Abstract

Solid-state lighting is currently based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and phosphors. Solid-state lighting based on lasers would offer significant advantages including high potential efficiencies at high current densities. Light emitted from lasers, however, has a much narrower spectral linewidth than light emitted from LEDs or phosphors. Therefore it is a common belief that white light produced by a set of lasers of different colors would not be of high enough quality for general illumination. We tested this belief experimentally, and found the opposite to be true. This result paves the way for the use of lasers in solid-state lighting.

© 2011 OSA

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Y. Tsao, H. D. Saunders, J. R. Creighton, M. E. Coltrin, and J. A. Simmons, “Solid-state lighting: an energy-economics perspective,” J. Phys. D43, 354001 (2010).
  2. Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D43, 354002 (2010).
  3. M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Y. Tsao, “Solid-state lighting: lamps, chips, and materials for tomorrow,” IEEE Circuits Dev. Mag. 20(3), 28–37 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Peters, V. Rossin, M. Everett, and E. Zucker, “High Power, High Efficiency Laser Diodes at JDSU,” High-Power Diode Laser Technology and Applications V, edited by Zediker, Proc. of SPIE 6456, 64560G (2007).
  6. R. Poprawe, “High-Power Diode Lasers: The ultimate source for economic photons in the next decade,” Keynote talk, SPIE Photonics West (Jan 2011).
  7. J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high-power GaN-based laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6485, 648503, 648503–648508 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H.-Y. Ryu and D.-H. Kim, “High-brightness phosphor-conversion white light source using InGaN blue laser diode,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 14(4), 415–419 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Kozaki, T. Yanamoto, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, ““High-power pure blue InGaN laser diodes,” IEICE Trans. Electronics,” E 92C, 194–197 (2009).
  11. S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Bockowski, B. Lucznik, M. Leszczynski, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency 'droop' in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, and Y. J. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. T. Huang, Y. P. Huang, and C. C. Tsai, “Planar lighting system using array of blue LEDs to excite yellow remote phosphor film,” J. Display Tech. 7(1), 44–51 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Lok, “Vision science: Seeing without seeing,” Nature 469(7330), 284–285 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. M. P. J. Verstegen, D. Radielovic, and L. E. Vrenken, ““A new generation of “deluxe” fluorescent lamps, combining an efficacy of 80 lumens/W or more with a color rendering index of approximately 85,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 121(12), 1627–1631 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. J. Opstelten, D. Radielovic, and J. M. P. J. Verstegen, “Optimum spectra or light sources,” Philips Tech. Rev. 35, 361–370 (1975).
  18. L.J. Sandahl, T.L. Gilbride, M.R. Ledbetter, H.E. Steward, and C. Calwell, “Compact fluorescent lighting in America: lessons learned on the way to market,” Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Technical Report (May, 2006).
  19. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.
  20. S. Tonzani, “Lighting technology: Time to change the bulb,” Nature 459(7245), 312–314 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. M. Brandston, “Summary of CFL Concerns” website and references therein. http://www.concerninglight.com/commentary.html .
  22. G. Giladi, “'Phasing-out' the Incandescents – Is the Public Misinformed or Disinformed” Professional Lighting Designers’ Association white paper. http://www.pld-a.org/fileadmin/download/Gad_s_report_on_GLS___CFL.pdf .
  23. S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. Shionoya, W. H. Yen, and H. Yamamoto, eds., Phosphor Handbook, 2nd Edition. (CRC Press, 2006).
  25. W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Certain commercial equipment, instruments, or materials are identified in this paper in order to specify the experimental procedure adequately. Such identification is not intended to imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor is it intended to imply that the materials or equipment identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose.
  27. IESNA RP-11–1995, “Design criteria for lighting interior living spaces,” The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (1995).
  28. Y. Ohno, “Spectral Design Considerations for Color Rendering of White LED Light Sources,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 111302 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  29. W. J. Conover, (1980). Practical Nonparametric Statistics (3rd Ed.).
  30. P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, “Polynomial representation of reflectance curves,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35(9), 597–598 (1945).
    [CrossRef]
  31. L. T. Maloney, “Evaluation of linear models of surface spectral reflectance with small numbers of parameters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(10), 1673–1683 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. W. A. Rushton, “Pigments and signals in colour vision,” J. Physiol. 220, 1–31 (1972).
    [PubMed]

2011 (2)

H. T. Huang, Y. P. Huang, and C. C. Tsai, “Planar lighting system using array of blue LEDs to excite yellow remote phosphor film,” J. Display Tech. 7(1), 44–51 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Lok, “Vision science: Seeing without seeing,” Nature 469(7330), 284–285 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

J. Y. Tsao, H. D. Saunders, J. R. Creighton, M. E. Coltrin, and J. A. Simmons, “Solid-state lighting: an energy-economics perspective,” J. Phys. D43, 354001 (2010).

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D43, 354002 (2010).

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Ryu and D.-H. Kim, “High-brightness phosphor-conversion white light source using InGaN blue laser diode,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 14(4), 415–419 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Tonzani, “Lighting technology: Time to change the bulb,” Nature 459(7245), 312–314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Kozaki, T. Yanamoto, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, ““High-power pure blue InGaN laser diodes,” IEICE Trans. Electronics,” E 92C, 194–197 (2009).

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Bockowski, B. Lucznik, M. Leszczynski, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency 'droop' in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high-power GaN-based laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6485, 648503, 648503–648508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

Y. Ohno, “Spectral Design Considerations for Color Rendering of White LED Light Sources,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 111302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, and Y. J. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Y. Tsao, “Solid-state lighting: lamps, chips, and materials for tomorrow,” IEEE Circuits Dev. Mag. 20(3), 28–37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1975 (1)

J. J. Opstelten, D. Radielovic, and J. M. P. J. Verstegen, “Optimum spectra or light sources,” Philips Tech. Rev. 35, 361–370 (1975).

1974 (1)

J. M. P. J. Verstegen, D. Radielovic, and L. E. Vrenken, ““A new generation of “deluxe” fluorescent lamps, combining an efficacy of 80 lumens/W or more with a color rendering index of approximately 85,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 121(12), 1627–1631 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

W. A. Rushton, “Pigments and signals in colour vision,” J. Physiol. 220, 1–31 (1972).
[PubMed]

1945 (1)

Bockowski, M.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Bockowski, B. Lucznik, M. Leszczynski, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency 'droop' in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J. H.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, and Y. J. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coltrin, M. E.

J. Y. Tsao, H. D. Saunders, J. R. Creighton, M. E. Coltrin, and J. A. Simmons, “Solid-state lighting: an energy-economics perspective,” J. Phys. D43, 354001 (2010).

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Creighton, J. R.

J. Y. Tsao, H. D. Saunders, J. R. Creighton, M. E. Coltrin, and J. A. Simmons, “Solid-state lighting: an energy-economics perspective,” J. Phys. D43, 354001 (2010).

Czernecki, R.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Bockowski, B. Lucznik, M. Leszczynski, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency 'droop' in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davis, W.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. J.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grzanka, S.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Bockowski, B. Lucznik, M. Leszczynski, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency 'droop' in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. T.

H. T. Huang, Y. P. Huang, and C. C. Tsai, “Planar lighting system using array of blue LEDs to excite yellow remote phosphor film,” J. Display Tech. 7(1), 44–51 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. P.

H. T. Huang, Y. P. Huang, and C. C. Tsai, “Planar lighting system using array of blue LEDs to excite yellow remote phosphor film,” J. Display Tech. 7(1), 44–51 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D43, 354002 (2010).

Kim, D.-H.

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, and Y. J. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kozaki, T.

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Kozaki, T. Yanamoto, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, ““High-power pure blue InGaN laser diodes,” IEICE Trans. Electronics,” E 92C, 194–197 (2009).

T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high-power GaN-based laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6485, 648503, 648503–648508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leszczynski, M.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Bockowski, B. Lucznik, M. Leszczynski, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency 'droop' in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lok, C.

C. Lok, “Vision science: Seeing without seeing,” Nature 469(7330), 284–285 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucznik, B.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Bockowski, B. Lucznik, M. Leszczynski, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency 'droop' in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, and Y. J. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maloney, L. T.

Marona, L.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Bockowski, B. Lucznik, M. Leszczynski, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency 'droop' in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Michiue, A.

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Kozaki, T. Yanamoto, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, ““High-power pure blue InGaN laser diodes,” IEICE Trans. Electronics,” E 92C, 194–197 (2009).

Miyoshi, T.

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Kozaki, T. Yanamoto, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, ““High-power pure blue InGaN laser diodes,” IEICE Trans. Electronics,” E 92C, 194–197 (2009).

Moon, P.

Mueller, G. O.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D43, 354002 (2010).

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Kozaki, T. Yanamoto, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, ““High-power pure blue InGaN laser diodes,” IEICE Trans. Electronics,” E 92C, 194–197 (2009).

T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high-power GaN-based laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6485, 648503, 648503–648508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Kozaki, T. Yanamoto, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, ““High-power pure blue InGaN laser diodes,” IEICE Trans. Electronics,” E 92C, 194–197 (2009).

T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high-power GaN-based laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6485, 648503, 648503–648508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narendran, N.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D43, 354002 (2010).

Ohno, Y.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohno, “Spectral Design Considerations for Color Rendering of White LED Light Sources,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 111302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opstelten, J. J.

J. J. Opstelten, D. Radielovic, and J. M. P. J. Verstegen, “Optimum spectra or light sources,” Philips Tech. Rev. 35, 361–370 (1975).

Park, Y. J.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, and Y. J. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perlin, P.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Bockowski, B. Lucznik, M. Leszczynski, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency 'droop' in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, J. M.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Radielovic, D.

J. J. Opstelten, D. Radielovic, and J. M. P. J. Verstegen, “Optimum spectra or light sources,” Philips Tech. Rev. 35, 361–370 (1975).

J. M. P. J. Verstegen, D. Radielovic, and L. E. Vrenken, ““A new generation of “deluxe” fluorescent lamps, combining an efficacy of 80 lumens/W or more with a color rendering index of approximately 85,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 121(12), 1627–1631 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rohwer, L. E. S.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rushton, W. A.

W. A. Rushton, “Pigments and signals in colour vision,” J. Physiol. 220, 1–31 (1972).
[PubMed]

Ryu, H.-Y.

Sanga, D.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D43, 354002 (2010).

Sano, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D43, 354002 (2010).

Saunders, H. D.

J. Y. Tsao, H. D. Saunders, J. R. Creighton, M. E. Coltrin, and J. A. Simmons, “Solid-state lighting: an energy-economics perspective,” J. Phys. D43, 354001 (2010).

Schubert, E. F.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, and Y. J. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. A.

J. Y. Tsao, H. D. Saunders, J. R. Creighton, M. E. Coltrin, and J. A. Simmons, “Solid-state lighting: an energy-economics perspective,” J. Phys. D43, 354001 (2010).

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C. S.

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, and Y. J. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, D. E.

Suski, T.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Bockowski, B. Lucznik, M. Leszczynski, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency 'droop' in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tonzani, S.

S. Tonzani, “Lighting technology: Time to change the bulb,” Nature 459(7245), 312–314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, C. C.

H. T. Huang, Y. P. Huang, and C. C. Tsai, “Planar lighting system using array of blue LEDs to excite yellow remote phosphor film,” J. Display Tech. 7(1), 44–51 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, J. Y.

J. Y. Tsao, H. D. Saunders, J. R. Creighton, M. E. Coltrin, and J. A. Simmons, “Solid-state lighting: an energy-economics perspective,” J. Phys. D43, 354001 (2010).

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Tsao, “Solid-state lighting: lamps, chips, and materials for tomorrow,” IEEE Circuits Dev. Mag. 20(3), 28–37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Verstegen, J. M. P. J.

J. J. Opstelten, D. Radielovic, and J. M. P. J. Verstegen, “Optimum spectra or light sources,” Philips Tech. Rev. 35, 361–370 (1975).

J. M. P. J. Verstegen, D. Radielovic, and L. E. Vrenken, ““A new generation of “deluxe” fluorescent lamps, combining an efficacy of 80 lumens/W or more with a color rendering index of approximately 85,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 121(12), 1627–1631 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Vrenken, L. E.

J. M. P. J. Verstegen, D. Radielovic, and L. E. Vrenken, ““A new generation of “deluxe” fluorescent lamps, combining an efficacy of 80 lumens/W or more with a color rendering index of approximately 85,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 121(12), 1627–1631 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Yanamoto, T.

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Kozaki, T. Yanamoto, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, ““High-power pure blue InGaN laser diodes,” IEICE Trans. Electronics,” E 92C, 194–197 (2009).

Zhu, Y.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Bockowski, B. Lucznik, M. Leszczynski, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency 'droop' in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E (1)

A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Kozaki, T. Yanamoto, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, ““High-power pure blue InGaN laser diodes,” IEICE Trans. Electronics,” E 92C, 194–197 (2009).

IEEE Circuits Dev. Mag. (1)

J. Y. Tsao, “Solid-state lighting: lamps, chips, and materials for tomorrow,” IEEE Circuits Dev. Mag. 20(3), 28–37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Tech. (1)

H. T. Huang, Y. P. Huang, and C. C. Tsai, “Planar lighting system using array of blue LEDs to excite yellow remote phosphor film,” J. Display Tech. 7(1), 44–51 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

J. M. P. J. Verstegen, D. Radielovic, and L. E. Vrenken, ““A new generation of “deluxe” fluorescent lamps, combining an efficacy of 80 lumens/W or more with a color rendering index of approximately 85,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 121(12), 1627–1631 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

J. Phys. (2)

J. Y. Tsao, H. D. Saunders, J. R. Creighton, M. E. Coltrin, and J. A. Simmons, “Solid-state lighting: an energy-economics perspective,” J. Phys. D43, 354001 (2010).

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D43, 354002 (2010).

J. Physiol. (1)

W. A. Rushton, “Pigments and signals in colour vision,” J. Physiol. 220, 1–31 (1972).
[PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. H. Cho, C. S. Sone, and Y. J. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

C. Lok, “Vision science: Seeing without seeing,” Nature 469(7330), 284–285 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tonzani, “Lighting technology: Time to change the bulb,” Nature 459(7245), 312–314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (2)

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohno, “Spectral Design Considerations for Color Rendering of White LED Light Sources,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 111302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Philips Tech. Rev. (1)

J. J. Opstelten, D. Radielovic, and J. M. P. J. Verstegen, “Optimum spectra or light sources,” Philips Tech. Rev. 35, 361–370 (1975).

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high-power GaN-based laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6485, 648503, 648503–648508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (10)

S. Shionoya, W. H. Yen, and H. Yamamoto, eds., Phosphor Handbook, 2nd Edition. (CRC Press, 2006).

Certain commercial equipment, instruments, or materials are identified in this paper in order to specify the experimental procedure adequately. Such identification is not intended to imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor is it intended to imply that the materials or equipment identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose.

IESNA RP-11–1995, “Design criteria for lighting interior living spaces,” The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (1995).

H. M. Brandston, “Summary of CFL Concerns” website and references therein. http://www.concerninglight.com/commentary.html .

G. Giladi, “'Phasing-out' the Incandescents – Is the Public Misinformed or Disinformed” Professional Lighting Designers’ Association white paper. http://www.pld-a.org/fileadmin/download/Gad_s_report_on_GLS___CFL.pdf .

L.J. Sandahl, T.L. Gilbride, M.R. Ledbetter, H.E. Steward, and C. Calwell, “Compact fluorescent lighting in America: lessons learned on the way to market,” Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Technical Report (May, 2006).

Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

M. Peters, V. Rossin, M. Everett, and E. Zucker, “High Power, High Efficiency Laser Diodes at JDSU,” High-Power Diode Laser Technology and Applications V, edited by Zediker, Proc. of SPIE 6456, 64560G (2007).

R. Poprawe, “High-Power Diode Lasers: The ultimate source for economic photons in the next decade,” Keynote talk, SPIE Photonics West (Jan 2011).

W. J. Conover, (1980). Practical Nonparametric Statistics (3rd Ed.).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics