Abstract

The guest editors introduce the Optics Express Energy Express supplement Focus Issue, “Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” which includes six invited articles addressing the challenges of light outcoupling and light management in OLEDs.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. I. L. Azevedo, M. G. Morgan, and F. Morgan, “The transition to solid-state lighting,” Proc. IEEE 97(3), 481–510 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Helfrich and W. G. Schneider, “Recombination radiation in anthracene crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14(7), 229–231 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Shirakawa, E. J. Louis, S. C. Gau, A. G. MacDiarmid, C. K. Chiang, C. R. Fincher, Y. W. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Electrical conductivity in doped polyacetylene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1098–1101 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. W. Tang and S. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brdas, M. Lgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. C. Giebink and S. R. Forrest, “Temporal response of optically pumped organic semiconductor lasers and its implication for reaching threshold under electrical excitation,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 073302 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. U. Scherf and E. J. W. List, “Semiconducting polyfluorenes—towards reliable structure–property relationships,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(7), 477–487 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. R. Duggal, C. M. Heller, J. J. Shiang, J. Liu, and L. N. Lewis, “Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes for lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 184–192 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(S6), A1250–A1264 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. J. Scholz, J. Frischeisen, A. Jaeger, D. S. Setz, T. Reusch, and W. Brütting, “Extraction of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes via high-index coupling,” Opt. Express 20(S2), A205–A212 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Liu, Z. Ye, J.-M. Park, M. Cai, Y. Chen, K.-M. Ho, R. Shinar, and J. Shinar, “Microporous phase-separated films of polymer blends for enhanced outcoupling of light from OLEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S6), A1272–A1280 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. Duan, D. Zhang, Y. Li, G. Zhang, and Y. Qiu, “Improving the performance of OLEDs by using a low-temperature-evaporable n-dopant and a high-mobility electron transport host,” Opt. Express 19(S6), A1265–A1271 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Lü, Z. Ma, B. Meng, D. Sui, B. Zhang, Z. Xie, X. Jing, F. Wang, J. Ding, and L. Wang, “Phosphonate functionalized oxadiazole derivative as an efficient electron transporting material for solution-processed blue electrophosphorescent devices,” Opt. Express 19(S6), A1241–A1249 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. Trattnig, T. M. Figueira-Duarte, D. Lorbach, W. Wiedemair, S. Sax, S. Winkler, A. Vollmer, N. Koch, M. Manca, M. A. Loi, M. Baumgarten, E. J. W. List, and K. Müllen, “Deep blue polymer light emitting diodes based on easy to synthesize, non-aggregating polypyrene,” Opt. Express 19(S6), A1281–A1293 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (5)

2009 (2)

I. L. Azevedo, M. G. Morgan, and F. Morgan, “The transition to solid-state lighting,” Proc. IEEE 97(3), 481–510 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Giebink and S. R. Forrest, “Temporal response of optically pumped organic semiconductor lasers and its implication for reaching threshold under electrical excitation,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 073302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. R. Duggal, C. M. Heller, J. J. Shiang, J. Liu, and L. N. Lewis, “Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes for lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 184–192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

U. Scherf and E. J. W. List, “Semiconducting polyfluorenes—towards reliable structure–property relationships,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(7), 477–487 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brdas, M. Lgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

H. Shirakawa, E. J. Louis, S. C. Gau, A. G. MacDiarmid, C. K. Chiang, C. R. Fincher, Y. W. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Electrical conductivity in doped polyacetylene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1098–1101 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

W. Helfrich and W. G. Schneider, “Recombination radiation in anthracene crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14(7), 229–231 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Azevedo, I. L.

I. L. Azevedo, M. G. Morgan, and F. Morgan, “The transition to solid-state lighting,” Proc. IEEE 97(3), 481–510 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baumgarten, M.

Bradley, D. D. C.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brdas, M. Lgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brdas, J. L.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brdas, M. Lgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A. R.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brütting, W.

Burns, P. L.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brdas, M. Lgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cai, M.

Chen, Y.

Chiang, C. K.

H. Shirakawa, E. J. Louis, S. C. Gau, A. G. MacDiarmid, C. K. Chiang, C. R. Fincher, Y. W. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Electrical conductivity in doped polyacetylene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1098–1101 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J.

Duan, L.

Duggal, A. R.

A. R. Duggal, C. M. Heller, J. J. Shiang, J. Liu, and L. N. Lewis, “Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes for lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 184–192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ekström, O.

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Figueira-Duarte, T. M.

Fincher, C. R.

H. Shirakawa, E. J. Louis, S. C. Gau, A. G. MacDiarmid, C. K. Chiang, C. R. Fincher, Y. W. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Electrical conductivity in doped polyacetylene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1098–1101 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

N. C. Giebink and S. R. Forrest, “Temporal response of optically pumped organic semiconductor lasers and its implication for reaching threshold under electrical excitation,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 073302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brdas, M. Lgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Frischeisen, J.

Gau, S. C.

H. Shirakawa, E. J. Louis, S. C. Gau, A. G. MacDiarmid, C. K. Chiang, C. R. Fincher, Y. W. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Electrical conductivity in doped polyacetylene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1098–1101 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Geerts, Y.

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Giebink, N. C.

N. C. Giebink and S. R. Forrest, “Temporal response of optically pumped organic semiconductor lasers and its implication for reaching threshold under electrical excitation,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 073302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Graupner, W.

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gymer, R. W.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brdas, M. Lgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

H. Shirakawa, E. J. Louis, S. C. Gau, A. G. MacDiarmid, C. K. Chiang, C. R. Fincher, Y. W. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Electrical conductivity in doped polyacetylene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1098–1101 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Helfrich, W.

W. Helfrich and W. G. Schneider, “Recombination radiation in anthracene crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14(7), 229–231 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Heller, C. M.

A. R. Duggal, C. M. Heller, J. J. Shiang, J. Liu, and L. N. Lewis, “Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes for lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 184–192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K.-M.

Hofmann, S.

Holmes, A. B.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brdas, M. Lgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jaeger, A.

Jing, X.

Koch, N.

Leising, G.

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

Lewis, L. N.

A. R. Duggal, C. M. Heller, J. J. Shiang, J. Liu, and L. N. Lewis, “Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes for lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 184–192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lgdlund, M.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brdas, M. Lgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

List, E. J. W.

R. Trattnig, T. M. Figueira-Duarte, D. Lorbach, W. Wiedemair, S. Sax, S. Winkler, A. Vollmer, N. Koch, M. Manca, M. A. Loi, M. Baumgarten, E. J. W. List, and K. Müllen, “Deep blue polymer light emitting diodes based on easy to synthesize, non-aggregating polypyrene,” Opt. Express 19(S6), A1281–A1293 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Scherf and E. J. W. List, “Semiconducting polyfluorenes—towards reliable structure–property relationships,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(7), 477–487 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

A. R. Duggal, C. M. Heller, J. J. Shiang, J. Liu, and L. N. Lewis, “Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes for lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 184–192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

Loi, M. A.

Lorbach, D.

Louis, E. J.

H. Shirakawa, E. J. Louis, S. C. Gau, A. G. MacDiarmid, C. K. Chiang, C. R. Fincher, Y. W. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Electrical conductivity in doped polyacetylene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1098–1101 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lü, J.

Lüssem, B.

Ma, Z.

MacDiarmid, A. G.

H. Shirakawa, E. J. Louis, S. C. Gau, A. G. MacDiarmid, C. K. Chiang, C. R. Fincher, Y. W. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Electrical conductivity in doped polyacetylene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1098–1101 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Mackay, K.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Manca, M.

Marks, R. N.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brdas, M. Lgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Meng, B.

Morgan, F.

I. L. Azevedo, M. G. Morgan, and F. Morgan, “The transition to solid-state lighting,” Proc. IEEE 97(3), 481–510 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, M. G.

I. L. Azevedo, M. G. Morgan, and F. Morgan, “The transition to solid-state lighting,” Proc. IEEE 97(3), 481–510 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Müllen, K.

R. Trattnig, T. M. Figueira-Duarte, D. Lorbach, W. Wiedemair, S. Sax, S. Winkler, A. Vollmer, N. Koch, M. Manca, M. A. Loi, M. Baumgarten, E. J. W. List, and K. Müllen, “Deep blue polymer light emitting diodes based on easy to synthesize, non-aggregating polypyrene,” Opt. Express 19(S6), A1281–A1293 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-M.

Park, Y. W.

H. Shirakawa, E. J. Louis, S. C. Gau, A. G. MacDiarmid, C. K. Chiang, C. R. Fincher, Y. W. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Electrical conductivity in doped polyacetylene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1098–1101 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

Reusch, T.

Rohr, U.

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salaneck, W. R.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brdas, M. Lgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Santos, D. A. D.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brdas, M. Lgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sax, S.

Scherf, U.

U. Scherf and E. J. W. List, “Semiconducting polyfluorenes—towards reliable structure–property relationships,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(7), 477–487 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schlichting, P.

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, W. G.

W. Helfrich and W. G. Schneider, “Recombination radiation in anthracene crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14(7), 229–231 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Scholz, B. J.

Setz, D. S.

Shiang, J. J.

A. R. Duggal, C. M. Heller, J. J. Shiang, J. Liu, and L. N. Lewis, “Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes for lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 184–192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shinar, J.

Shinar, R.

Shirakawa, H.

H. Shirakawa, E. J. Louis, S. C. Gau, A. G. MacDiarmid, C. K. Chiang, C. R. Fincher, Y. W. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Electrical conductivity in doped polyacetylene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1098–1101 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sui, D.

Taliani, C.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brdas, M. Lgdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tasch, S.

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomschke, M.

Trattnig, R.

Van Slyke, S.

C. W. Tang and S. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, A.

Wang, F.

Wang, L.

Wiedemair, W.

Winkler, S.

Xie, Z.

Ye, Z.

Zhang, B.

Zhang, D.

Zhang, G.

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

U. Scherf and E. J. W. List, “Semiconducting polyfluorenes—towards reliable structure–property relationships,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(7), 477–487 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. W. Tang and S. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

A. R. Duggal, C. M. Heller, J. J. Shiang, J. Liu, and L. N. Lewis, “Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes for lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 184–192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

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