Abstract

We report on experiments dealing with the propagation of a collimated laser beam in a dye doped nematic confined in a capillary of optical fiber size. The nematic is aligned in a such a way that the source beam is self focused. The behavior of the beam - focusing, multifocus regime, filamentation and undulation - already observed in larger cylindrical geometry and pure nematic is shown here to be reproduced in the dye doped medium, at much lower powers. Another feature is reported here: a stable regime looking like a waveguide appears in certain conditions, in which the beam to propagate in a narrow tube. This regime is simply modeled in terms of saturated reorientation of the nematic.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N.V. Tabiryan, A.V. Sukhov, and B. Ya Zel’dovich, “The Orientational Optical Nonlinearity of Liquid Crystals”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1, (1986)
    [Crossref]
  2. I.C. Khoo, “Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals” in Prog. Opt., 27, 105, (1988)
    [Crossref]
  3. E. Santamato, “Nonlinear optical materials and devices for applications in information technology”,A. Miller ed., (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1995)
  4. E. Santamato and Y.R. Shen, in A guide to Liquid Crystal research,P.J. Collings and J. Patel ed. (Oxford University Press, New York, 1997)
  5. L. Marrucci and Y.R. Shen, in The optics of thermotropic liquid crystals,R. Sambles and S. Elston ed. (Taylor and Francis, London, 1997)
  6. I.C. Khoo and S.T. Wu, in Optics and non linear optics of Liquid Crystals, Vol 1,(World Scientific, Singapore, 1993) Chap. 3, 4.
    [Crossref]
  7. I.C. Khoo and F. Simoni, in The Physics of Liquid Crystalline materials, (Gordon and Breach, London, 1991) Chap 14.
  8. F. Simoni in Nonlinear optical properties of Liquid Crystals and PDLC, Series on Liquid Crystals, Vol 2, (World Scientific, Singapore,1997)
    [Crossref]
  9. E. Braun, L. Faucheux, and A. Libchaber, “Strong self focusing in nematic liquid crystals”, Phys. Rev. A, 48-1, 611, (1993)
    [Crossref]
  10. E. Braun, L. Faucheux, A. Libchaber, D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, and M.J. Shelley, “Filamentation and undulation of self focused laser beams in liquid crystals”, Europhys. Lett.,  23 (4), 239, (1993)
    [Crossref]
  11. D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, and M.J. Shelley, “Light interacting with liquid crystals”, Physica D, 68, 116, (1993).
    [Crossref]
  12. D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, M.J. Shelley, and X. Wang, “A paraxial model for optical self focussing in a nematic liquid crystal”, Physica D, 88, 55, (1995)
    [Crossref]
  13. D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, and M.J. Shelley, “Self focused optical structures in a nematic liquid crystal”, Physica D, 97, 471, (1996)
    [Crossref]
  14. O. Duhem, J.F. Henninot, G. Abbate, and M. Warenghem, “Observation of liquid crystal alignment in capillaries using a new experimental approach”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., in press
  15. J.F. Henninot, M. Warenghem, and N. Tabiryan, “Leakography: visualization of losses in fibers and fiber optics systems using liquid crystals”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., in press
  16. M. Warenghem, D. Louvergneaux, and F. Simoni, “Experimental results on the director distribution in hybrid nematic films using ATIR”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  282, 235, (1996)
    [Crossref]
  17. I. Janossy, A.D. Lloyd, and B.S. Wherrett, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  179, 1, (1990)
  18. D. Paparo, P. Maddalena, G. Abbate, E. Santamato, and I. Janossy, “Wavelength dependence of optical reorientation in dye doped nematics”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  251, 73, (1994)
    [Crossref]

1996 (2)

D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, and M.J. Shelley, “Self focused optical structures in a nematic liquid crystal”, Physica D, 97, 471, (1996)
[Crossref]

M. Warenghem, D. Louvergneaux, and F. Simoni, “Experimental results on the director distribution in hybrid nematic films using ATIR”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  282, 235, (1996)
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, M.J. Shelley, and X. Wang, “A paraxial model for optical self focussing in a nematic liquid crystal”, Physica D, 88, 55, (1995)
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

D. Paparo, P. Maddalena, G. Abbate, E. Santamato, and I. Janossy, “Wavelength dependence of optical reorientation in dye doped nematics”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  251, 73, (1994)
[Crossref]

1993 (3)

E. Braun, L. Faucheux, and A. Libchaber, “Strong self focusing in nematic liquid crystals”, Phys. Rev. A, 48-1, 611, (1993)
[Crossref]

E. Braun, L. Faucheux, A. Libchaber, D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, and M.J. Shelley, “Filamentation and undulation of self focused laser beams in liquid crystals”, Europhys. Lett.,  23 (4), 239, (1993)
[Crossref]

D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, and M.J. Shelley, “Light interacting with liquid crystals”, Physica D, 68, 116, (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

I. Janossy, A.D. Lloyd, and B.S. Wherrett, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  179, 1, (1990)

1988 (1)

I.C. Khoo, “Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals” in Prog. Opt., 27, 105, (1988)
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

N.V. Tabiryan, A.V. Sukhov, and B. Ya Zel’dovich, “The Orientational Optical Nonlinearity of Liquid Crystals”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1, (1986)
[Crossref]

Abbate, G.

D. Paparo, P. Maddalena, G. Abbate, E. Santamato, and I. Janossy, “Wavelength dependence of optical reorientation in dye doped nematics”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  251, 73, (1994)
[Crossref]

O. Duhem, J.F. Henninot, G. Abbate, and M. Warenghem, “Observation of liquid crystal alignment in capillaries using a new experimental approach”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., in press

Braun, E.

E. Braun, L. Faucheux, and A. Libchaber, “Strong self focusing in nematic liquid crystals”, Phys. Rev. A, 48-1, 611, (1993)
[Crossref]

E. Braun, L. Faucheux, A. Libchaber, D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, and M.J. Shelley, “Filamentation and undulation of self focused laser beams in liquid crystals”, Europhys. Lett.,  23 (4), 239, (1993)
[Crossref]

Duhem, O.

O. Duhem, J.F. Henninot, G. Abbate, and M. Warenghem, “Observation of liquid crystal alignment in capillaries using a new experimental approach”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., in press

Faucheux, L.

E. Braun, L. Faucheux, and A. Libchaber, “Strong self focusing in nematic liquid crystals”, Phys. Rev. A, 48-1, 611, (1993)
[Crossref]

E. Braun, L. Faucheux, A. Libchaber, D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, and M.J. Shelley, “Filamentation and undulation of self focused laser beams in liquid crystals”, Europhys. Lett.,  23 (4), 239, (1993)
[Crossref]

Henninot, J.F.

O. Duhem, J.F. Henninot, G. Abbate, and M. Warenghem, “Observation of liquid crystal alignment in capillaries using a new experimental approach”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., in press

J.F. Henninot, M. Warenghem, and N. Tabiryan, “Leakography: visualization of losses in fibers and fiber optics systems using liquid crystals”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., in press

Janossy, I.

D. Paparo, P. Maddalena, G. Abbate, E. Santamato, and I. Janossy, “Wavelength dependence of optical reorientation in dye doped nematics”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  251, 73, (1994)
[Crossref]

I. Janossy, A.D. Lloyd, and B.S. Wherrett, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  179, 1, (1990)

Khoo, I.C.

I.C. Khoo, “Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals” in Prog. Opt., 27, 105, (1988)
[Crossref]

I.C. Khoo and S.T. Wu, in Optics and non linear optics of Liquid Crystals, Vol 1,(World Scientific, Singapore, 1993) Chap. 3, 4.
[Crossref]

I.C. Khoo and F. Simoni, in The Physics of Liquid Crystalline materials, (Gordon and Breach, London, 1991) Chap 14.

Libchaber, A.

E. Braun, L. Faucheux, A. Libchaber, D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, and M.J. Shelley, “Filamentation and undulation of self focused laser beams in liquid crystals”, Europhys. Lett.,  23 (4), 239, (1993)
[Crossref]

E. Braun, L. Faucheux, and A. Libchaber, “Strong self focusing in nematic liquid crystals”, Phys. Rev. A, 48-1, 611, (1993)
[Crossref]

Lloyd, A.D.

I. Janossy, A.D. Lloyd, and B.S. Wherrett, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  179, 1, (1990)

Louvergneaux, D.

M. Warenghem, D. Louvergneaux, and F. Simoni, “Experimental results on the director distribution in hybrid nematic films using ATIR”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  282, 235, (1996)
[Crossref]

Maddalena, P.

D. Paparo, P. Maddalena, G. Abbate, E. Santamato, and I. Janossy, “Wavelength dependence of optical reorientation in dye doped nematics”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  251, 73, (1994)
[Crossref]

Marrucci, L.

L. Marrucci and Y.R. Shen, in The optics of thermotropic liquid crystals,R. Sambles and S. Elston ed. (Taylor and Francis, London, 1997)

McLaughlin, D.W.

D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, and M.J. Shelley, “Self focused optical structures in a nematic liquid crystal”, Physica D, 97, 471, (1996)
[Crossref]

D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, M.J. Shelley, and X. Wang, “A paraxial model for optical self focussing in a nematic liquid crystal”, Physica D, 88, 55, (1995)
[Crossref]

D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, and M.J. Shelley, “Light interacting with liquid crystals”, Physica D, 68, 116, (1993).
[Crossref]

E. Braun, L. Faucheux, A. Libchaber, D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, and M.J. Shelley, “Filamentation and undulation of self focused laser beams in liquid crystals”, Europhys. Lett.,  23 (4), 239, (1993)
[Crossref]

Muraki, D.J.

D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, and M.J. Shelley, “Self focused optical structures in a nematic liquid crystal”, Physica D, 97, 471, (1996)
[Crossref]

D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, M.J. Shelley, and X. Wang, “A paraxial model for optical self focussing in a nematic liquid crystal”, Physica D, 88, 55, (1995)
[Crossref]

D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, and M.J. Shelley, “Light interacting with liquid crystals”, Physica D, 68, 116, (1993).
[Crossref]

E. Braun, L. Faucheux, A. Libchaber, D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, and M.J. Shelley, “Filamentation and undulation of self focused laser beams in liquid crystals”, Europhys. Lett.,  23 (4), 239, (1993)
[Crossref]

Paparo, D.

D. Paparo, P. Maddalena, G. Abbate, E. Santamato, and I. Janossy, “Wavelength dependence of optical reorientation in dye doped nematics”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  251, 73, (1994)
[Crossref]

Santamato, E.

D. Paparo, P. Maddalena, G. Abbate, E. Santamato, and I. Janossy, “Wavelength dependence of optical reorientation in dye doped nematics”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  251, 73, (1994)
[Crossref]

E. Santamato, “Nonlinear optical materials and devices for applications in information technology”,A. Miller ed., (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1995)

E. Santamato and Y.R. Shen, in A guide to Liquid Crystal research,P.J. Collings and J. Patel ed. (Oxford University Press, New York, 1997)

Shelley, M.J.

D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, and M.J. Shelley, “Self focused optical structures in a nematic liquid crystal”, Physica D, 97, 471, (1996)
[Crossref]

D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, M.J. Shelley, and X. Wang, “A paraxial model for optical self focussing in a nematic liquid crystal”, Physica D, 88, 55, (1995)
[Crossref]

D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, and M.J. Shelley, “Light interacting with liquid crystals”, Physica D, 68, 116, (1993).
[Crossref]

E. Braun, L. Faucheux, A. Libchaber, D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, and M.J. Shelley, “Filamentation and undulation of self focused laser beams in liquid crystals”, Europhys. Lett.,  23 (4), 239, (1993)
[Crossref]

Shen, Y.R.

E. Santamato and Y.R. Shen, in A guide to Liquid Crystal research,P.J. Collings and J. Patel ed. (Oxford University Press, New York, 1997)

L. Marrucci and Y.R. Shen, in The optics of thermotropic liquid crystals,R. Sambles and S. Elston ed. (Taylor and Francis, London, 1997)

Simoni, F.

M. Warenghem, D. Louvergneaux, and F. Simoni, “Experimental results on the director distribution in hybrid nematic films using ATIR”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  282, 235, (1996)
[Crossref]

I.C. Khoo and F. Simoni, in The Physics of Liquid Crystalline materials, (Gordon and Breach, London, 1991) Chap 14.

F. Simoni in Nonlinear optical properties of Liquid Crystals and PDLC, Series on Liquid Crystals, Vol 2, (World Scientific, Singapore,1997)
[Crossref]

Sukhov, A.V.

N.V. Tabiryan, A.V. Sukhov, and B. Ya Zel’dovich, “The Orientational Optical Nonlinearity of Liquid Crystals”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1, (1986)
[Crossref]

Tabiryan, N.

J.F. Henninot, M. Warenghem, and N. Tabiryan, “Leakography: visualization of losses in fibers and fiber optics systems using liquid crystals”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., in press

Tabiryan, N.V.

N.V. Tabiryan, A.V. Sukhov, and B. Ya Zel’dovich, “The Orientational Optical Nonlinearity of Liquid Crystals”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1, (1986)
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, M.J. Shelley, and X. Wang, “A paraxial model for optical self focussing in a nematic liquid crystal”, Physica D, 88, 55, (1995)
[Crossref]

Warenghem, M.

M. Warenghem, D. Louvergneaux, and F. Simoni, “Experimental results on the director distribution in hybrid nematic films using ATIR”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  282, 235, (1996)
[Crossref]

J.F. Henninot, M. Warenghem, and N. Tabiryan, “Leakography: visualization of losses in fibers and fiber optics systems using liquid crystals”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., in press

O. Duhem, J.F. Henninot, G. Abbate, and M. Warenghem, “Observation of liquid crystal alignment in capillaries using a new experimental approach”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., in press

Wherrett, B.S.

I. Janossy, A.D. Lloyd, and B.S. Wherrett, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  179, 1, (1990)

Wu, S.T.

I.C. Khoo and S.T. Wu, in Optics and non linear optics of Liquid Crystals, Vol 1,(World Scientific, Singapore, 1993) Chap. 3, 4.
[Crossref]

Zel’dovich, B. Ya

N.V. Tabiryan, A.V. Sukhov, and B. Ya Zel’dovich, “The Orientational Optical Nonlinearity of Liquid Crystals”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1, (1986)
[Crossref]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

E. Braun, L. Faucheux, A. Libchaber, D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, and M.J. Shelley, “Filamentation and undulation of self focused laser beams in liquid crystals”, Europhys. Lett.,  23 (4), 239, (1993)
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (4)

M. Warenghem, D. Louvergneaux, and F. Simoni, “Experimental results on the director distribution in hybrid nematic films using ATIR”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  282, 235, (1996)
[Crossref]

I. Janossy, A.D. Lloyd, and B.S. Wherrett, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  179, 1, (1990)

D. Paparo, P. Maddalena, G. Abbate, E. Santamato, and I. Janossy, “Wavelength dependence of optical reorientation in dye doped nematics”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.,  251, 73, (1994)
[Crossref]

N.V. Tabiryan, A.V. Sukhov, and B. Ya Zel’dovich, “The Orientational Optical Nonlinearity of Liquid Crystals”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1, (1986)
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A, (1)

E. Braun, L. Faucheux, and A. Libchaber, “Strong self focusing in nematic liquid crystals”, Phys. Rev. A, 48-1, 611, (1993)
[Crossref]

Physica D, (3)

D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, and M.J. Shelley, “Light interacting with liquid crystals”, Physica D, 68, 116, (1993).
[Crossref]

D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, M.J. Shelley, and X. Wang, “A paraxial model for optical self focussing in a nematic liquid crystal”, Physica D, 88, 55, (1995)
[Crossref]

D.W. McLaughlin, D.J. Muraki, and M.J. Shelley, “Self focused optical structures in a nematic liquid crystal”, Physica D, 97, 471, (1996)
[Crossref]

Prog. Opt., (1)

I.C. Khoo, “Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals” in Prog. Opt., 27, 105, (1988)
[Crossref]

Other (8)

E. Santamato, “Nonlinear optical materials and devices for applications in information technology”,A. Miller ed., (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1995)

E. Santamato and Y.R. Shen, in A guide to Liquid Crystal research,P.J. Collings and J. Patel ed. (Oxford University Press, New York, 1997)

L. Marrucci and Y.R. Shen, in The optics of thermotropic liquid crystals,R. Sambles and S. Elston ed. (Taylor and Francis, London, 1997)

I.C. Khoo and S.T. Wu, in Optics and non linear optics of Liquid Crystals, Vol 1,(World Scientific, Singapore, 1993) Chap. 3, 4.
[Crossref]

I.C. Khoo and F. Simoni, in The Physics of Liquid Crystalline materials, (Gordon and Breach, London, 1991) Chap 14.

F. Simoni in Nonlinear optical properties of Liquid Crystals and PDLC, Series on Liquid Crystals, Vol 2, (World Scientific, Singapore,1997)
[Crossref]

O. Duhem, J.F. Henninot, G. Abbate, and M. Warenghem, “Observation of liquid crystal alignment in capillaries using a new experimental approach”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., in press

J.F. Henninot, M. Warenghem, and N. Tabiryan, “Leakography: visualization of losses in fibers and fiber optics systems using liquid crystals”, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., in press

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Setup; 1.a: side view ; 1.b: section view.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Video recording showing the behavior of the source beam as the input power is increased then decreased. [Media 1]

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic representation of the observed “self waveguiding” structure, as shown on the upper photograph on the right.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Photographs extracted from the movie: Up (= Fig. 2): the “self waveguiding structure”; Down: the isotropic zone has been underlined together with the fiber; (part of the movie not presented here).

Fig.5.
Fig.5.

Schematic representation of the ≪ tube ≫. This is a picture valid only in the plane of the input beam polarization, namely oxz (Fig. 1). Up: radial director distribution. Down: associated extraordinary index profiles for different sections.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated index profiles, including T(r), with T(r) = 33°C (no gradient) and a linear gradient with T(0) = 33°C; T(120) = 25°C; a maximum occurs around 12 μm

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