Abstract

InGaN light-emitting diode (LED) structures get an air-void structure and a tapered GaN structure at the GaN/sapphire interface through a laser decomposition process and a lateral wet etching process. The light output power of the treated LED structure had a 70% enhancement compared to a conventional LED structure at 20 mA. The intensities and peak wavelengths of the micro-photoluminescence spectra were varied periodically by aligning to the air-void (461.8nm) and the tapered GaN (459.5nm) structures. The slightly peak wavelength blueshift phenomenon of the EL and the PL spectra were caused by a partial compressed strain release at the GaN/sapphire interface when forming the tapered GaN structure. The relative internal quantum efficiency of the treated LED structure (70.3%) was slightly increased compared with a conventional LED (67.8%) caused by the reduction of the piezoelectric field in the InGaN active layer.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2011

M. K. Lee, C. L. Ho, C. C. Lin, N. R. Cheng, M. H. Houng, Y. K. Chien, and C. F. Yen, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN blue LED with ZnO nanotips prepared by aqueous solution deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(5), D286–D289 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto and Y. Kawakami, “High-Efficiency InGaN/GaN Light Emitters Based on Nanophotonics and Plasmonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1199–1209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. G. Kim, M. G. Na, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, T. V. Cuong, and C.-H. Hong, “Effect of periodic deflector embedded in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic carbon-implanted InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 650–653 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. Streubel, N. Linder, R. Wirth, and A. Jaeger, “High Brightness AlGaInP Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 321–332 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996

Arif, R. A.

Baik, K. H.

Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Effects of Photoelectrochemical Etching of N-polar and Ga-polar gallium nitride on sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(6), H676–H678 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beechem, T. E.

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, H.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chandramohan, S.

Chang, C. Y.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. T.

K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, T. H. Hsieh, C. H. Hsieh, and C. F. Lin, “InGaN light emitting solar cells with a roughened N-face GaN surface through a laser decomposition process,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23406–23412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P. S.

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic carbon-implanted InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, N. R.

M. K. Lee, C. L. Ho, C. C. Lin, N. R. Cheng, M. H. Houng, Y. K. Chien, and C. F. Yen, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN blue LED with ZnO nanotips prepared by aqueous solution deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(5), D286–D289 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. J.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chien, Y. K.

M. K. Lee, C. L. Ho, C. C. Lin, N. R. Cheng, M. H. Houng, Y. K. Chien, and C. F. Yen, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN blue LED with ZnO nanotips prepared by aqueous solution deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(5), D286–D289 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. Y.

Cho, H. K.

Choe, Y. H.

Choi, J.

Choi, J. H.

Chowdhury, A.

H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 650–653 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cuong, T. V.

H. G. Kim, M. G. Na, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, T. V. Cuong, and C.-H. Hong, “Effect of periodic deflector embedded in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J. J.

J. J. Dai, C. F. Lin, G. M. Wang, and M. S. Lin, “Enhanced the Light Extraction Efficiency of an InGaN Light Emitting Diodes with an Embedded Rhombus-Like Air-Void Structure,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(7), 071002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ee, Y. K.

Fujii, T.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, J. F.

Graham, S.

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grann, E. B.

Han, S. H.

Ho, C. L.

M. K. Lee, C. L. Ho, C. C. Lin, N. R. Cheng, M. H. Houng, Y. K. Chien, and C. F. Yen, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN blue LED with ZnO nanotips prepared by aqueous solution deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(5), D286–D289 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. H.

Hong, C.-H.

H. G. Kim, M. G. Na, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, T. V. Cuong, and C.-H. Hong, “Effect of periodic deflector embedded in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Houng, M. H.

M. K. Lee, C. L. Ho, C. C. Lin, N. R. Cheng, M. H. Houng, Y. K. Chien, and C. F. Yen, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN blue LED with ZnO nanotips prepared by aqueous solution deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(5), D286–D289 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C. H.

Hsieh, T. H.

Hsu, S. C.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. C.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W. C.

K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, T. H. Hsieh, C. H. Hsieh, and C. F. Lin, “InGaN light emitting solar cells with a roughened N-face GaN surface through a laser decomposition process,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23406–23412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. C.

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hung, C. W.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jaeger, A.

K. Streubel, N. Linder, R. Wirth, and A. Jaeger, “High Brightness AlGaInP Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 321–332 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

Jeong, H.

Jeong, M. S.

Jiang, R. H.

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y.

Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Effects of Photoelectrochemical Etching of N-polar and Ga-polar gallium nitride on sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(6), H676–H678 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

K. Okamoto and Y. Kawakami, “High-Efficiency InGaN/GaN Light Emitters Based on Nanophotonics and Plasmonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1199–1209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. G.

Kim, H. K.

Kim, H. Y.

Kim, J.

Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Effects of Photoelectrochemical Etching of N-polar and Ga-polar gallium nitride on sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(6), H676–H678 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. W.

Kim, S. H.

Kim, S. K.

Kim, Y. C.

Kumnorkaew, P.

Kuo, H. C.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Lee, C. S.

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic carbon-implanted InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. T.

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic carbon-implanted InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. B.

Lee, J. S.

Lee, K.

Lee, K. D.

Lee, M. K.

M. K. Lee, C. L. Ho, C. C. Lin, N. R. Cheng, M. H. Houng, Y. K. Chien, and C. F. Yen, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN blue LED with ZnO nanotips prepared by aqueous solution deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(5), D286–D289 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

Lee, Y. H.

Li, W. H.

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. C.

M. K. Lee, C. L. Ho, C. C. Lin, N. R. Cheng, M. H. Houng, Y. K. Chien, and C. F. Yen, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN blue LED with ZnO nanotips prepared by aqueous solution deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(5), D286–D289 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. F.

K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, T. H. Hsieh, C. H. Hsieh, and C. F. Lin, “InGaN light emitting solar cells with a roughened N-face GaN surface through a laser decomposition process,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23406–23412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Dai, C. F. Lin, G. M. Wang, and M. S. Lin, “Enhanced the Light Extraction Efficiency of an InGaN Light Emitting Diodes with an Embedded Rhombus-Like Air-Void Structure,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(7), 071002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. M.

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M. S.

J. J. Dai, C. F. Lin, G. M. Wang, and M. S. Lin, “Enhanced the Light Extraction Efficiency of an InGaN Light Emitting Diodes with an Embedded Rhombus-Like Air-Void Structure,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(7), 071002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Linder, N.

K. Streubel, N. Linder, R. Wirth, and A. Jaeger, “High Brightness AlGaInP Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 321–332 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. Y.

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lo, M. H.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McGroddy, K.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Na, M. G.

H. G. Kim, M. G. Na, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, T. V. Cuong, and C.-H. Hong, “Effect of periodic deflector embedded in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ng, H. M.

H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 650–653 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto and Y. Kawakami, “High-Efficiency InGaN/GaN Light Emitters Based on Nanophotonics and Plasmonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1199–1209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

Park, T. Y.

Pearton, S. J.

Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Effects of Photoelectrochemical Etching of N-polar and Ga-polar gallium nitride on sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(6), H676–H678 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pong, B. J.

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.

Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Effects of Photoelectrochemical Etching of N-polar and Ga-polar gallium nitride on sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(6), H676–H678 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, J. H.

H. G. Kim, M. G. Na, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, T. V. Cuong, and C.-H. Hong, “Effect of periodic deflector embedded in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Streubel, K.

K. Streubel, N. Linder, R. Wirth, and A. Jaeger, “High Brightness AlGaInP Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 321–332 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Suh, E. K.

Tansu, N.

Tong, H.

Tu, P. M.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uthirakumar, P.

Wang, C. H.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. M.

J. J. Dai, C. F. Lin, G. M. Wang, and M. S. Lin, “Enhanced the Light Extraction Efficiency of an InGaN Light Emitting Diodes with an Embedded Rhombus-Like Air-Void Structure,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(7), 071002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weimann, N. G.

H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 650–653 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wirth, R.

K. Streubel, N. Linder, R. Wirth, and A. Jaeger, “High Brightness AlGaInP Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 321–332 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, U. Z.

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic carbon-implanted InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yen, C. F.

M. K. Lee, C. L. Ho, C. C. Lin, N. R. Cheng, M. H. Houng, Y. K. Chien, and C. F. Yen, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN blue LED with ZnO nanotips prepared by aqueous solution deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(5), D286–D289 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zan, H. W.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express

J. J. Dai, C. F. Lin, G. M. Wang, and M. S. Lin, “Enhanced the Light Extraction Efficiency of an InGaN Light Emitting Diodes with an Embedded Rhombus-Like Air-Void Structure,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(7), 071002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Kim, M. G. Na, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, T. V. Cuong, and C.-H. Hong, “Effect of periodic deflector embedded in InGaN/GaN light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hsu, B. J. Pong, W. H. Li, T. E. Beechem, S. Graham, and C. Y. Liu, “Stress relaxation in GaN by transfer bonding on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

K. Okamoto and Y. Kawakami, “High-Efficiency InGaN/GaN Light Emitters Based on Nanophotonics and Plasmonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1199–1209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Streubel, N. Linder, R. Wirth, and A. Jaeger, “High Brightness AlGaInP Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 321–332 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic carbon-implanted InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 650–653 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Effects of Photoelectrochemical Etching of N-polar and Ga-polar gallium nitride on sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(6), H676–H678 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Lee, C. L. Ho, C. C. Lin, N. R. Cheng, M. H. Houng, Y. K. Chien, and C. F. Yen, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN blue LED with ZnO nanotips prepared by aqueous solution deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(5), D286–D289 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic diagrams and fabricated procedures of the TP-LED structure with a tapered-GaN structure at GaN/sapphire interface were shown here.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microscopy images of the ST-LED and the TP-LED structures (a) with front-side light illumination (b) with back-side light illumination were observed. The light-intensity profiles of (c) the ST-LED structure (d) the TP-LED structure at a 20mA operation current are measured by a beam profiler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The cross-sectional SEM micrographs of the laser scanning region and the lateral wet etching region at GaN buffer layer with a 40μm period width. (b) The cross-sectional SEM micrograph of the air-void structure at the laser scanning region through the N-face crystallographic wet etching process.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The EL spectra of the both LED structures were measured at 20 mA. (b) The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and the light-output power as a function of the operating current are measured.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The peak wavelength and the FWHM of the EL spectra were measured by varying the injection current. The peak wavelength and the FWHM of the EL spectra were measured at 464.3nm/21.6nm and 464.1nm/21.6nm for the ST-LED and the TP-LED, respectively, at a 20mA operation current. The thermal heat of the EL spectra were observed in the TP-LED structure with the peak wavelength red-shifted and line-width broadened phenomena.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The PL spectra of (a) the TP-LED and (b) the ST-LED structures are measured at 10K and 300K. (c) The integral PL intensities of both LED structures are measured by varying the measurement temperatures. (d) The line-scanning PL emission intensity profile, scanning from non-treated region to treated region shown in the inserted OM image, is measured by the μ-PL measurement, and the periodic peak intensities and wavelengths of the μ-PL spectra are observed in the TP-LED structure.

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