Abstract

We review top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), which are beneficial for lighting and display applications, where nontransparent substrates are used. The optical effects of the microcavity structure as well as the loss mechanisms are discussed. Outcoupling techniques and the work on white top-emitting OLEDs are summarized. We discuss the power dissipation spectra for a monochrome and a white top-emitting OLED and give quantitative reports on the loss channels. Furthermore, the development of inverted top-emitting OLEDs is described.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (7)

T. W. Canzler, S. Murano, D. Pavicic, O. Fadhel, C. Rothe, A. Haldi, M. Hofmann, and Q. Huang, “Efficiency Enhancement in White PIN OLEDs by Simple Internal Outcoupling Methods,” SID Digest11, 975–978 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “Top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with a color conversion cap layer,” Org. Electron.12, 677–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Ji, J. Zhao, Z. Sun, and W. Xie, “High-color-rendering flexible top-emitting warm-white organic light emitting diode with a transparent multilayer cathode,” Org. Electron.12, 1137–1141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Ma, X. Piao, J. Liu, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, M. Liu, T. Li, W. Xie, and H. Cui, “Optical simulation and optimization of ITO-free top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices for lighting or display,” Org. Electron.12, 923–935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Freitag, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, T. C. Rosenow, B. Lüssem, S. Reineke, S. Mogck, T. Wanski, C. May, and K. Leo, “Novel Approaches for OLED Lighting,” SID Digest11, (2011).

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron.12, 817 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, S. Olthof, M. Anderson, H. Kleemann, M. Schober, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Improvement of voltage and charge balance in inverted top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes comprising doped transport layers by thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 083304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (13)

P.-S. Wang, I.-W. Wu, and C.-I. Wu, “Enhancement of current injection in inverted organic light emitting diodes with thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys.108, 103714 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Tien, M. S. Lin, Y. H. Lin, C.-H. Tsai, M. H. Shiu, M. C. Wei, H. C. Cheng, C. L. Lin, H. W. Lin, and C. C. Wu, “Utilizing surface plasmon polariton mediated energy transfer for tunable double-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron.11, 397–406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Freitag, S. Reineke, S. Olthof, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with forward directed emission and high color quality,” Org. Electronics11, 1676–1682 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent Developments in Top-Emitting Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater.22, 5227–5239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Xie, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, S. Zhang, L. Zhao, Y. Luo, P. Chen, B. Quan, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, “Highly efficient top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with improved contrast and reduced angular dependence for active matrix displays,” Org. Electron.11, 2055–2059 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, I. Park, J. Kwak, D. Y. Yoon, and C. Lee, “Improvement of electron injection in inverted bottom-emission blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes using zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 153306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Furno, R. Meerheim, M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Outcoupling efficiency in small-molecule OLEDs: from theory to experiment,” Proc. SPIE7617, 761716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 253308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Yoo, S.-H. Jung, Y.-C. Kim, S.-C. Byun, J.-M. Kim, N.-B. Choi, S.-Y. Yoon, C.-D. Kim, Y.-K. Hwang, and I.-J. Chung, “Highly Flexible AM-OLED Display With Integrated Gate Driver Using Amorphous Silicon TFT on Ultrathin Metal Foil,” J. Disp. Tech.6, 565–570 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Hong, J.-H. Sim, I.-G. Seo, K.-C. Kim, S.-I. Bae, H.-Y. Lee, N.-Y. Lee, and J. Jang, “New Pixel Design on Emitting Area for High Resolution Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays,” J. Disp. Tech.6, 601–606 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, Z. Deng, J. Chen, and D. Ma, “Realization of blue, green, and white inverted microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices based on the same emitting layer,” Opt. Lett.35, 462–464 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. An, M. Shtein, and K. P. Pipe, “Surface plasmon mediated energy transfer of electrically-pumped excitons,” Opt. Express18, 4041 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (10)

A.W. Lu and A.D. Rakić, “Design of microcavity organic light emitting diodes with optimized electrical and optical performance,” Appl. Opt.48, 2282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, Z. Deng, and D. Ma, “Highly efficient inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using a lead monoxide electron injection layer,” Opt. Express17, 17269–17278 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-S. Leem, S.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “High efficiency p-i-n top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with a nearly Lambertian emission pattern,” J. Appl. Phys.106, 063114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, Z. Deng, and D. Ma, “Realization of high efficiency microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with highly saturated colors and negligible angular dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 233306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Yun, H. Cho, H. Kang, Y. Mi Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Electron injection via pentacene thin films for efficient inverted organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 053301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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2000 (1)

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1996 (1)

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1994 (2)

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Ali, T. A.

T. Feng, T. A. Ali, E. S. Ramakrshnan, R. Campos, and W. E. Howard, “Structure and characterization of a white up-emitting OLED on silicon for microdisplays,” Proc. SPIE4105, 30–36 (2001).
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S. Wedge, A. Giannattasio, and W. Barnes, “Surface plasmon–polariton mediated emission of light from top-emitting organic light-emitting diode type structures,” Org. Electron.8, 136–147 (2007).
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L. H. Smith, J. a E. Wasey, and W. L. Barnes, “Light outcoupling efficiency of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84, 2986 (2004).
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W. L. Barnes, “Fluorescence near interfaces: the role of photonic mode density,” J. of Mod. Opt.45, 661–699 (1998).
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T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, J. Meyer, A. Kammoun, D. Schneider, T. Riedl, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, and W. Kowalsky, “Inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using sputter-deposited anodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 284–286 (2003).
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H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys.94, 5290 (2003).
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H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 466 (2003).
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J. Blochwitz, M. Pfeiffer, T. Fritz, and K. Leo, “Low voltage organic light emitting diodes featuring doped ph-thalocyanine as hole transport material,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(6), 729 (1998).
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X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, “Low-voltage inverted transparent vacuum deposited organic light-emitting diodes using electrical doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 922–924 (2002).
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J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron.12, 817 (2011).
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V. Bulović, P. Tian, P. E. Burrows, M. R. Gokhale, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “A surface-emitting vacuum-deposited organic light emitting device,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70, 2954–2954 (1997).
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V. Bulović, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent light-emitting devices,” Nature380, 6569 (1996).
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G. Parthasarathy, C. Adachi, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “High-efficiency transparent organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76, 2128 (2000).
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G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72, 2138 (1998).
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V. Bulović, P. Tian, P. E. Burrows, M. R. Gokhale, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “A surface-emitting vacuum-deposited organic light emitting device,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70, 2954–2954 (1997).
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V. Bulović, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent light-emitting devices,” Nature380, 6569 (1996).
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J.-S. Yoo, S.-H. Jung, Y.-C. Kim, S.-C. Byun, J.-M. Kim, N.-B. Choi, S.-Y. Yoon, C.-D. Kim, Y.-K. Hwang, and I.-J. Chung, “Highly Flexible AM-OLED Display With Integrated Gate Driver Using Amorphous Silicon TFT on Ultrathin Metal Foil,” J. Disp. Tech.6, 565–570 (2010).
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T. Feng, T. A. Ali, E. S. Ramakrshnan, R. Campos, and W. E. Howard, “Structure and characterization of a white up-emitting OLED on silicon for microdisplays,” Proc. SPIE4105, 30–36 (2001).
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J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Hsiao, H.-C. Chen, C.-H. Chang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Radiation Simulations of Top-Emitting Organic Light-Emitting Devices With Two- and Three-Microcavity Structures,” J. Disp. Tech.2, 130 (2006).
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C.-C. Liu, S.-H. Liu, K.-C. Tien, M.-H. Hsu, H.-W. Chang, C.-K. Chang, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with diffusers for simultaneous enhancement of efficiencies and viewing characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 103302 (2009).
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C.-C. Liu, S.-H. Liu, K.-C. Tien, M.-H. Hsu, H.-W. Chang, C.-K. Chang, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with diffusers for simultaneous enhancement of efficiencies and viewing characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 103302 (2009).
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Chen, C. H.

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, S.-W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient top-emitting white organic electroluminescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 253508 (2005).
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Chen, C.-W.

C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, “An effective cathode structure for inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 2469–2471 (2004).
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C.-W. Chen, P.-Y. Hsieh, H.-H. Chiang, C.-L. Lin, H.-M. Wu, and C.-C. Wu, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using surface-modified Ag anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 5127 (2003).
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J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Hsiao, H.-C. Chen, C.-H. Chang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Radiation Simulations of Top-Emitting Organic Light-Emitting Devices With Two- and Three-Microcavity Structures,” J. Disp. Tech.2, 130 (2006).
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Chen, K.-Y.

J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Hsiao, H.-C. Chen, C.-H. Chang, Y.-W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Radiation Simulations of Top-Emitting Organic Light-Emitting Devices With Two- and Three-Microcavity Structures,” J. Disp. Tech.2, 130 (2006).
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S. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “Top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with a color conversion cap layer,” Org. Electron.12, 677–681 (2011).
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X. W. Chen, W. C. H. Choy, S. He, and P. Chui, “Comprehensive analysis and optimal design of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” J. Appl. Phys.101, 113107 (2007).
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C.-C. Wu, C.-L. Lin, P.-Y. Hsieh, and H.-H. Chiang, “Methodology for optimizing viewing characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84, 3966 (2004).
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C.-W. Chen, P.-Y. Hsieh, H.-H. Chiang, C.-L. Lin, H.-M. Wu, and C.-C. Wu, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using surface-modified Ag anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 5127 (2003).
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E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, “Highly Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes with Microcavities,” Science265, 12 (1994).
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C. Yun, H. Cho, H. Kang, Y. Mi Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Electron injection via pentacene thin films for efficient inverted organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 053301 (2009).
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C. J. Yang, S. H. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, C. C. Liu, T. Y. Cho, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with microlens arrays: Simultaneous enhancement of quantum efficiency, cd/A efficiency, color performances, and image resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 253508 (2007).
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Choi, H. W.

H. W. Choi, S. Y. Kim, W.-K. Kim, and J.-L. Lee, “Enhancement of electron injection in inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using an insulating magnesium oxide buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 082102 (2005).
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J.-S. Yoo, S.-H. Jung, Y.-C. Kim, S.-C. Byun, J.-M. Kim, N.-B. Choi, S.-Y. Yoon, C.-D. Kim, Y.-K. Hwang, and I.-J. Chung, “Highly Flexible AM-OLED Display With Integrated Gate Driver Using Amorphous Silicon TFT on Ultrathin Metal Foil,” J. Disp. Tech.6, 565–570 (2010).
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K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Huh, S.-M. Seo, and H. H. Lee, “Inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes by whole device transfer,” Org. Electr.9, 1118–1121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Pfeiffer, S. R. Forrest, X. Zhou, and K. Leo, “A low drive voltage, transparent, metal-free n-i-p electrophosphorescent light emitting diode,” Org. Electr.4, 21–26 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron. (8)

K. C. Tien, M. S. Lin, Y. H. Lin, C.-H. Tsai, M. H. Shiu, M. C. Wei, H. C. Cheng, C. L. Lin, H. W. Lin, and C. C. Wu, “Utilizing surface plasmon polariton mediated energy transfer for tunable double-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron.11, 397–406 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, and W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron.12, 817 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Ji, J. Zhao, Z. Sun, and W. Xie, “High-color-rendering flexible top-emitting warm-white organic light emitting diode with a transparent multilayer cathode,” Org. Electron.12, 1137–1141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Ma, X. Piao, J. Liu, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, M. Liu, T. Li, W. Xie, and H. Cui, “Optical simulation and optimization of ITO-free top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices for lighting or display,” Org. Electron.12, 923–935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Xie, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, S. Zhang, L. Zhao, Y. Luo, P. Chen, B. Quan, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, “Highly efficient top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with improved contrast and reduced angular dependence for active matrix displays,” Org. Electron.11, 2055–2059 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “Top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with a color conversion cap layer,” Org. Electron.12, 677–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Smith and W. Barnes, “Using a low-index host layer to increase emission from organic light-emitting diode structures,” Org. Electron.7, 490 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Wedge, A. Giannattasio, and W. Barnes, “Surface plasmon–polariton mediated emission of light from top-emitting organic light-emitting diode type structures,” Org. Electron.8, 136–147 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electronics (1)

P. Freitag, S. Reineke, S. Olthof, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with forward directed emission and high color quality,” Org. Electronics11, 1676–1682 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Stat. Sol. (1)

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, D. G. Moon, J. I. Han, N. H. Park, S. H. Baik, and S. S. Ju, “On the problem of microcavity effects on the top emitting OLED with semitransparent metal cathode,” Phys. Stat. Sol.201, 1022–1028 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

T. Feng, T. A. Ali, E. S. Ramakrshnan, R. Campos, and W. E. Howard, “Structure and characterization of a white up-emitting OLED on silicon for microdisplays,” Proc. SPIE4105, 30–36 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Furno, R. Meerheim, M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Outcoupling efficiency in small-molecule OLEDs: from theory to experiment,” Proc. SPIE7617, 761716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert, N. E. J. Hunt, R. J. Malik, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, and G. J. Zydzik, “Highly Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes with Microcavities,” Science265, 12 (1994).
[CrossRef]

SID Digest (2)

T. W. Canzler, S. Murano, D. Pavicic, O. Fadhel, C. Rothe, A. Haldi, M. Hofmann, and Q. Huang, “Efficiency Enhancement in White PIN OLEDs by Simple Internal Outcoupling Methods,” SID Digest11, 975–978 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Freitag, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, T. C. Rosenow, B. Lüssem, S. Reineke, S. Mogck, T. Wanski, C. May, and K. Leo, “Novel Approaches for OLED Lighting,” SID Digest11, (2011).

Surf. Interface Anal. (1)

W. Song, S. K. So, J. Moulder, Y. Qiu, Y. Zhu, and L. Cao, “Study on the interaction between Ag and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Surf. Interface Anal.32, 70–73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

L.-S. Hung and J. Madathilb, “Radiation damage and transmission enhancement in surface-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films410, 101–106 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

“ENERGY STAR ® Program Requirements for Solid State Lighting Luminaires Eligibility Criteria – Version 1.1,” 1–23 (2008) http://www.energystar.gov .

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of general bottom- (a) and top-emitting (b) OLED structure. The emission direction is defined by a transparent bottom contact and a reflective top contact (bottom emission) or a highly reflective bottom contact and a semitransparent top contact (top emission). The transposition of the layers leads to an inverted OLED structure (c). HTL = hole transport layer, EBL = electron blocking layer, EML = emission layer, HBL = hole blocking layer, ETL = electron transport layer, CL = capping layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation of the emitted spectrum of two cavity structures for forward emission according to Eq. (4) and the photoluminescence spectrum of the red emitter Ir(MDQ)2(acac) doped with 10 wt% in α – NPD. The high reflectivity of the contacts and the increase of cavity length lead to spectral narrowing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Power dissipation spectrum for a red phosphorescent top-emitting OLED as a function of free-space wavelength and normalized in-plane wavevector in the emitting layer. The structure of the top-emitting OLED can be found in Ref. [38]. Up to a wavevector of u < 0.57 light can radiate in the far field, at higher wavevectors waveguided and plasmonic modes can be observed. Reprinted with permission from Furno et al. [38], Proc. of SPIE 7617, 761716 (2010). Image courtesy of SPIE.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured EQE at 0.74 mA/cm2 of red top-emitting OLEDs as a function of the ETL thickness and comparison to simulation results. The figure also shows the distribution of all loss channels in the devices. Waveguided and plasmonic losses are not distinguished due to the complex modal cavity structure. Reprinted with permission from Meerheim et al. [6], Applied Physics Letters 97, 253305 (2010). Copyright 2010, American Institute of Physics.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CIE color coordinates for normal direction of the denoted publications in Table 1 on white top-emitting OLEDs. The dotted line represents the Planckian radiator, whereas A and E are the warm white point and point of equal energy, respectively. According to the Energy Star requirements [60] for solid state lighting the color coordinates of the white OLED have to fall into one of the 7-step chromaticity quadrangles to fulfill luminaire requirements.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated radiated power spectrum per unit normalized in-plane wavevector at wavelength of 475 nm for the top-emitting OLED with capping layer in Ref. [50]. Power components with in-plane wavevector up to 0.565 can escape the optical structure and can eventually radiate in the far field. The main loss modes are indicated on the diagram: TE-polarized waveguided mode TE0 and surface plasmon polariton modes SPP1 and SPP0. Reprinted with permission from Freitag et al. [65], SID Digest 11 (2011). Image courtesy of SID.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of current-luminance-voltage characteristics of non-inverted and the equivalent inverted top-emitting OLED. Square symbols refer to the normal structure, circular symbols to the inverted structure. The I–V curves diverge up to 2V difference. Reprinted with permission from Scholz et al. [72], Journal of Applied Physics 104, 104502, (2008). Copyright 2008, American Institute of Physics.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Efficiencies of white top-emitting OLEDs sorted by publication year. The devices are compared by their performance (LE = luminous efficacy, EQE = external quantum effi-ciency, CE = current efficiency).

Equations (10)

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F W H M = λ 2 2 L cav × 1 R t R b π R t R b 4 .
I ( λ , θ ) = T t [ 1 + R b + 2 R b cos ( ϕ b + 4 π n z cos ( θ org , EML ) λ ) ] ( 1 R b R t ) 2 + 4 R b R t sin 2 ( Δ ϕ 2 ) I 0 ( λ )
Δ ϕ = ϕ b ϕ t + i 4 π n i d i cos ( θ org , i ) λ
I ( λ ) = T t [ 1 + R b + 2 R b cos ( 4 π n z λ ) ] 1 + R b R t 2 R b R t cos ( 4 π L cav λ ) I 0 ( λ ) .
G = T t [ ( 1 + R b ) 2 4 R b cos 2 ( 2 π z λ ) ] ( 1 R t R b ) 2 + 4 R t R b sin 2 ( 2 π L cav λ ) τ cav τ .
Δ λ θ = θ ( i 4 π d i λ n i [ cos θ org , i 1 ] + Δ ϕ t + Δ ϕ b ) .
F = ( 1 q ) + q 0 K ( u ) d u ,
q = Γ r Γ r + Γ n r ,
K = 1 3 K T M ν + 2 3 ( K T M h + K T E h ) .
E Q E = γ χ λ q F ( λ ) q F ( λ ) + 1 q η out ( λ ) I 0 ( λ ) d λ ,

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