Abstract

The atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory have developed and flown a scanning, 1 Joule per pulse, CO2 coherent Doppler lidar capable of mapping a three-dimensional volume of atmospheric winds and aerosol backscatter in the planetary boundary layer, free troposphere, and lower stratosphere. Applications include the study of severe and non-severe atmospheric flows, intercomparisons with other sensors, and the simulation of prospective satellite Doppler lidar wind profilers. Examples of wind measurements are given for the marine boundary layer and near the coastline of the western United States.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Targ and R., et al., “Coherent lidar airborne wind sensor II: flight test results at 2 and 10 μm,” Appl. Opt.,  35, 7117–7127 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Richmond, R., and D. Jewell, “U.S. Air Force ballistic winds program,” Preprints 9th Conf. Coherent Laser Radar, Linköping, Sweden, (Swedish Defence Research Establishment, Stockholm, 1997), pp. 304–307.
  4. Werner, C., P. Flamant, G. Ancellet, A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, F. Köpp, H. Herrmann, C. Loth, and J. Wildenauer, “WIND: An advanced wind infrared Doppler lidar for mesoscale meteorological studies,” Proc. 5th Conf. Coherent Laser Radar, Munich, (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt, Munich, 1989), pp. 35–38.
  5. Bilbro, J. W., G. H. Fichtl, D. E. Fitzjarrald, and M. Krause, “Airborne Doppler lidar wind field measurements,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc.,  65, 348–359 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Bilbro, J. W., C. A. DiMarzio, D. E. Fitzjarrald, S. C. Johnson, and W. D. Jones, “Airborne Doppler lidar measurements,” Appl. Opt.,  25, 3952–3960 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Rothermel and J., MACAWS World Wide Web page, http://wwwghcc.msfc.nasa.gov/macaws.html.
  8. Howell, J. N., R. M. Hardesty, J. Rothermel, and R. T. Menzies, “Overview of the first Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) experiment,” Proc. SPIE,  2833, 116–127 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Menzies, R. T., and D. M. Tratt, “Airborne CO2 coherent lidar for measurements of atmospheric aerosol and cloud backscatter,” Appl. Opt.,  33, 5698–5711 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  13. Rothermel, J., D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, and R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., accepted (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Browning, K. A., and R. Wexler, “The determination of kinematic properties of a wind field using Doppler radar,” J. Appl. Meteorol.,  7, 105–113 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Rothermel, J., D. A. Bowdle, J. M. Vaughan, and M. J. Post, “Evidence of a tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode,” Appl. Opt.,  28, 1040–1042 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Kavaya, M. J., and R. T. Menzies, “Lidar aerosol backscatter measurements: systematic, modeling, and calibration error considerations,” Appl. Opt.,  24, 3444–3453 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Winant, C. D., C. E. Dorman, C. A. Friehe, and R. C. Beardsley, “The marine layer off northern California: An example of supercritical channel flow,” J. Atmos. Sci.,  45, 3588–3605 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Mohr, C. G., and L. J. Miller, “CEDRIC - A software package for Cartesian space editing, synthesis, and display of radar fields under interactive control,” Preprints 21st Radar Meteorological Conference, Edmonton, Alta., Canada, (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1983), pp. 569–574.
  19. Zhang, Z., and T.N. Krishnamurti, “Ensemble forecasting of hurricane tracks,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc.,  78, 2785–2796 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Emanuel and K. B., et al., “Report of the first prospectus development team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and the NSF,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc.,  76, 1194–1208 (1995).
  21. Huffaker, R. M., M. J. Post, J. T. Priestley, F. F. Hall, Richter R. A., and R. J. Keller, “Feasibility studies for a global wind measuring satellite system (WINDSAT): Analysis of simulated performance,” Appl. Opt.,  22, 1655–1665 (1984).
  22. M. J. Kavaya, G. D. Spiers, E. S. Lobl, J. Rothermel, and V. W. Keller, “Direct global measurements of tropospheric winds employing a simplified coherent laser radar using fully scalable technology and technique,” Proc. SPIE,  2214, 237–249 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. E. Baker, et al., “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc.,  76, 869–888 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Rothermel, J., D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, and R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., accepted (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

Richmond, R., and D. Jewell, “U.S. Air Force ballistic winds program,” Preprints 9th Conf. Coherent Laser Radar, Linköping, Sweden, (Swedish Defence Research Establishment, Stockholm, 1997), pp. 304–307.

Zhang, Z., and T.N. Krishnamurti, “Ensemble forecasting of hurricane tracks,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc.,  78, 2785–2796 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

Howell, J. N., R. M. Hardesty, J. Rothermel, and R. T. Menzies, “Overview of the first Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) experiment,” Proc. SPIE,  2833, 116–127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Targ and R., et al., “Coherent lidar airborne wind sensor II: flight test results at 2 and 10 μm,” Appl. Opt.,  35, 7117–7127 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

Emanuel and K. B., et al., “Report of the first prospectus development team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and the NSF,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc.,  76, 1194–1208 (1995).

W. E. Baker, et al., “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc.,  76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

M. J. Kavaya, G. D. Spiers, E. S. Lobl, J. Rothermel, and V. W. Keller, “Direct global measurements of tropospheric winds employing a simplified coherent laser radar using fully scalable technology and technique,” Proc. SPIE,  2214, 237–249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rye, B. J., and R. M. Hardesty, “Spectral matched filters in coherent laser radar,” J. Mod. Opt.,  41, 2131–2144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Menzies, R. T., and D. M. Tratt, “Airborne CO2 coherent lidar for measurements of atmospheric aerosol and cloud backscatter,” Appl. Opt.,  33, 5698–5711 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1989 (2)

Werner, C., P. Flamant, G. Ancellet, A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, F. Köpp, H. Herrmann, C. Loth, and J. Wildenauer, “WIND: An advanced wind infrared Doppler lidar for mesoscale meteorological studies,” Proc. 5th Conf. Coherent Laser Radar, Munich, (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt, Munich, 1989), pp. 35–38.

Rothermel, J., D. A. Bowdle, J. M. Vaughan, and M. J. Post, “Evidence of a tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode,” Appl. Opt.,  28, 1040–1042 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

Winant, C. D., C. E. Dorman, C. A. Friehe, and R. C. Beardsley, “The marine layer off northern California: An example of supercritical channel flow,” J. Atmos. Sci.,  45, 3588–3605 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1985 (2)

1984 (2)

1983 (1)

Mohr, C. G., and L. J. Miller, “CEDRIC - A software package for Cartesian space editing, synthesis, and display of radar fields under interactive control,” Preprints 21st Radar Meteorological Conference, Edmonton, Alta., Canada, (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1983), pp. 569–574.

1980 (1)

Lee, R. W., and K. A. Lee, “A poly-pulse-pair signal processor for coherent Doppler lidar,” Coherent Laser Radar for the Atmosphere, OSA Technical Digest Series, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1980), WA2, 1–4.

1961 (1)

Browning, K. A., and R. Wexler, “The determination of kinematic properties of a wind field using Doppler radar,” J. Appl. Meteorol.,  7, 105–113 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Amirault,

Ancellet, G.

Werner, C., P. Flamant, G. Ancellet, A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, F. Köpp, H. Herrmann, C. Loth, and J. Wildenauer, “WIND: An advanced wind infrared Doppler lidar for mesoscale meteorological studies,” Proc. 5th Conf. Coherent Laser Radar, Munich, (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt, Munich, 1989), pp. 35–38.

B. J.,

Rye, B. J., and R. M. Hardesty, “Spectral matched filters in coherent laser radar,” J. Mod. Opt.,  41, 2131–2144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baker, W. E.

W. E. Baker, et al., “Lidar-measured winds from space: a key component for weather and climate prediction,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc.,  76, 869–888 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Banta, R. M.

Rothermel, J., D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, and R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., accepted (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beardsley, R. C.

Winant, C. D., C. E. Dorman, C. A. Friehe, and R. C. Beardsley, “The marine layer off northern California: An example of supercritical channel flow,” J. Atmos. Sci.,  45, 3588–3605 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bilbro,

Bilbro, J. W., C. A. DiMarzio, D. E. Fitzjarrald, S. C. Johnson, and W. D. Jones, “Airborne Doppler lidar measurements,” Appl. Opt.,  25, 3952–3960 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bilbro, J. W., G. H. Fichtl, D. E. Fitzjarrald, and M. Krause, “Airborne Doppler lidar wind field measurements,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc.,  65, 348–359 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bowdle, D. A.

Browning,

Browning, K. A., and R. Wexler, “The determination of kinematic properties of a wind field using Doppler radar,” J. Appl. Meteorol.,  7, 105–113 (1961).
[CrossRef]

C.,

Werner, C., P. Flamant, G. Ancellet, A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, F. Köpp, H. Herrmann, C. Loth, and J. Wildenauer, “WIND: An advanced wind infrared Doppler lidar for mesoscale meteorological studies,” Proc. 5th Conf. Coherent Laser Radar, Munich, (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt, Munich, 1989), pp. 35–38.

C. D.,

Winant, C. D., C. E. Dorman, C. A. Friehe, and R. C. Beardsley, “The marine layer off northern California: An example of supercritical channel flow,” J. Atmos. Sci.,  45, 3588–3605 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. G.,

Mohr, C. G., and L. J. Miller, “CEDRIC - A software package for Cartesian space editing, synthesis, and display of radar fields under interactive control,” Preprints 21st Radar Meteorological Conference, Edmonton, Alta., Canada, (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1983), pp. 569–574.

C. T.,

Cupp, R. E.

Cutten, D. R.

Rothermel, J., D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, and R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., accepted (1998).
[CrossRef]

DiMarzio, C. A.

Dolfi-Bouteyre, A.

Werner, C., P. Flamant, G. Ancellet, A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, F. Köpp, H. Herrmann, C. Loth, and J. Wildenauer, “WIND: An advanced wind infrared Doppler lidar for mesoscale meteorological studies,” Proc. 5th Conf. Coherent Laser Radar, Munich, (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt, Munich, 1989), pp. 35–38.

Dorman, C. E.

Winant, C. D., C. E. Dorman, C. A. Friehe, and R. C. Beardsley, “The marine layer off northern California: An example of supercritical channel flow,” J. Atmos. Sci.,  45, 3588–3605 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Emanuel,

Emanuel and K. B., et al., “Report of the first prospectus development team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and the NSF,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc.,  76, 1194–1208 (1995).

Fichtl, G. H.

Bilbro, J. W., G. H. Fichtl, D. E. Fitzjarrald, and M. Krause, “Airborne Doppler lidar wind field measurements,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc.,  65, 348–359 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fitzjarrald, D. E.

Bilbro, J. W., C. A. DiMarzio, D. E. Fitzjarrald, S. C. Johnson, and W. D. Jones, “Airborne Doppler lidar measurements,” Appl. Opt.,  25, 3952–3960 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bilbro, J. W., G. H. Fichtl, D. E. Fitzjarrald, and M. Krause, “Airborne Doppler lidar wind field measurements,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc.,  65, 348–359 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, P.

Werner, C., P. Flamant, G. Ancellet, A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, F. Köpp, H. Herrmann, C. Loth, and J. Wildenauer, “WIND: An advanced wind infrared Doppler lidar for mesoscale meteorological studies,” Proc. 5th Conf. Coherent Laser Radar, Munich, (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt, Munich, 1989), pp. 35–38.

Friehe, C. A.

Winant, C. D., C. E. Dorman, C. A. Friehe, and R. C. Beardsley, “The marine layer off northern California: An example of supercritical channel flow,” J. Atmos. Sci.,  45, 3588–3605 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hall, F. F.

Hardesty, R. M.

Rothermel, J., D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, and R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., accepted (1998).
[CrossRef]

Howell, J. N., R. M. Hardesty, J. Rothermel, and R. T. Menzies, “Overview of the first Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) experiment,” Proc. SPIE,  2833, 116–127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rye, B. J., and R. M. Hardesty, “Spectral matched filters in coherent laser radar,” J. Mod. Opt.,  41, 2131–2144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, H.

Werner, C., P. Flamant, G. Ancellet, A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, F. Köpp, H. Herrmann, C. Loth, and J. Wildenauer, “WIND: An advanced wind infrared Doppler lidar for mesoscale meteorological studies,” Proc. 5th Conf. Coherent Laser Radar, Munich, (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt, Munich, 1989), pp. 35–38.

Howell,

Howell, J. N., R. M. Hardesty, J. Rothermel, and R. T. Menzies, “Overview of the first Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) experiment,” Proc. SPIE,  2833, 116–127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Howell, J. N.

Rothermel, J., D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, and R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., accepted (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huffaker,

J.,

Rothermel, J., D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, and R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., accepted (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rothermel, J., D. A. Bowdle, J. M. Vaughan, and M. J. Post, “Evidence of a tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode,” Appl. Opt.,  28, 1040–1042 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothermel and J., MACAWS World Wide Web page, http://wwwghcc.msfc.nasa.gov/macaws.html.

J. N.,

Howell, J. N., R. M. Hardesty, J. Rothermel, and R. T. Menzies, “Overview of the first Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) experiment,” Proc. SPIE,  2833, 116–127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W.,

Bilbro, J. W., C. A. DiMarzio, D. E. Fitzjarrald, S. C. Johnson, and W. D. Jones, “Airborne Doppler lidar measurements,” Appl. Opt.,  25, 3952–3960 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bilbro, J. W., G. H. Fichtl, D. E. Fitzjarrald, and M. Krause, “Airborne Doppler lidar wind field measurements,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc.,  65, 348–359 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Jewell, D.

Richmond, R., and D. Jewell, “U.S. Air Force ballistic winds program,” Preprints 9th Conf. Coherent Laser Radar, Linköping, Sweden, (Swedish Defence Research Establishment, Stockholm, 1997), pp. 304–307.

Johnson, S. C.

Rothermel, J., D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, and R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., accepted (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bilbro, J. W., C. A. DiMarzio, D. E. Fitzjarrald, S. C. Johnson, and W. D. Jones, “Airborne Doppler lidar measurements,” Appl. Opt.,  25, 3952–3960 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, W. D.

K. A.,

Browning, K. A., and R. Wexler, “The determination of kinematic properties of a wind field using Doppler radar,” J. Appl. Meteorol.,  7, 105–113 (1961).
[CrossRef]

K. B.,

Emanuel and K. B., et al., “Report of the first prospectus development team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and the NSF,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc.,  76, 1194–1208 (1995).

Kavaya,

Kavaya, M. J.

M. J. Kavaya, G. D. Spiers, E. S. Lobl, J. Rothermel, and V. W. Keller, “Direct global measurements of tropospheric winds employing a simplified coherent laser radar using fully scalable technology and technique,” Proc. SPIE,  2214, 237–249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Keller, R. J.

Keller, V. W.

M. J. Kavaya, G. D. Spiers, E. S. Lobl, J. Rothermel, and V. W. Keller, “Direct global measurements of tropospheric winds employing a simplified coherent laser radar using fully scalable technology and technique,” Proc. SPIE,  2214, 237–249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Köpp, F.

Werner, C., P. Flamant, G. Ancellet, A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, F. Köpp, H. Herrmann, C. Loth, and J. Wildenauer, “WIND: An advanced wind infrared Doppler lidar for mesoscale meteorological studies,” Proc. 5th Conf. Coherent Laser Radar, Munich, (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt, Munich, 1989), pp. 35–38.

Krause, M.

Bilbro, J. W., G. H. Fichtl, D. E. Fitzjarrald, and M. Krause, “Airborne Doppler lidar wind field measurements,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc.,  65, 348–359 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamurti, T.N.

Zhang, Z., and T.N. Krishnamurti, “Ensemble forecasting of hurricane tracks,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc.,  78, 2785–2796 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee,

Lee, R. W., and K. A. Lee, “A poly-pulse-pair signal processor for coherent Doppler lidar,” Coherent Laser Radar for the Atmosphere, OSA Technical Digest Series, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1980), WA2, 1–4.

Lee, K. A.

Lee, R. W., and K. A. Lee, “A poly-pulse-pair signal processor for coherent Doppler lidar,” Coherent Laser Radar for the Atmosphere, OSA Technical Digest Series, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1980), WA2, 1–4.

Lobl, E. S.

M. J. Kavaya, G. D. Spiers, E. S. Lobl, J. Rothermel, and V. W. Keller, “Direct global measurements of tropospheric winds employing a simplified coherent laser radar using fully scalable technology and technique,” Proc. SPIE,  2214, 237–249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Loth, C.

Werner, C., P. Flamant, G. Ancellet, A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, F. Köpp, H. Herrmann, C. Loth, and J. Wildenauer, “WIND: An advanced wind infrared Doppler lidar for mesoscale meteorological studies,” Proc. 5th Conf. Coherent Laser Radar, Munich, (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt, Munich, 1989), pp. 35–38.

M. J.,

Menzies,

Menzies, R. T.

Howell, J. N., R. M. Hardesty, J. Rothermel, and R. T. Menzies, “Overview of the first Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) experiment,” Proc. SPIE,  2833, 116–127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kavaya, M. J., and R. T. Menzies, “Lidar aerosol backscatter measurements: systematic, modeling, and calibration error considerations,” Appl. Opt.,  24, 3444–3453 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, L. J.

Mohr, C. G., and L. J. Miller, “CEDRIC - A software package for Cartesian space editing, synthesis, and display of radar fields under interactive control,” Preprints 21st Radar Meteorological Conference, Edmonton, Alta., Canada, (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1983), pp. 569–574.

Mohr,

Mohr, C. G., and L. J. Miller, “CEDRIC - A software package for Cartesian space editing, synthesis, and display of radar fields under interactive control,” Preprints 21st Radar Meteorological Conference, Edmonton, Alta., Canada, (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1983), pp. 569–574.

Olivier, L. D.

Rothermel, J., D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, and R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., accepted (1998).
[CrossRef]

Post,

Post, M. J.

Priestley, J. T.

R.,

Richmond, R., and D. Jewell, “U.S. Air Force ballistic winds program,” Preprints 9th Conf. Coherent Laser Radar, Linköping, Sweden, (Swedish Defence Research Establishment, Stockholm, 1997), pp. 304–307.

Targ and R., et al., “Coherent lidar airborne wind sensor II: flight test results at 2 and 10 μm,” Appl. Opt.,  35, 7117–7127 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A., Richter

R. M.,

R. T.,

R. W.,

Lee, R. W., and K. A. Lee, “A poly-pulse-pair signal processor for coherent Doppler lidar,” Coherent Laser Radar for the Atmosphere, OSA Technical Digest Series, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1980), WA2, 1–4.

Richmond,

Richmond, R., and D. Jewell, “U.S. Air Force ballistic winds program,” Preprints 9th Conf. Coherent Laser Radar, Linköping, Sweden, (Swedish Defence Research Establishment, Stockholm, 1997), pp. 304–307.

Rothermel,

Rothermel, J., D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, and R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor,” Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., accepted (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rothermel, J., D. A. Bowdle, J. M. Vaughan, and M. J. Post, “Evidence of a tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode,” Appl. Opt.,  28, 1040–1042 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothermel and J., MACAWS World Wide Web page, http://wwwghcc.msfc.nasa.gov/macaws.html.

Rothermel, J.

Howell, J. N., R. M. Hardesty, J. Rothermel, and R. T. Menzies, “Overview of the first Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) experiment,” Proc. SPIE,  2833, 116–127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kavaya, G. D. Spiers, E. S. Lobl, J. Rothermel, and V. W. Keller, “Direct global measurements of tropospheric winds employing a simplified coherent laser radar using fully scalable technology and technique,” Proc. SPIE,  2214, 237–249 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rye,

Rye, B. J., and R. M. Hardesty, “Spectral matched filters in coherent laser radar,” J. Mod. Opt.,  41, 2131–2144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Spiers, G. D.

M. J. Kavaya, G. D. Spiers, E. S. Lobl, J. Rothermel, and V. W. Keller, “Direct global measurements of tropospheric winds employing a simplified coherent laser radar using fully scalable technology and technique,” Proc. SPIE,  2214, 237–249 (1994).
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Browning, K. A., and R. Wexler, “The determination of kinematic properties of a wind field using Doppler radar,” J. Appl. Meteorol.,  7, 105–113 (1961).
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J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

Winant, C. D., C. E. Dorman, C. A. Friehe, and R. C. Beardsley, “The marine layer off northern California: An example of supercritical channel flow,” J. Atmos. Sci.,  45, 3588–3605 (1988).
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Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MOV (111 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (196 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (86 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Block diagram of MACAWS subsystems and environment.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

MACAWS scanning capabilities: (a) Lidar beam orientation is fixed, relative either to aircraft or to surface, to obtain quasi-vertical profiles of line-of-sight velocity and aerosol backscatter, or for studies of surface angular scattering dependence; beam elevation angle relative to aircraft may be fixed over maximum range of ±32 deg. (b) Co-planar scanning is performed to measure a single wind field, with 40 deg in-plane angular separation between forward and aft scans. (c) Co-planar scanning is performed at up to five elevation angles with arbitrary angular spacing to achieve volumetric coverage, over a vertical range of ±25 deg.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(QuickTime animation 142 KB) Marine PBL wind structure measured over five scan planes during 23 September 1995, 1827-1831 UTC (see Fig. 2(b)). Aircraft was on a southerly heading ~30 km west of the coast of northern Oregon at 908 m altitude over the site of the Coastal Ocean Probing Experiment (COPE). Along-track distance is 23.5 km. Row of vectors at bottom of each wind field shows winds derived from aircraft inertial navigation system. Vectors point into the wind. Bottom panel shows corresponding vertical distribution of scan planes (see Fig. 2(c)).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(QuickTime animation 236 KB) Example of full-resolution wind field measurements at multiple elevation angles, obtained near Pt. Arena, California on 30 June 1996, 171134 – 171500 UTC, at ~0.49 km height ASL. Along-track distance is 21.5 km. Wind fields were measured at 5 elevation angles from 0 to -2.77 deg. Along-track and LOS resolution are ~590 m and 300 m, respectively. Lidar beam intersected sea surface at lowest elevation angle. Small-scale wind variation indicates presence of secondary atmospheric circulations and turbulence, as well as residual errors.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(QuickTime animation 136 KB) Interpolated wind fields based on full-resolution measurements shown in Fig. 4. Terrain contours are in 200-m increments. Left-hand side shows horizontal slice through Cartesian grid volume at different heights above sea level (ASL). Right-hand side is enlargement of area marked by the dashed box. Wind barbs point downwind.

Tables (1)

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TABLE 1. MACAWS primary operating characteristics

Equations (1)

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Δ x [ 2 ( n a 1 ) d 1 + 2 n a ( n g + n b P ) + 2 d 2 ] V g

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