Abstract

Up-converted heterostructures with a Mn-doped GaN intermediate band photodetection layer and an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) luminescence layer grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy are demonstrated. The up-converters exhibit a significant up-converted photoluminescence (UPL) signal. Power-dependent UPL and spectral responses indicate that the UPL emission is due to photo-carrier injection from the Mn-doped GaN layer into InGaN/GaN MQWs. Photons convert from 2.54 to 2.99 eV via a single-photon absorption process to exhibit a linear up-conversion photon energy of ~450 meV without applying bias voltage. Therefore, the up-conversion process could be interpreted within the uncomplicated energy level model.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  10. K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
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  12. C. Tablero, “Survey of intermediate band material candidates,” Solid State Commun.133(2), 97–101 (2005).
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  13. C. Tablero, “Electronic and magnetic properties of ZnS doped with Cr,” Phys. Rev. B74(19), 195203 (2006).
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    [Crossref]
  18. N. Nepal, A. M. Mahros, S. M. Bedair, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Correlation between photoluminescence and magnetic properties of GaMnN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(24), 242502 (2007).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  20. R. Y. Korotkov, J. M. Gregie, and B. W. Wessels, “Mn-related absorption and PL bands in GaN grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Physica B308–310(1-2), 30–33 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  21. P. Bogusławski and J. Bernholc, “Fermi-level effects on the electronic structure and magnetic couplings in (Ga,Mn)N,” Phys. Rev. B72(11), 115208 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  22. T. Graf, M. Gjukic, M. S. Brandt, M. Stutzmann, and O. Ambacher, “The Mn3+/2+ acceptor level in group III nitrides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(27), 5159–5161 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. A. Wolf, D. D. Awschalom, R. A. Buhrman, J. M. Daughton, S. von Molnár, M. L. Roukes, A. Y. Chtchelkanova, and D. M. Treger, “Spintronics: a spin-based electronics vision for the future,” Science294(5546), 1488–1495 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. V. I. Litvinov and V. K. Dugaev, “Ferromagnetism in magnetically doped III-V semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(24), 5593–5596 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 132505 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. K. Sheu, K. H. Chang, and M. L. Lee, “Ultraviolet band-pass photodetectors formed by Ga-doped ZnO contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113512 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2009 (2)

A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(5), 641–644 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 132505 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. K. Sheu, K. H. Chang, and M. L. Lee, “Ultraviolet band-pass photodetectors formed by Ga-doped ZnO contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113512 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

N. Nepal, A. M. Mahros, S. M. Bedair, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Correlation between photoluminescence and magnetic properties of GaMnN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(24), 242502 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(25), 252503 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

M. R. Olson, K. J. Russell, V. Narayanamurti, J. M. Olson, and I. Appelbaum, “Linear photon upconversion of 400 meV in an AlGaInP∕GaInP quantum well heterostructure to visible light at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161108 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Tablero, “Electronic and magnetic properties of ZnS doped with Cr,” Phys. Rev. B74(19), 195203 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Tablero, “Survey of intermediate band materials based on ZnS and ZnTe semiconductors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(5), 588–596 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Trupke, A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, P. Wurfel, and M. A. Green, “Efficiency enhancement of solar cells by luminescent up-conversion of sunlight,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(18-19), 3327–3338 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(1), 013505 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Tablero, “Survey of intermediate band material candidates,” Solid State Commun.133(2), 97–101 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Bogusławski and J. Bernholc, “Fermi-level effects on the electronic structure and magnetic couplings in (Ga,Mn)N,” Phys. Rev. B72(11), 115208 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

L. Cuadra, A. Marti, and A. Luque, “Present status of intermediate band solar cell research,” Thin Solid Films451–452, 593–599 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (5)

T. Graf, M. Gjukic, M. S. Brandt, M. Stutzmann, and O. Ambacher, “The Mn3+/2+ acceptor level in group III nitrides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(27), 5159–5161 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys.92(7), 4117–4122 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. Kronik, M. Jain, and J. R. Chelikowsky, “Electronic structure and spin polarization of MnxGa1-xN,” Phys. Rev. B66(4), 041203 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Y. Korotkov, J. M. Gregie, and B. W. Wessels, “Optical properties of the deep Mn acceptor in GaN:Mn,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(10), 1731–1733 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Polyakov, A. V. Govorkov, N. B. Smirnov, N. Y. Pashkova, G. T. Thaler, M. E. Overberg, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, and F. Ren, “Optical and electrical properties of GaMnN films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.92(9), 4989–4993 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

R. Y. Korotkov, J. M. Gregie, and B. W. Wessels, “Mn-related absorption and PL bands in GaN grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Physica B308–310(1-2), 30–33 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. A. Wolf, D. D. Awschalom, R. A. Buhrman, J. M. Daughton, S. von Molnár, M. L. Roukes, A. Y. Chtchelkanova, and D. M. Treger, “Spintronics: a spin-based electronics vision for the future,” Science294(5546), 1488–1495 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. I. Litvinov and V. K. Dugaev, “Ferromagnetism in magnetically doped III-V semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(24), 5593–5596 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. P. Paskov, P. O. Holtz, B. Monemar, J. M. Garcia, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(6), 812–814 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

H. M. Cheong, B. Fluegel, M. C. Hanna, and A. Mascarenhas, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B58(8), R4254–R4257 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. Luque and A. Marti, “Increasing the efficiency of ideal solar cells by photoni transitions at intermediate levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(26), 5014–5017 (1997).
[Crossref]

Abernathy, C. R.

A. Y. Polyakov, A. V. Govorkov, N. B. Smirnov, N. Y. Pashkova, G. T. Thaler, M. E. Overberg, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, and F. Ren, “Optical and electrical properties of GaMnN films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.92(9), 4989–4993 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ambacher, O.

T. Graf, M. Gjukic, M. S. Brandt, M. Stutzmann, and O. Ambacher, “The Mn3+/2+ acceptor level in group III nitrides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(27), 5159–5161 (2002).
[Crossref]

Antolin, E.

A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(5), 641–644 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appelbaum, I.

M. R. Olson, K. J. Russell, V. Narayanamurti, J. M. Olson, and I. Appelbaum, “Linear photon upconversion of 400 meV in an AlGaInP∕GaInP quantum well heterostructure to visible light at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161108 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[Crossref]

Awschalom, D. D.

S. A. Wolf, D. D. Awschalom, R. A. Buhrman, J. M. Daughton, S. von Molnár, M. L. Roukes, A. Y. Chtchelkanova, and D. M. Treger, “Spintronics: a spin-based electronics vision for the future,” Science294(5546), 1488–1495 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bedair, S. M.

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 132505 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Nepal, A. M. Mahros, S. M. Bedair, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Correlation between photoluminescence and magnetic properties of GaMnN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(24), 242502 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(25), 252503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Berkman, E. A.

A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(25), 252503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bernholc, J.

P. Bogusławski and J. Bernholc, “Fermi-level effects on the electronic structure and magnetic couplings in (Ga,Mn)N,” Phys. Rev. B72(11), 115208 (2005).
[Crossref]

Boguslawski, P.

P. Bogusławski and J. Bernholc, “Fermi-level effects on the electronic structure and magnetic couplings in (Ga,Mn)N,” Phys. Rev. B72(11), 115208 (2005).
[Crossref]

Brandt, M. S.

T. Graf, M. Gjukic, M. S. Brandt, M. Stutzmann, and O. Ambacher, “The Mn3+/2+ acceptor level in group III nitrides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(27), 5159–5161 (2002).
[Crossref]

Buhrman, R. A.

S. A. Wolf, D. D. Awschalom, R. A. Buhrman, J. M. Daughton, S. von Molnár, M. L. Roukes, A. Y. Chtchelkanova, and D. M. Treger, “Spintronics: a spin-based electronics vision for the future,” Science294(5546), 1488–1495 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campion, R. P.

A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(5), 641–644 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chang, K. H.

J. K. Sheu, K. H. Chang, and M. L. Lee, “Ultraviolet band-pass photodetectors formed by Ga-doped ZnO contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113512 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chelikowsky, J. R.

L. Kronik, M. Jain, and J. R. Chelikowsky, “Electronic structure and spin polarization of MnxGa1-xN,” Phys. Rev. B66(4), 041203 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cheong, H. M.

H. M. Cheong, B. Fluegel, M. C. Hanna, and A. Mascarenhas, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B58(8), R4254–R4257 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chtchelkanova, A. Y.

S. A. Wolf, D. D. Awschalom, R. A. Buhrman, J. M. Daughton, S. von Molnár, M. L. Roukes, A. Y. Chtchelkanova, and D. M. Treger, “Spintronics: a spin-based electronics vision for the future,” Science294(5546), 1488–1495 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cibert, J.

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cuadra, L.

L. Cuadra, A. Marti, and A. Luque, “Present status of intermediate band solar cell research,” Thin Solid Films451–452, 593–599 (2004).
[Crossref]

Daughton, J. M.

S. A. Wolf, D. D. Awschalom, R. A. Buhrman, J. M. Daughton, S. von Molnár, M. L. Roukes, A. Y. Chtchelkanova, and D. M. Treger, “Spintronics: a spin-based electronics vision for the future,” Science294(5546), 1488–1495 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dietl, T.

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dugaev, V. K.

V. I. Litvinov and V. K. Dugaev, “Ferromagnetism in magnetically doped III-V semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(24), 5593–5596 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El-Masry, N. A.

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 132505 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(25), 252503 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Nepal, A. M. Mahros, S. M. Bedair, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Correlation between photoluminescence and magnetic properties of GaMnN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(24), 242502 (2007).
[Crossref]

Emara, A.

A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(25), 252503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ferrand, D.

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fluegel, B.

H. M. Cheong, B. Fluegel, M. C. Hanna, and A. Mascarenhas, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B58(8), R4254–R4257 (1998).
[Crossref]

Foxon, C. T.

A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(5), 641–644 (2009).
[Crossref]

Frajtag, P.

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 132505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Frazier, R.

A. Y. Polyakov, A. V. Govorkov, N. B. Smirnov, N. Y. Pashkova, G. T. Thaler, M. E. Overberg, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, and F. Ren, “Optical and electrical properties of GaMnN films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.92(9), 4989–4993 (2002).
[Crossref]

Garcia, J. M.

P. P. Paskov, P. O. Holtz, B. Monemar, J. M. Garcia, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(6), 812–814 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gjukic, M.

T. Graf, M. Gjukic, M. S. Brandt, M. Stutzmann, and O. Ambacher, “The Mn3+/2+ acceptor level in group III nitrides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(27), 5159–5161 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gossard, A. C.

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[Crossref]

Govorkov, A. V.

A. Y. Polyakov, A. V. Govorkov, N. B. Smirnov, N. Y. Pashkova, G. T. Thaler, M. E. Overberg, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, and F. Ren, “Optical and electrical properties of GaMnN films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.92(9), 4989–4993 (2002).
[Crossref]

Graf, T.

T. Graf, M. Gjukic, M. S. Brandt, M. Stutzmann, and O. Ambacher, “The Mn3+/2+ acceptor level in group III nitrides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(27), 5159–5161 (2002).
[Crossref]

Green, M. A.

T. Trupke, A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, P. Wurfel, and M. A. Green, “Efficiency enhancement of solar cells by luminescent up-conversion of sunlight,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(18-19), 3327–3338 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys.92(7), 4117–4122 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gregie, J. M.

R. Y. Korotkov, J. M. Gregie, and B. W. Wessels, “Optical properties of the deep Mn acceptor in GaN:Mn,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(10), 1731–1733 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Y. Korotkov, J. M. Gregie, and B. W. Wessels, “Mn-related absorption and PL bands in GaN grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Physica B308–310(1-2), 30–33 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gudel, H. U.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(1), 013505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hanna, M. C.

H. M. Cheong, B. Fluegel, M. C. Hanna, and A. Mascarenhas, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B58(8), R4254–R4257 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hanson, M. P.

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[Crossref]

Holtz, P. O.

P. P. Paskov, P. O. Holtz, B. Monemar, J. M. Garcia, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(6), 812–814 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jain, M.

L. Kronik, M. Jain, and J. R. Chelikowsky, “Electronic structure and spin polarization of MnxGa1-xN,” Phys. Rev. B66(4), 041203 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

A. Y. Polyakov, A. V. Govorkov, N. B. Smirnov, N. Y. Pashkova, G. T. Thaler, M. E. Overberg, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, and F. Ren, “Optical and electrical properties of GaMnN films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.92(9), 4989–4993 (2002).
[Crossref]

Korotkov, R. Y.

R. Y. Korotkov, J. M. Gregie, and B. W. Wessels, “Optical properties of the deep Mn acceptor in GaN:Mn,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(10), 1731–1733 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Y. Korotkov, J. M. Gregie, and B. W. Wessels, “Mn-related absorption and PL bands in GaN grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Physica B308–310(1-2), 30–33 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kramer, K. W.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(1), 013505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kronik, L.

L. Kronik, M. Jain, and J. R. Chelikowsky, “Electronic structure and spin polarization of MnxGa1-xN,” Phys. Rev. B66(4), 041203 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. L.

J. K. Sheu, K. H. Chang, and M. L. Lee, “Ultraviolet band-pass photodetectors formed by Ga-doped ZnO contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113512 (2008).
[Crossref]

Litvinov, V. I.

V. I. Litvinov and V. K. Dugaev, “Ferromagnetism in magnetically doped III-V semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(24), 5593–5596 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luen, M. O.

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 132505 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(25), 252503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Luque, A.

A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(5), 641–644 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Cuadra, A. Marti, and A. Luque, “Present status of intermediate band solar cell research,” Thin Solid Films451–452, 593–599 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Luque and A. Marti, “Increasing the efficiency of ideal solar cells by photoni transitions at intermediate levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(26), 5014–5017 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mahros, A. M.

N. Nepal, A. M. Mahros, S. M. Bedair, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Correlation between photoluminescence and magnetic properties of GaMnN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(24), 242502 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(25), 252503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Marti, A.

L. Cuadra, A. Marti, and A. Luque, “Present status of intermediate band solar cell research,” Thin Solid Films451–452, 593–599 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Luque and A. Marti, “Increasing the efficiency of ideal solar cells by photoni transitions at intermediate levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(26), 5014–5017 (1997).
[Crossref]

Martí, A.

A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(5), 641–644 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mascarenhas, A.

H. M. Cheong, B. Fluegel, M. C. Hanna, and A. Mascarenhas, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B58(8), R4254–R4257 (1998).
[Crossref]

Matsukura, F.

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monemar, B.

P. P. Paskov, P. O. Holtz, B. Monemar, J. M. Garcia, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(6), 812–814 (2000).
[Crossref]

Narayanamurti, V.

M. R. Olson, K. J. Russell, V. Narayanamurti, J. M. Olson, and I. Appelbaum, “Linear photon upconversion of 400 meV in an AlGaInP∕GaInP quantum well heterostructure to visible light at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161108 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nepal, N.

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 132505 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Nepal, A. M. Mahros, S. M. Bedair, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Correlation between photoluminescence and magnetic properties of GaMnN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(24), 242502 (2007).
[Crossref]

Novikov, S. V.

A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(5), 641–644 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ohno, H.

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olson, J. M.

M. R. Olson, K. J. Russell, V. Narayanamurti, J. M. Olson, and I. Appelbaum, “Linear photon upconversion of 400 meV in an AlGaInP∕GaInP quantum well heterostructure to visible light at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Olson, M. R.

M. R. Olson, K. J. Russell, V. Narayanamurti, J. M. Olson, and I. Appelbaum, “Linear photon upconversion of 400 meV in an AlGaInP∕GaInP quantum well heterostructure to visible light at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Overberg, M. E.

A. Y. Polyakov, A. V. Govorkov, N. B. Smirnov, N. Y. Pashkova, G. T. Thaler, M. E. Overberg, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, and F. Ren, “Optical and electrical properties of GaMnN films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.92(9), 4989–4993 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pashkova, N. Y.

A. Y. Polyakov, A. V. Govorkov, N. B. Smirnov, N. Y. Pashkova, G. T. Thaler, M. E. Overberg, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, and F. Ren, “Optical and electrical properties of GaMnN films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.92(9), 4989–4993 (2002).
[Crossref]

Paskov, P. P.

P. P. Paskov, P. O. Holtz, B. Monemar, J. M. Garcia, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(6), 812–814 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pearton, S. J.

A. Y. Polyakov, A. V. Govorkov, N. B. Smirnov, N. Y. Pashkova, G. T. Thaler, M. E. Overberg, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, and F. Ren, “Optical and electrical properties of GaMnN films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.92(9), 4989–4993 (2002).
[Crossref]

Perry, C. H.

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[Crossref]

Petroff, P. M.

P. P. Paskov, P. O. Holtz, B. Monemar, J. M. Garcia, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(6), 812–814 (2000).
[Crossref]

Polyakov, A. Y.

A. Y. Polyakov, A. V. Govorkov, N. B. Smirnov, N. Y. Pashkova, G. T. Thaler, M. E. Overberg, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, and F. Ren, “Optical and electrical properties of GaMnN films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.92(9), 4989–4993 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ren, F.

A. Y. Polyakov, A. V. Govorkov, N. B. Smirnov, N. Y. Pashkova, G. T. Thaler, M. E. Overberg, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, and F. Ren, “Optical and electrical properties of GaMnN films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.92(9), 4989–4993 (2002).
[Crossref]

Richards, B. S.

T. Trupke, A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, P. Wurfel, and M. A. Green, “Efficiency enhancement of solar cells by luminescent up-conversion of sunlight,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(18-19), 3327–3338 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(1), 013505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Roukes, M. L.

S. A. Wolf, D. D. Awschalom, R. A. Buhrman, J. M. Daughton, S. von Molnár, M. L. Roukes, A. Y. Chtchelkanova, and D. M. Treger, “Spintronics: a spin-based electronics vision for the future,” Science294(5546), 1488–1495 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, K. J.

M. R. Olson, K. J. Russell, V. Narayanamurti, J. M. Olson, and I. Appelbaum, “Linear photon upconversion of 400 meV in an AlGaInP∕GaInP quantum well heterostructure to visible light at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161108 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schoenfeld, W. V.

P. P. Paskov, P. O. Holtz, B. Monemar, J. M. Garcia, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(6), 812–814 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shalav, A.

T. Trupke, A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, P. Wurfel, and M. A. Green, “Efficiency enhancement of solar cells by luminescent up-conversion of sunlight,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(18-19), 3327–3338 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(1), 013505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sheu, J. K.

J. K. Sheu, K. H. Chang, and M. L. Lee, “Ultraviolet band-pass photodetectors formed by Ga-doped ZnO contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113512 (2008).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, N. B.

A. Y. Polyakov, A. V. Govorkov, N. B. Smirnov, N. Y. Pashkova, G. T. Thaler, M. E. Overberg, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, and F. Ren, “Optical and electrical properties of GaMnN films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.92(9), 4989–4993 (2002).
[Crossref]

Stutzmann, M.

T. Graf, M. Gjukic, M. S. Brandt, M. Stutzmann, and O. Ambacher, “The Mn3+/2+ acceptor level in group III nitrides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(27), 5159–5161 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tablero, C.

A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(5), 641–644 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Tablero, “Electronic and magnetic properties of ZnS doped with Cr,” Phys. Rev. B74(19), 195203 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Tablero, “Survey of intermediate band materials based on ZnS and ZnTe semiconductors,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(5), 588–596 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Tablero, “Survey of intermediate band material candidates,” Solid State Commun.133(2), 97–101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Temkin, H.

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[Crossref]

Thaler, G. T.

A. Y. Polyakov, A. V. Govorkov, N. B. Smirnov, N. Y. Pashkova, G. T. Thaler, M. E. Overberg, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, and F. Ren, “Optical and electrical properties of GaMnN films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.92(9), 4989–4993 (2002).
[Crossref]

Treger, D. M.

S. A. Wolf, D. D. Awschalom, R. A. Buhrman, J. M. Daughton, S. von Molnár, M. L. Roukes, A. Y. Chtchelkanova, and D. M. Treger, “Spintronics: a spin-based electronics vision for the future,” Science294(5546), 1488–1495 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trupke, T.

T. Trupke, A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, P. Wurfel, and M. A. Green, “Efficiency enhancement of solar cells by luminescent up-conversion of sunlight,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(18-19), 3327–3338 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(1), 013505 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys.92(7), 4117–4122 (2002).
[Crossref]

von Molnár, S.

S. A. Wolf, D. D. Awschalom, R. A. Buhrman, J. M. Daughton, S. von Molnár, M. L. Roukes, A. Y. Chtchelkanova, and D. M. Treger, “Spintronics: a spin-based electronics vision for the future,” Science294(5546), 1488–1495 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wessels, B. W.

R. Y. Korotkov, J. M. Gregie, and B. W. Wessels, “Optical properties of the deep Mn acceptor in GaN:Mn,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(10), 1731–1733 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Y. Korotkov, J. M. Gregie, and B. W. Wessels, “Mn-related absorption and PL bands in GaN grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Physica B308–310(1-2), 30–33 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wolf, S. A.

S. A. Wolf, D. D. Awschalom, R. A. Buhrman, J. M. Daughton, S. von Molnár, M. L. Roukes, A. Y. Chtchelkanova, and D. M. Treger, “Spintronics: a spin-based electronics vision for the future,” Science294(5546), 1488–1495 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wurfel, P.

T. Trupke, A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, P. Wurfel, and M. A. Green, “Efficiency enhancement of solar cells by luminescent up-conversion of sunlight,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(18-19), 3327–3338 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys.92(7), 4117–4122 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zavada, J. M.

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 132505 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Nepal, A. M. Mahros, S. M. Bedair, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Correlation between photoluminescence and magnetic properties of GaMnN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(24), 242502 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(25), 252503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(1), 013505 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. P. Paskov, P. O. Holtz, B. Monemar, J. M. Garcia, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(6), 812–814 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. R. Olson, K. J. Russell, V. Narayanamurti, J. M. Olson, and I. Appelbaum, “Linear photon upconversion of 400 meV in an AlGaInP∕GaInP quantum well heterostructure to visible light at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161108 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Y. Korotkov, J. M. Gregie, and B. W. Wessels, “Optical properties of the deep Mn acceptor in GaN:Mn,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(10), 1731–1733 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Nepal, A. M. Mahros, S. M. Bedair, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Correlation between photoluminescence and magnetic properties of GaMnN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(24), 242502 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(25), 252503 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Graf, M. Gjukic, M. S. Brandt, M. Stutzmann, and O. Ambacher, “The Mn3+/2+ acceptor level in group III nitrides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(27), 5159–5161 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 132505 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. K. Sheu, K. H. Chang, and M. L. Lee, “Ultraviolet band-pass photodetectors formed by Ga-doped ZnO contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113512 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. Y. Polyakov, A. V. Govorkov, N. B. Smirnov, N. Y. Pashkova, G. T. Thaler, M. E. Overberg, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, and F. Ren, “Optical and electrical properties of GaMnN films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys.92(9), 4989–4993 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys.92(7), 4117–4122 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

H. M. Cheong, B. Fluegel, M. C. Hanna, and A. Mascarenhas, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B58(8), R4254–R4257 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. Tablero, “Electronic and magnetic properties of ZnS doped with Cr,” Phys. Rev. B74(19), 195203 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. Kronik, M. Jain, and J. R. Chelikowsky, “Electronic structure and spin polarization of MnxGa1-xN,” Phys. Rev. B66(4), 041203 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Bogusławski and J. Bernholc, “Fermi-level effects on the electronic structure and magnetic couplings in (Ga,Mn)N,” Phys. Rev. B72(11), 115208 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

V. I. Litvinov and V. K. Dugaev, “Ferromagnetism in magnetically doped III-V semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(24), 5593–5596 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Luque and A. Marti, “Increasing the efficiency of ideal solar cells by photoni transitions at intermediate levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(26), 5014–5017 (1997).
[Crossref]

Physica B (1)

R. Y. Korotkov, J. M. Gregie, and B. W. Wessels, “Mn-related absorption and PL bands in GaN grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Physica B308–310(1-2), 30–33 (2001).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

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Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (3)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic device structure in cross-section view: (a) samples A, (b) samples B, (c) samples C and (d) samples D.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Low temperature (12 K) PL spectra of samples A and B for the indicated (a) 325 nm He-Cd laser excitation and (b) 488 nm Ar laser excitation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Low temperature (12 K) PL spectra for the 488 nm (2.54 eV) Ar laser excitation of samples A, B, C and D.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical room temperature (300 K) spectral responsivity of the PD-I(sample C) and PD-II(sample D) taken at zero bias.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

488 nm (Eexc = 2.54 eV) Ar laser incident pump power dependence of the spectrally up-converted PL emission intensity of samples A at low temperature (12 K). The lines show the linear regression in the double-logarithmic plot. The slope of n = 0.9 is also indicated.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic band diagram of sample A and the up-converted PL excitation process resulting in emission at 2.99 eV (Eemi = 2.99 eV) and 3.51 eV (Eemi = 3.51 eV).

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