuracy of the homodyne detector. Left: noise powers for the transmitted seed wave, with pump wave off and OPA cavity length locked. Spectrum analyzer noise floors including the electronic noise of the detectors (horizontal lines) have been subtracted. Resolution bandwidth 30 kHz. The equality of the i - and i + noise powers (vacuum noise and amplitude noise respectively) shows that the transmitted seed wave is shot-noise limited. Right: deviation from linearity.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Amplitude squeezing at 1064 nm at a pump power of 380 mW. Resolution bandwidth 30kHz, video bandwidth 30Hz.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Medium-term noise reduction. The standard deviation of the noise reduction is 0.13dB.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Typical dependence of the squeezing on pump power. Line is theory with measured cavity parameters, points are data corrected for detection efficiency. Above 450mW stable operation was not possible any more.

Equations (1)

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V sq , min = 1 T 2 / A ,

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