Abstract

We developed a high-index-contrast photonic structure for improving the light extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by a self-assembly approach. In this approach, a two-dimensional grating can be non-lithographically integrated on the top of virtually any types of LEDs with controlled structural parameters and material indices. As a proof of concept, our designed photonic structure was implemented on a GaAs double heterojunction LED. Using numerical electromagnetic simulations, we explored the effects of the structural parameters (the grating period, layer thickness and material indices) on the device performances, followed by fabrication through a self-assembled porous alumina as a template. Device simulation and experimental results indicate that an optimized high-index-contrast (a-Si / air) grating obtains a much larger efficiency increase than using a low-index SiO2 grating. In addition, the devices maintain a Lambertian radiation pattern with the self-assembled grating. This technique provides an effective and low-cost method for improving LED efficiency.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010), http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v4/n4/abs/nphoton.2010.7.html .
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Masuda and K. Fukuda, “Ordered metal nanohole arrays made by a two-step replication of honeycomb structures of anodic alumina,” Science 268(5216), 1466–1468 (1995), http://www.sciencemag.org/content/268/5216/1466.short .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

X. Sheng, J. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and non-lithographic fabrication of light trapping structures for thin film silicon solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(7), 843–847 (2011), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adma.201003217/abstract .
[CrossRef]

2010

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010), http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v4/n4/abs/nphoton.2010.7.html .
[CrossRef]

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.3293442 .
[CrossRef]

2009

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009), http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v3/n3/full/nphoton.2009.21.html .
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lai, J. Y. Chi, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, C. H. Chao, W. Y. Yeh, and T. C. Lu, “far-field and near-field distribution of GaN-based photonic crystal LEDs with guided mode extraction,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1234–1241 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2009.2015582 .
[CrossRef]

C. C. Liu, S. X. Lin, C. C. Wang, K. K. Chong, C. I. Hung, and M. P. Houng, “Light output enhancement of AlGaInP light emitting diodes with nanopores of anodic alumina,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(8), 082102–082104 (2009), http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/48/082102/ .
[CrossRef]

2007

K. Kim, J. Choi, T. S. Bae, M. Jung, and D. H. Woo, “Enhanced light extraction from nanoporous surfaces of InGaN/GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 10A), 6682–6684 (2007), http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/46/6682/ .
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jdt/abstract.cfm?URI=jdt-3-2-160 .
[CrossRef]

2006

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.2337007 .
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308(5726), 1296–1298 (2005), http://www.sciencemag.org/content/308/5726/1296 (abstract).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Yang, S. Y. Han, K. H. Baik, S. J. Pearton, and F. Ren, “Effect of inductively coupled plasma damage on performance of GaN-InGaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 102104 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.1882749 .
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.1645992 .
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.1342048 .
[CrossRef]

1997

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997), http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.78.3294 .
[CrossRef]

1995

H. Masuda and K. Fukuda, “Ordered metal nanohole arrays made by a two-step replication of honeycomb structures of anodic alumina,” Science 268(5216), 1466–1468 (1995), http://www.sciencemag.org/content/268/5216/1466.short .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Egawa, Y. Niwano, K. Fujita, K. Nitatori, T. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “First fabrication of AlGaAs/GaAs double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes grown on GaAs(111)a substrates using only silicon dopant,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 1, No. 2B), 1270–1272 (1995), http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/34/1270/ .
[CrossRef]

1993

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, and T. J. Gmitter, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission quantum efficiency, 99.7% internally and 72% externally, from AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(2), 131–133 (1993), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.109348 .
[CrossRef]

1969

C. J. Nuese, J. J. Tietjen, J. J. Gannon, and H. F. Gossenberger, “Optimization of electroluminescent efficiencies for vapor-grown GaAs1−xPx diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 116(2), 248–253 (1969), http://dx.doi.org/10.1149/1.2411807 .
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A. M.

X. Sheng, J. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and non-lithographic fabrication of light trapping structures for thin film silicon solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(7), 843–847 (2011), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adma.201003217/abstract .
[CrossRef]

Araoka, F.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010), http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v4/n4/abs/nphoton.2010.7.html .
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308(5726), 1296–1298 (2005), http://www.sciencemag.org/content/308/5726/1296 (abstract).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bae, T. S.

K. Kim, J. Choi, T. S. Bae, M. Jung, and D. H. Woo, “Enhanced light extraction from nanoporous surfaces of InGaN/GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 10A), 6682–6684 (2007), http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/46/6682/ .
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Baik, K. H.

H. S. Yang, S. Y. Han, K. H. Baik, S. J. Pearton, and F. Ren, “Effect of inductively coupled plasma damage on performance of GaN-InGaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 102104 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.1882749 .
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

Bockstaele, R.

Caneau, C.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, and T. J. Gmitter, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission quantum efficiency, 99.7% internally and 72% externally, from AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(2), 131–133 (1993), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.109348 .
[CrossRef]

Chao, C. H.

C. F. Lai, J. Y. Chi, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, C. H. Chao, W. Y. Yeh, and T. C. Lu, “far-field and near-field distribution of GaN-based photonic crystal LEDs with guided mode extraction,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1234–1241 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2009.2015582 .
[CrossRef]

Chi, J. Y.

C. F. Lai, J. Y. Chi, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, C. H. Chao, W. Y. Yeh, and T. C. Lu, “far-field and near-field distribution of GaN-based photonic crystal LEDs with guided mode extraction,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1234–1241 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2009.2015582 .
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

K. Kim, J. Choi, T. S. Bae, M. Jung, and D. H. Woo, “Enhanced light extraction from nanoporous surfaces of InGaN/GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 10A), 6682–6684 (2007), http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/46/6682/ .
[CrossRef]

Chong, K. K.

C. C. Liu, S. X. Lin, C. C. Wang, K. K. Chong, C. I. Hung, and M. P. Houng, “Light output enhancement of AlGaInP light emitting diodes with nanopores of anodic alumina,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(8), 082102–082104 (2009), http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/48/082102/ .
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009), http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v3/n3/full/nphoton.2009.21.html .
[CrossRef]

Delbeke, D.

DenBaars, S. P.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.1645992 .
[CrossRef]

Egawa, T.

T. Egawa, Y. Niwano, K. Fujita, K. Nitatori, T. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “First fabrication of AlGaAs/GaAs double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes grown on GaAs(111)a substrates using only silicon dopant,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 1, No. 2B), 1270–1272 (1995), http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/34/1270/ .
[CrossRef]

Epler, J. E.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.2337007 .
[CrossRef]

Erchak, A. A.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.1342048 .
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.1342048 .
[CrossRef]

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997), http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.78.3294 .
[CrossRef]

Fleury, B.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.3293442 .
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.1645992 .
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

T. Egawa, Y. Niwano, K. Fujita, K. Nitatori, T. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “First fabrication of AlGaAs/GaAs double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes grown on GaAs(111)a substrates using only silicon dopant,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 1, No. 2B), 1270–1272 (1995), http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/34/1270/ .
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308(5726), 1296–1298 (2005), http://www.sciencemag.org/content/308/5726/1296 (abstract).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukuda, K.

H. Masuda and K. Fukuda, “Ordered metal nanohole arrays made by a two-step replication of honeycomb structures of anodic alumina,” Science 268(5216), 1466–1468 (1995), http://www.sciencemag.org/content/268/5216/1466.short .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gannon, J. J.

C. J. Nuese, J. J. Tietjen, J. J. Gannon, and H. F. Gossenberger, “Optimization of electroluminescent efficiencies for vapor-grown GaAs1−xPx diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 116(2), 248–253 (1969), http://dx.doi.org/10.1149/1.2411807 .
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.1645992 .
[CrossRef]

Gmitter, T. J.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, and T. J. Gmitter, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission quantum efficiency, 99.7% internally and 72% externally, from AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(2), 131–133 (1993), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.109348 .
[CrossRef]

Gossenberger, H. F.

C. J. Nuese, J. J. Tietjen, J. J. Gannon, and H. F. Gossenberger, “Optimization of electroluminescent efficiencies for vapor-grown GaAs1−xPx diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 116(2), 248–253 (1969), http://dx.doi.org/10.1149/1.2411807 .
[CrossRef]

Han, S. Y.

H. S. Yang, S. Y. Han, K. H. Baik, S. J. Pearton, and F. Ren, “Effect of inductively coupled plasma damage on performance of GaN-InGaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 102104 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.1882749 .
[CrossRef]

Harbers, G.

Holcomb, M. O.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.2337007 .
[CrossRef]

Houng, M. P.

C. C. Liu, S. X. Lin, C. C. Wang, K. K. Chong, C. I. Hung, and M. P. Houng, “Light output enhancement of AlGaInP light emitting diodes with nanopores of anodic alumina,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(8), 082102–082104 (2009), http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/48/082102/ .
[CrossRef]

Hu, E.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.3293442 .
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.1645992 .
[CrossRef]

Hung, C. I.

C. C. Liu, S. X. Lin, C. C. Wang, K. K. Chong, C. I. Hung, and M. P. Houng, “Light output enhancement of AlGaInP light emitting diodes with nanopores of anodic alumina,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(8), 082102–082104 (2009), http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/48/082102/ .
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A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.1342048 .
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W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010), http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v4/n4/abs/nphoton.2010.7.html .
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E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.3293442 .
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Jeong, S. M.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010), http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v4/n4/abs/nphoton.2010.7.html .
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T. Egawa, Y. Niwano, K. Fujita, K. Nitatori, T. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “First fabrication of AlGaAs/GaAs double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes grown on GaAs(111)a substrates using only silicon dopant,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 1, No. 2B), 1270–1272 (1995), http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/34/1270/ .
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A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.1342048 .
[CrossRef]

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997), http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.78.3294 .
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Jung, M.

K. Kim, J. Choi, T. S. Bae, M. Jung, and D. H. Woo, “Enhanced light extraction from nanoporous surfaces of InGaN/GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 10A), 6682–6684 (2007), http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/46/6682/ .
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K. Kim, J. Choi, T. S. Bae, M. Jung, and D. H. Woo, “Enhanced light extraction from nanoporous surfaces of InGaN/GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 10A), 6682–6684 (2007), http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/46/6682/ .
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X. Sheng, J. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and non-lithographic fabrication of light trapping structures for thin film silicon solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(7), 843–847 (2011), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adma.201003217/abstract .
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A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.1342048 .
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Koo, W. H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010), http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v4/n4/abs/nphoton.2010.7.html .
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Kozinsky, I.

X. Sheng, J. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and non-lithographic fabrication of light trapping structures for thin film silicon solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(7), 843–847 (2011), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adma.201003217/abstract .
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M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jdt/abstract.cfm?URI=jdt-3-2-160 .
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O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.2337007 .
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Kuo, H. C.

C. F. Lai, J. Y. Chi, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, C. H. Chao, W. Y. Yeh, and T. C. Lu, “far-field and near-field distribution of GaN-based photonic crystal LEDs with guided mode extraction,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1234–1241 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2009.2015582 .
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C. F. Lai, J. Y. Chi, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, C. H. Chao, W. Y. Yeh, and T. C. Lu, “far-field and near-field distribution of GaN-based photonic crystal LEDs with guided mode extraction,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1234–1241 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2009.2015582 .
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C. F. Lai, J. Y. Chi, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, C. H. Chao, W. Y. Yeh, and T. C. Lu, “far-field and near-field distribution of GaN-based photonic crystal LEDs with guided mode extraction,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1234–1241 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2009.2015582 .
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Lin, S. X.

C. C. Liu, S. X. Lin, C. C. Wang, K. K. Chong, C. I. Hung, and M. P. Houng, “Light output enhancement of AlGaInP light emitting diodes with nanopores of anodic alumina,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(8), 082102–082104 (2009), http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/48/082102/ .
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. C.

C. C. Liu, S. X. Lin, C. C. Wang, K. K. Chong, C. I. Hung, and M. P. Houng, “Light output enhancement of AlGaInP light emitting diodes with nanopores of anodic alumina,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(8), 082102–082104 (2009), http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/48/082102/ .
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Liu, J.

X. Sheng, J. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and non-lithographic fabrication of light trapping structures for thin film silicon solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(7), 843–847 (2011), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adma.201003217/abstract .
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Lu, T. C.

C. F. Lai, J. Y. Chi, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, C. H. Chao, W. Y. Yeh, and T. C. Lu, “far-field and near-field distribution of GaN-based photonic crystal LEDs with guided mode extraction,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1234–1241 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2009.2015582 .
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O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.2337007 .
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Martin, P. S.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.2337007 .
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H. Masuda and K. Fukuda, “Ordered metal nanohole arrays made by a two-step replication of honeycomb structures of anodic alumina,” Science 268(5216), 1466–1468 (1995), http://www.sciencemag.org/content/268/5216/1466.short .
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E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.3293442 .
[CrossRef]

Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009), http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v3/n3/full/nphoton.2009.21.html .
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Michel, J.

X. Sheng, J. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and non-lithographic fabrication of light trapping structures for thin film silicon solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(7), 843–847 (2011), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adma.201003217/abstract .
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

Mueller-Mach, R.

Nakamura, S.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.1645992 .
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Nishimura, S.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010), http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v4/n4/abs/nphoton.2010.7.html .
[CrossRef]

Nitatori, K.

T. Egawa, Y. Niwano, K. Fujita, K. Nitatori, T. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “First fabrication of AlGaAs/GaAs double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes grown on GaAs(111)a substrates using only silicon dopant,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 1, No. 2B), 1270–1272 (1995), http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/34/1270/ .
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Niwano, Y.

T. Egawa, Y. Niwano, K. Fujita, K. Nitatori, T. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “First fabrication of AlGaAs/GaAs double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes grown on GaAs(111)a substrates using only silicon dopant,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 1, No. 2B), 1270–1272 (1995), http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/34/1270/ .
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Noda, S.

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308(5726), 1296–1298 (2005), http://www.sciencemag.org/content/308/5726/1296 (abstract).
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C. J. Nuese, J. J. Tietjen, J. J. Gannon, and H. F. Gossenberger, “Optimization of electroluminescent efficiencies for vapor-grown GaAs1−xPx diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 116(2), 248–253 (1969), http://dx.doi.org/10.1149/1.2411807 .
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H. S. Yang, S. Y. Han, K. H. Baik, S. J. Pearton, and F. Ren, “Effect of inductively coupled plasma damage on performance of GaN-InGaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 102104 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.1882749 .
[CrossRef]

Petrich, G. S.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.1342048 .
[CrossRef]

Pfaff, N.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.3293442 .
[CrossRef]

Rakich, P.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.1342048 .
[CrossRef]

Rangel, E.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.3293442 .
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.

H. S. Yang, S. Y. Han, K. H. Baik, S. J. Pearton, and F. Ren, “Effect of inductively coupled plasma damage on performance of GaN-InGaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 102104 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.1882749 .
[CrossRef]

Ripin, D. J.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.1342048 .
[CrossRef]

Schnitzer, I.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, and T. J. Gmitter, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission quantum efficiency, 99.7% internally and 72% externally, from AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(2), 131–133 (1993), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.109348 .
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997), http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.78.3294 .
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.1645992 .
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/jdt/abstract.cfm?URI=jdt-3-2-160 .
[CrossRef]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.2337007 .
[CrossRef]

Sheng, X.

X. Sheng, J. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M. Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and non-lithographic fabrication of light trapping structures for thin film silicon solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(7), 843–847 (2011), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adma.201003217/abstract .
[CrossRef]

Speck, J.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.3293442 .
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.2337007 .
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, S.

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308(5726), 1296–1298 (2005), http://www.sciencemag.org/content/308/5726/1296 (abstract).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takezoe, H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010), http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v4/n4/abs/nphoton.2010.7.html .
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308(5726), 1296–1298 (2005), http://www.sciencemag.org/content/308/5726/1296 (abstract).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tietjen, J. J.

C. J. Nuese, J. J. Tietjen, J. J. Gannon, and H. F. Gossenberger, “Optimization of electroluminescent efficiencies for vapor-grown GaAs1−xPx diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 116(2), 248–253 (1969), http://dx.doi.org/10.1149/1.2411807 .
[CrossRef]

Toyooka, T.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010), http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v4/n4/abs/nphoton.2010.7.html .
[CrossRef]

Trottier, T. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.2337007 .
[CrossRef]

Umeno, M.

T. Egawa, Y. Niwano, K. Fujita, K. Nitatori, T. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “First fabrication of AlGaAs/GaAs double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes grown on GaAs(111)a substrates using only silicon dopant,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 1, No. 2B), 1270–1272 (1995), http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/34/1270/ .
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997), http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.78.3294 .
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. C.

C. C. Liu, S. X. Lin, C. C. Wang, K. K. Chong, C. I. Hung, and M. P. Houng, “Light output enhancement of AlGaInP light emitting diodes with nanopores of anodic alumina,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(8), 082102–082104 (2009), http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/48/082102/ .
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

T. Egawa, Y. Niwano, K. Fujita, K. Nitatori, T. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “First fabrication of AlGaAs/GaAs double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes grown on GaAs(111)a substrates using only silicon dopant,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 1, No. 2B), 1270–1272 (1995), http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/34/1270/ .
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.3293442 .
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009), http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v3/n3/full/nphoton.2009.21.html .
[CrossRef]

Woo, D. H.

K. Kim, J. Choi, T. S. Bae, M. Jung, and D. H. Woo, “Enhanced light extraction from nanoporous surfaces of InGaN/GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 10A), 6682–6684 (2007), http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/46/6682/ .
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, and T. J. Gmitter, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission quantum efficiency, 99.7% internally and 72% externally, from AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(2), 131–133 (1993), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.109348 .
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. S.

H. S. Yang, S. Y. Han, K. H. Baik, S. J. Pearton, and F. Ren, “Effect of inductively coupled plasma damage on performance of GaN-InGaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 102104 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.1882749 .
[CrossRef]

Yeh, W. Y.

C. F. Lai, J. Y. Chi, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, C. H. Chao, W. Y. Yeh, and T. C. Lu, “far-field and near-field distribution of GaN-based photonic crystal LEDs with guided mode extraction,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1234–1241 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2009.2015582 .
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic layout of a test LED device with photonic crystal structures integrated on top surface for light extraction. The active device is a double heterojunction based on a GaAs substrate. (b) Top view of the photonic crystal layer, which has a hexagonal lattice, with period Λ, thickness t and rod diameter D.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of the relative efficiency increase after introducing the grating layer for light extraction, as a function of grating period Λ and thickness t. The performance is compared with the planar device without the grating. Grating structure: (a) a-Si hexagonal pattern in air matrix; (b) SiO2 hexagonal pattern in air matrix.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated far-field emission pattern at a wavelength of 870 nm. (a) Planar LED without grating on top, which shows a Lambertian pattern. (b) LED with a periodic a-Si / air grating of optimized parameters (Λ = 500 nm and t = 200 nm), which shows a non-Lambertian pattern. (c) Averaged angular dependence of light emission for devices without (green) and with (red) a-Si grating. The normalized intensity has an arbitrary unit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) SEM image of the anodized porous alumina membrane utilized as a deposition mask; (b) AFM image of the deposited a-Si pattern; (c) AFM image of the deposited SiO2 pattern.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Performances for LED devices with various top structures: the planar LED without grating (green), the LED with SiO2 grating (blue) and the LED with a-Si grating (red). (a) Light intensity-current (L-I) curves; (b) Emission spectra measured at current of 20 mA. It can be observed that the LED with a-Si grating shows the highest emission intensity, thus obtaining the highest efficiency. (c) Angular resolved measurement of light emission for the planar LED and the one with a-Si grating. The normalized intensity has an arbitrary unit.

Equations (1)

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sin θ = k x 2 + k y 2 2 π / λ 0 = k x 2 + k y 2 k 0

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