Abstract

We propose an organic solar cell structure with combined silver gratings consisting of both a front and a back grating. This combination provides multiple, semi-independent enhancement mechanisms which act additively, so that a broadband absorption is obtained. Both gratings couple the incident light into various plasmonic modes, showing a more localized or propagating character respectively. In addition, some modes only appear for tilted incident light, and therefore present a complex angle-dependent behavior. We provide extensive numerical simulations, resulting in an optimized period of 490nm, with front grating elements of 60 by 10nm and back elements of 60 by 30nm. With these parameters an integrated absorption enhancement factor around 1.35 is observed, with absorption increasing from 48% to 65% under TM polarized light. In addition, the solar cell with combined gratings is much less sensitive to the angle of incident light than the single grating cases. Furthermore, the grating structure does not have a large influence on the TE polarized light absorption.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2011

D. H. Wang, D. Y. Kim, K. W. Choi, J. H. Seo, S. H. Im, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhancement of donor-acceptor polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell power conversion efficiencies by addition of Au nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.50, 5519–5523 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Sefunc, A. K. Okyay, and H. V. Demir, “Volumetric plasmonic resonator architecture for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(9), 093117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Abass, H. Shen, P. Bienstman, and B. Maes, “Angle insensitive enhancement of organic solar cells using metallic gratings,” J. Appl. Phys.109, 023111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Munday and H. A. Atwater, “Large integrated absorption enhancement in plasmonic solar cells by combining metallic gratings and antireflection coatings,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2195–2201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Diukman, L. Tzabari, N. Berkovitch, N. Tessler, and M. Orenstein, “Controlling absorption enhancement in organic photovoltaic cells by patterning Au nano disks within the active layer,” Opt. Express19(S1), A64–A71 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

C.-C. Chao, C.-M. Wang, and J.-Y Chang, “Spatial distribution of absorption in plasmonic thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express18(11), 11763–11771 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Akimov and W. S. Koh, “Design of plasmonic nanoparticles for efficient subwavelength light trapping in thin-film solar cells,” Plasmonics6(1), 155–161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M.-G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater.22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and W. Warta, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 36),” Prog. Photo-voltaics Res. Appl.18, 144–150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics3, 207–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, J. Wu, C. Lee, Y. Hong, C. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Plasmonic-enhanced polymer photovoltaic devices incorporating solution-processable metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 013305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, P. Bienstman, and B. Maes, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with thin active layers,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 073109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Tumbleston, D.-H. Ko, E. T. Samulski, and R. Lopez, “Absorption and quasiguided mode analysis of organic solar cells with photonic crystal photoactive layers,” Opt. Express14, 7670–7681 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express17, 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater.21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett.8, 4391–4397 (2008)
[CrossRef]

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Shaw, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Exciton diffusion measurements in poly(3-hexylthiophene),” Adv. Mater.20, 3516–3520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

A. P. Hibbins, W. A. Murray, J. Tyler, S. Wedge, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, “Resonant absorption of electromagnetic fields by surface plasmons buried in a multilayered plasmonic nanostructure,” Phys. Rev. B74, 073408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Christ, T. Zentgraf, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Controlling the interaction between localized and delocalized surface plasmon modes: Experiment and numerical calculations,” Phys. Rev. B74, 155435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. McCulloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater.4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. Hoppe and N. S. Sariciftci, “Organic solar cells: An overview,” J. Mater. Res.19, 1924–1945 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.4, 899–903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1996

W. Barnes, T. Preist, S. Kitson, and J. Sambles, “Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings,” Phys. Rev. B54(9), 6227–6244 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science270, 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Abass, A.

A. Abass, H. Shen, P. Bienstman, and B. Maes, “Angle insensitive enhancement of organic solar cells using metallic gratings,” J. Appl. Phys.109, 023111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Akimov, Y. A.

Y. A. Akimov and W. S. Koh, “Design of plasmonic nanoparticles for efficient subwavelength light trapping in thin-film solar cells,” Plasmonics6(1), 155–161 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

J. N. Munday and H. A. Atwater, “Large integrated absorption enhancement in plasmonic solar cells by combining metallic gratings and antireflection coatings,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2195–2201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett.8, 4391–4397 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater.21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W.

W. Barnes, T. Preist, S. Kitson, and J. Sambles, “Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings,” Phys. Rev. B54(9), 6227–6244 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

A. P. Hibbins, W. A. Murray, J. Tyler, S. Wedge, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, “Resonant absorption of electromagnetic fields by surface plasmons buried in a multilayered plasmonic nanostructure,” Phys. Rev. B74, 073408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beaupré, S.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics3, 207–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berkovitch, N.

Bermel, P.

Bienstman, P.

A. Abass, H. Shen, P. Bienstman, and B. Maes, “Angle insensitive enhancement of organic solar cells using metallic gratings,” J. Appl. Phys.109, 023111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, P. Bienstman, and B. Maes, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with thin active layers,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 073109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. McCulloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater.21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.-Y

Chao, C.-C.

Chen, F.

F. Chen, J. Wu, C. Lee, Y. Hong, C. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Plasmonic-enhanced polymer photovoltaic devices incorporating solution-processable metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 013305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics3, 207–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. W.

D. H. Wang, D. Y. Kim, K. W. Choi, J. H. Seo, S. H. Im, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhancement of donor-acceptor polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell power conversion efficiencies by addition of Au nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.50, 5519–5523 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choulis, S. A.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. McCulloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Christ, A.

A. Christ, T. Zentgraf, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Controlling the interaction between localized and delocalized surface plasmon modes: Experiment and numerical calculations,” Phys. Rev. B74, 155435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coates, N.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics3, 207–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cook, S.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. McCulloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Demir, H. V.

M. A. Sefunc, A. K. Okyay, and H. V. Demir, “Volumetric plasmonic resonator architecture for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(9), 093117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Diukman, I.

Drouard, E.

Duche, D.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Durrant, J. R.

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. McCulloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

El Daif, O.

Emery, K.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and W. Warta, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 36),” Prog. Photo-voltaics Res. Appl.18, 144–150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater.4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Escoubas, L.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fave, A.

Ferry, V. E.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett.8, 4391–4397 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Flory, F.

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Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. McCulloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(3), 197–203 (2006).
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M.-G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater.22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
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Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. McCulloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(3), 197–203 (2006).
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D. H. Wang, D. Y. Kim, K. W. Choi, J. H. Seo, S. H. Im, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhancement of donor-acceptor polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell power conversion efficiencies by addition of Au nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.50, 5519–5523 (2011).
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A. P. Hibbins, W. A. Murray, J. Tyler, S. Wedge, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, “Resonant absorption of electromagnetic fields by surface plasmons buried in a multilayered plasmonic nanostructure,” Phys. Rev. B74, 073408 (2006).
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F. Chen, J. Wu, C. Lee, Y. Hong, C. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Plasmonic-enhanced polymer photovoltaic devices incorporating solution-processable metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 013305 (2009).
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D. H. Wang, D. Y. Kim, K. W. Choi, J. H. Seo, S. H. Im, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhancement of donor-acceptor polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell power conversion efficiencies by addition of Au nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.50, 5519–5523 (2011).
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Kaminski, A.

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M.-G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater.22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
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D. H. Wang, D. Y. Kim, K. W. Choi, J. H. Seo, S. H. Im, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhancement of donor-acceptor polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell power conversion efficiencies by addition of Au nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.50, 5519–5523 (2011).
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Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. McCulloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(3), 197–203 (2006).
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F. Chen, J. Wu, C. Lee, Y. Hong, C. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Plasmonic-enhanced polymer photovoltaic devices incorporating solution-processable metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 013305 (2009).
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F. Chen, J. Wu, C. Lee, Y. Hong, C. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Plasmonic-enhanced polymer photovoltaic devices incorporating solution-processable metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 013305 (2009).
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C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics3, 207–302 (2009).
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V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2), A237–A245 (2010).
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C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(13), 133302 (2010).
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M.-G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater.22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
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W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
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D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
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S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics3, 207–302 (2009).
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M. A. Sefunc, A. K. Okyay, and H. V. Demir, “Volumetric plasmonic resonator architecture for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(9), 093117 (2011).
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R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater.21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
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M.-G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater.22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
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D. H. Wang, D. Y. Kim, K. W. Choi, J. H. Seo, S. H. Im, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhancement of donor-acceptor polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell power conversion efficiencies by addition of Au nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.50, 5519–5523 (2011).
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D. H. Wang, D. Y. Kim, K. W. Choi, J. H. Seo, S. H. Im, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhancement of donor-acceptor polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell power conversion efficiencies by addition of Au nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.50, 5519–5523 (2011).
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S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics3, 207–302 (2009).
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C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(13), 133302 (2010).
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Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. McCulloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(3), 197–203 (2006).
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A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013504 (2008).
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A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013504 (2008).
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A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013504 (2008).
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A. P. Hibbins, W. A. Murray, J. Tyler, S. Wedge, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, “Resonant absorption of electromagnetic fields by surface plasmons buried in a multilayered plasmonic nanostructure,” Phys. Rev. B74, 073408 (2006).
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V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2), A237–A245 (2010).
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Sefunc, M. A.

M. A. Sefunc, A. K. Okyay, and H. V. Demir, “Volumetric plasmonic resonator architecture for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(9), 093117 (2011).
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D. H. Wang, D. Y. Kim, K. W. Choi, J. H. Seo, S. H. Im, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhancement of donor-acceptor polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell power conversion efficiencies by addition of Au nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.50, 5519–5523 (2011).
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P. E. Shaw, A. Ruseckas, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Exciton diffusion measurements in poly(3-hexylthiophene),” Adv. Mater.20, 3516–3520 (2008).
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A. Abass, H. Shen, P. Bienstman, and B. Maes, “Angle insensitive enhancement of organic solar cells using metallic gratings,” J. Appl. Phys.109, 023111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, P. Bienstman, and B. Maes, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with thin active layers,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 073109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater.4(11), 864–868 (2005).
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D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
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P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.4, 899–903 (2004).
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V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett.8, 4391–4397 (2008)
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D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
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Tyler, J.

A. P. Hibbins, W. A. Murray, J. Tyler, S. Wedge, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, “Resonant absorption of electromagnetic fields by surface plasmons buried in a multilayered plasmonic nanostructure,” Phys. Rev. B74, 073408 (2006).
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van de Lagemaat, J.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013504 (2008).
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C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(13), 133302 (2010).
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D. H. Wang, D. Y. Kim, K. W. Choi, J. H. Seo, S. H. Im, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhancement of donor-acceptor polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell power conversion efficiencies by addition of Au nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.50, 5519–5523 (2011).
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M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and W. Warta, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 36),” Prog. Photo-voltaics Res. Appl.18, 144–150 (2010).
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A. P. Hibbins, W. A. Murray, J. Tyler, S. Wedge, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, “Resonant absorption of electromagnetic fields by surface plasmons buried in a multilayered plasmonic nanostructure,” Phys. Rev. B74, 073408 (2006).
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G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science270, 1789–1791 (1995).
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A. Christ, T. Zentgraf, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Controlling the interaction between localized and delocalized surface plasmon modes: Experiment and numerical calculations,” Phys. Rev. B74, 155435 (2006).
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Adv. Funct. Mater.

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
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M.-G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using transparent plasmonic Ag nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater.22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
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R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater.21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.

D. H. Wang, D. Y. Kim, K. W. Choi, J. H. Seo, S. H. Im, J. H. Park, O. O. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Enhancement of donor-acceptor polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell power conversion efficiencies by addition of Au nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.50, 5519–5523 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, J. Wu, C. Lee, Y. Hong, C. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Plasmonic-enhanced polymer photovoltaic devices incorporating solution-processable metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(1), 013305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, and P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010).
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G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater.4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, S. Cook, S. M. Tuladhar, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, J. R. Durrant, D. D. C. Bradley, M. Giles, I. McCulloch, C.-S. Ha, and M. Ree, “A strong regioregularity effect in self-organizing conjugated polymer films and high-efficiency polythiophene:fullerene solar cells,” Nat. Mater.5(3), 197–203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics3, 207–302 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

A. P. Hibbins, W. A. Murray, J. Tyler, S. Wedge, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, “Resonant absorption of electromagnetic fields by surface plasmons buried in a multilayered plasmonic nanostructure,” Phys. Rev. B74, 073408 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Christ, T. Zentgraf, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Controlling the interaction between localized and delocalized surface plasmon modes: Experiment and numerical calculations,” Phys. Rev. B74, 155435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Plasmonics

Y. A. Akimov and W. S. Koh, “Design of plasmonic nanoparticles for efficient subwavelength light trapping in thin-film solar cells,” Plasmonics6(1), 155–161 (2010).
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[CrossRef]

Science

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science270, 1789–1791 (1995).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of OSCs with combined gratings (front and back grating). (b) Optical constants of P3HT:PCBM with 1:1 weight ratio, n and k are the real and the imaginary parts of the refractive index.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The absorption spectra of the organic layer with combined grating (blue solid line), front grating only (green dash-dotted), back grating only (red dashed) and planar reference structure without grating (black dotted). The insets show the E and H amplitude profile at wavelength 740nm for the combined case. (b) Intensity enhancement spectrum at a point close to a lower corner of front grating (blue solid line) and at a point close to an upper corner of back grating (red dashed line) for combined grating, normalized by the incident field.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Map of absorption in the organic layer versus the wavelength of incident light and the grating period. (b) The period dependence of integrated absorption (blue solid line). The value for the reference structure is indicated by the black dotted line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angular dependence of absorption with (a) combined grating, (b) front grating, (c) back grating, (d) planar device. Blue solid and red dashed lines superimposed in (a)–(c) are calculated Bloch mode dispersion curves. White dashed and dash-dotted lines in (d) are folded dispersion lines of the planar reference structure (SPP mode) and the folded air light line, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

H field magnitude distribution of Bloch modes. Top row shows bright modes, bottom row are dark modes. (a) and (b) combined grating, (c) and (d) front grating, (e) and (f) back grating case. The ‘+’ and ‘−’ signs denote π phase differences in the field profiles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Integrated absorption versus incidence angle for TM (solid lines) and TE (dashed) polarizations. Blue: combined grating; green: front grating; red: back grating; black: planar structure.

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