Abstract

Bragg reflectors as small as optical waveguides can be used at the intersections of waveguides as spectral filters, beam splitters, or beam combiners. We present the concept of fabricating small Bragg reflectors in photorefractive waveguides and show the spectral selectivity of these micro-Bragg reflectors fabricated in a lithium niobate crystal. We also show that we can fabricate waveguide structures simultaneously with the micro-Bragg reflector, by using a crystal whose c-axis is directed 45 degree off the optical axis of the fabrication beam. The reflectivity of the micro-Bragg reflector was smaller than 0.01 and was not large enough for the immediate use.

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References

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  1. K. Itoh, O. Matoba, and Y. Ichioka, "Fabrication of photorefractive 3-D waveguides for optical dynamic interconnections," OSA Annual Meeting Technical Digest Vol. 16, (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1993), p. 108.
  2. K. Itoh, O. Matoba, and Y. Ichioka, "Fabrication experiment of photorefractive three-dimensional waveguides in lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 19, 652-654 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. O. Matoba, K. Itoh, and Y. Ichioka, "Analysis of photo-induced waveguide in lithium niobate crystal," Opt. Rev. 1, 73-75 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Matoba, K. Itoh, and Y. Ichioka, "Non-uniform and off-axis structures for photorefractive waveguides in lithium niobate," Opt. Eng. 35, 2175-2181 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. Matoba, K. Itoh, and Y. Ichioka, "Array of photorefractive waveguides for massively-parallel optical interconnections in lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 21, 123-125 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, "Holographic pattern fixing in electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett., 18, 540-542 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. Matoba, K. Ikezawa, K. Itoh, and Y. Ichioka, "Modification of photorefractive waveguides in lithium niobate by guided beam for optical interconnection," Opt. Rev. 2, 438-443 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Ikezawa, Y. Furuya, "Micro-Bragg reflectors in photorefractive 3-D waveguides," Proc. SPIE, to appear.
  10. Q. Huang and P. R. Ashley, "Holographic Bragg grating input-output couplers for polymer waveguides at an 850-nm wavelength," Appl. Opt. 36, 1198-1203 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (10)

K. Itoh, O. Matoba, and Y. Ichioka, "Fabrication of photorefractive 3-D waveguides for optical dynamic interconnections," OSA Annual Meeting Technical Digest Vol. 16, (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1993), p. 108.

K. Itoh, O. Matoba, and Y. Ichioka, "Fabrication experiment of photorefractive three-dimensional waveguides in lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 19, 652-654 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Matoba, K. Itoh, and Y. Ichioka, "Analysis of photo-induced waveguide in lithium niobate crystal," Opt. Rev. 1, 73-75 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. Matoba, K. Itoh, and Y. Ichioka, "Non-uniform and off-axis structures for photorefractive waveguides in lithium niobate," Opt. Eng. 35, 2175-2181 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Matoba, K. Itoh, and Y. Ichioka, "Array of photorefractive waveguides for massively-parallel optical interconnections in lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 21, 123-125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, "Holographic pattern fixing in electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett., 18, 540-542 (1971).
[CrossRef]

O. Matoba, K. Ikezawa, K. Itoh, and Y. Ichioka, "Modification of photorefractive waveguides in lithium niobate by guided beam for optical interconnection," Opt. Rev. 2, 438-443 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Ikezawa, Y. Furuya, "Micro-Bragg reflectors in photorefractive 3-D waveguides," Proc. SPIE, to appear.

Q. Huang and P. R. Ashley, "Holographic Bragg grating input-output couplers for polymer waveguides at an 850-nm wavelength," Appl. Opt. 36, 1198-1203 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Concept of a micro-Bragg reflector in a photo-refractive weveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fabrication of micro-Bragg reflector

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized wavelength selectivity of micro-Bragg reflector

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Near field pattern at the end face of the waveguide; (a) intensity distribution and (b) cross-section

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized spectral transmittance of the waveguide with a Bragg reflector

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized spectral reflectance of various Bragg reflectors.

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