Abstract

We have theoretically investigated the influence of antireflective sub-wavelength structures on a monolithic white light-emitting diode (LED). The simulation is based on the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) algorithm, and both cylinder and moth-eye structures have been studied in the work. Our simulation results show that a moth-eye structure enhances the light extraction efficiency over the entire visible light range with an extraction efficiency enhancement of up to 26 %. Also for the first time to our best knowledge, the influence of sub-wavelength structures on both the color rendering index (CRI) and the correlated color temperature (CCT) of the monolithic white LED have been demonstrated. The CRI of the monolithic white LED could be improved from 92.68 to around 94 by applying a cylinder structure, and the CCT could be modified in a very large range with appropriate design of the cylinder structure.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  2. X. Li, J. Gao, L. Xue, and Y. Han, “Porous polymer films with gradient-refractive-index structure for broadband and omnidirectional antireflection coatings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 259–265 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. H.-Y. Lee, Y.-H. Chou, C.-T. Lee, W.-Y. Yeh, and M.-T. Chu, “Mechanisms of lighting enhancement of Al nanoclusters-embedded Al-doped ZnO film in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 014503 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  19. P. Hens, M. Syväjärvi, F. Oehlschläger, P. Wellmann, and R. Yakimova, “P- and n-type doping in SiC sublimation epitaxy using highly doped substrates,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 85–88 (2009).
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2010 (3)

X. Li, J. Gao, L. Xue, and Y. Han, “Porous polymer films with gradient-refractive-index structure for broadband and omnidirectional antireflection coatings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 259–265 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Lee, Y.-H. Chou, C.-T. Lee, W.-Y. Yeh, and M.-T. Chu, “Mechanisms of lighting enhancement of Al nanoclusters-embedded Al-doped ZnO film in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 014503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Lehr, M. Helgert, M. Sundermann, C. Morhard, C. Pacholski, J. P. Spatz, and R. Brunner, “Simulating different manufactured antireflective sub-wavelength structures considering the influence of local topographic variations,” Opt. Express 18, 23878 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics 3, 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K.-K. Kim, S. D. Lee, H. Kim, J.-C. Park, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, S.-J. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 21, 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Light-extraction enhancement of red AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with antireflective subwavelength structures,” Opt. Express 17, 20991–20997 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hens, M. Syväjärvi, F. Oehlschläger, P. Wellmann, and R. Yakimova, “P- and n-type doping in SiC sublimation epitaxy using highly doped substrates,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 85–88 (2009).

2008 (7)

C.-H. Sun, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G.-C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-K. Lee, C.-L. Ho, and P.-C. Chen, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN blue LED by liquid-phase-deposited ZnO rods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 252–254 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L.O’Faolain, N.Linder, K.Streubel, and T. F.Krauss, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from AlGaInP thin-film light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice constant effect of photonic crystals on the light output of blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boden, and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

S. Murata, Y. Nakamura, T. Maeda, Y. Shibata, M. Ikuta, M. Sugiura, S. Nitta, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, M. Yoshimoto, T. Furusho, and H. Kinoshita, “Dependence of dap emission properties on impurity concentrations in N-/B-co-doped 6H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 556–557, 335–338 (2007).

2006 (1)

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and B- doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294–3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Akasaki, I.

S. Murata, Y. Nakamura, T. Maeda, Y. Shibata, M. Ikuta, M. Sugiura, S. Nitta, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, M. Yoshimoto, T. Furusho, and H. Kinoshita, “Dependence of dap emission properties on impurity concentrations in N-/B-co-doped 6H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 556–557, 335–338 (2007).

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and B- doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Algra, R. E.

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 21, 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

S. Murata, Y. Nakamura, T. Maeda, Y. Shibata, M. Ikuta, M. Sugiura, S. Nitta, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, M. Yoshimoto, T. Furusho, and H. Kinoshita, “Dependence of dap emission properties on impurity concentrations in N-/B-co-doped 6H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 556–557, 335–338 (2007).

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and B- doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

An, S. J.

S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G.-C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bagnall, D. M.

S. A. Boden, and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bakkers, E. P. A. M.

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 21, 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bergenek, K.

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L.O’Faolain, N.Linder, K.Streubel, and T. F.Krauss, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from AlGaInP thin-film light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, J. P.

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and B- doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boden, S. A.

S. A. Boden, and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, R.

Chae, J. H.

S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G.-C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Chen, P.-C.

M.-K. Lee, C.-L. Ho, and P.-C. Chen, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN blue LED by liquid-phase-deposited ZnO rods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 252–254 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and B- doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, E. S.

Choi, J.

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice constant effect of photonic crystals on the light output of blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chou, Y.-H.

H.-Y. Lee, Y.-H. Chou, C.-T. Lee, W.-Y. Yeh, and M.-T. Chu, “Mechanisms of lighting enhancement of Al nanoclusters-embedded Al-doped ZnO film in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 014503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chu, M.-T.

H.-Y. Lee, Y.-H. Chou, C.-T. Lee, W.-Y. Yeh, and M.-T. Chu, “Mechanisms of lighting enhancement of Al nanoclusters-embedded Al-doped ZnO film in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 014503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Diedenhofen, S. L.

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 21, 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294–3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics 3, 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Furusho, T.

S. Murata, Y. Nakamura, T. Maeda, Y. Shibata, M. Ikuta, M. Sugiura, S. Nitta, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, M. Yoshimoto, T. Furusho, and H. Kinoshita, “Dependence of dap emission properties on impurity concentrations in N-/B-co-doped 6H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 556–557, 335–338 (2007).

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and B- doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

X. Li, J. Gao, L. Xue, and Y. Han, “Porous polymer films with gradient-refractive-index structure for broadband and omnidirectional antireflection coatings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 259–265 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grann, E. B.

Han, Y.

X. Li, J. Gao, L. Xue, and Y. Han, “Porous polymer films with gradient-refractive-index structure for broadband and omnidirectional antireflection coatings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 259–265 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hartsuiker, A.

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 21, 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Helgert, M.

Henry, A.

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and B- doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hens, P.

P. Hens, M. Syväjärvi, F. Oehlschläger, P. Wellmann, and R. Yakimova, “P- and n-type doping in SiC sublimation epitaxy using highly doped substrates,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 85–88 (2009).

Ho, C.-L.

M.-K. Lee, C.-L. Ho, and P.-C. Chen, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN blue LED by liquid-phase-deposited ZnO rods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 252–254 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ikuta, M.

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S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 21, 973–978 (2009).
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S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and B- doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093108 (2006).
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S. Murata, Y. Nakamura, T. Maeda, Y. Shibata, M. Ikuta, M. Sugiura, S. Nitta, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, M. Yoshimoto, T. Furusho, and H. Kinoshita, “Dependence of dap emission properties on impurity concentrations in N-/B-co-doped 6H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 556–557, 335–338 (2007).

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and B- doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093108 (2006).
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J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

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K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice constant effect of photonic crystals on the light output of blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1455–1457 (2008).
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K.-K. Kim, S. D. Lee, H. Kim, J.-C. Park, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, S.-J. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071118 (2009).
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K.-K. Kim, S. D. Lee, H. Kim, J.-C. Park, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, S.-J. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071118 (2009).
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S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and B- doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093108 (2006).
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S. Murata, Y. Nakamura, T. Maeda, Y. Shibata, M. Ikuta, M. Sugiura, S. Nitta, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, M. Yoshimoto, T. Furusho, and H. Kinoshita, “Dependence of dap emission properties on impurity concentrations in N-/B-co-doped 6H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 556–557, 335–338 (2007).

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and B- doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093108 (2006).
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K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L.O’Faolain, N.Linder, K.Streubel, and T. F.Krauss, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from AlGaInP thin-film light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041105 (2008).
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H.-Y. Lee, Y.-H. Chou, C.-T. Lee, W.-Y. Yeh, and M.-T. Chu, “Mechanisms of lighting enhancement of Al nanoclusters-embedded Al-doped ZnO film in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 014503 (2010).
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K.-K. Kim, S. D. Lee, H. Kim, J.-C. Park, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, S.-J. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071118 (2009).
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Linder, R.

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L.O’Faolain, N.Linder, K.Streubel, and T. F.Krauss, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from AlGaInP thin-film light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041105 (2008).
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J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

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S. Murata, Y. Nakamura, T. Maeda, Y. Shibata, M. Ikuta, M. Sugiura, S. Nitta, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, M. Yoshimoto, T. Furusho, and H. Kinoshita, “Dependence of dap emission properties on impurity concentrations in N-/B-co-doped 6H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 556–557, 335–338 (2007).

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and B- doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093108 (2006).
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K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).
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K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).
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Monemar, B.

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and B- doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093108 (2006).
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S. Murata, Y. Nakamura, T. Maeda, Y. Shibata, M. Ikuta, M. Sugiura, S. Nitta, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, M. Yoshimoto, T. Furusho, and H. Kinoshita, “Dependence of dap emission properties on impurity concentrations in N-/B-co-doped 6H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 556–557, 335–338 (2007).

Muskens, O. L.

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 21, 973–978 (2009).
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K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L.O’Faolain, N.Linder, K.Streubel, and T. F.Krauss, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from AlGaInP thin-film light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041105 (2008).
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K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).
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S. Murata, Y. Nakamura, T. Maeda, Y. Shibata, M. Ikuta, M. Sugiura, S. Nitta, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, M. Yoshimoto, T. Furusho, and H. Kinoshita, “Dependence of dap emission properties on impurity concentrations in N-/B-co-doped 6H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 556–557, 335–338 (2007).

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and B- doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093108 (2006).
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S. Murata, Y. Nakamura, T. Maeda, Y. Shibata, M. Ikuta, M. Sugiura, S. Nitta, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, M. Yoshimoto, T. Furusho, and H. Kinoshita, “Dependence of dap emission properties on impurity concentrations in N-/B-co-doped 6H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 556–557, 335–338 (2007).

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K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L.O’Faolain, N.Linder, K.Streubel, and T. F.Krauss, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from AlGaInP thin-film light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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P. Hens, M. Syväjärvi, F. Oehlschläger, P. Wellmann, and R. Yakimova, “P- and n-type doping in SiC sublimation epitaxy using highly doped substrates,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 85–88 (2009).

Onuma, T.

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and B- doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093108 (2006).
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Park, G. H.

S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G.-C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121108 (2008).
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K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice constant effect of photonic crystals on the light output of blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-C.

K.-K. Kim, S. D. Lee, H. Kim, J.-C. Park, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, S.-J. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-J.

K.-K. Kim, S. D. Lee, H. Kim, J.-C. Park, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, S.-J. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071118 (2009).
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Park, Y.

K.-K. Kim, S. D. Lee, H. Kim, J.-C. Park, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, S.-J. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Rivas, J. G.

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 21, 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Schubert, M. F.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, Y.

S. Murata, Y. Nakamura, T. Maeda, Y. Shibata, M. Ikuta, M. Sugiura, S. Nitta, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, M. Yoshimoto, T. Furusho, and H. Kinoshita, “Dependence of dap emission properties on impurity concentrations in N-/B-co-doped 6H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 556–557, 335–338 (2007).

Smart, J. A.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Song, Y. M.

Spatz, J. P.

Speck, J. S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Streubel, R.

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L.O’Faolain, N.Linder, K.Streubel, and T. F.Krauss, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from AlGaInP thin-film light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suda, J.

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and B- doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sugiura, M.

S. Murata, Y. Nakamura, T. Maeda, Y. Shibata, M. Ikuta, M. Sugiura, S. Nitta, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, M. Yoshimoto, T. Furusho, and H. Kinoshita, “Dependence of dap emission properties on impurity concentrations in N-/B-co-doped 6H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 556–557, 335–338 (2007).

Sun, C.-H.

C.-H. Sun, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sundermann, M.

Syväjärvi, M.

P. Hens, M. Syväjärvi, F. Oehlschläger, P. Wellmann, and R. Yakimova, “P- and n-type doping in SiC sublimation epitaxy using highly doped substrates,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 85–88 (2009).

T. F., R.

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L.O’Faolain, N.Linder, K.Streubel, and T. F.Krauss, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from AlGaInP thin-film light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vecchi, G.

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 21, 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294–3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vos, W. L.

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 21, 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wellmann, P.

P. Hens, M. Syväjärvi, F. Oehlschläger, P. Wellmann, and R. Yakimova, “P- and n-type doping in SiC sublimation epitaxy using highly doped substrates,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 85–88 (2009).

Wiesmann, C.

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L.O’Faolain, N.Linder, K.Streubel, and T. F.Krauss, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from AlGaInP thin-film light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wirth, R.

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L.O’Faolain, N.Linder, K.Streubel, and T. F.Krauss, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from AlGaInP thin-film light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J.-Q.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Xue, L.

X. Li, J. Gao, L. Xue, and Y. Han, “Porous polymer films with gradient-refractive-index structure for broadband and omnidirectional antireflection coatings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 259–265 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yakimova, R.

P. Hens, M. Syväjärvi, F. Oehlschläger, P. Wellmann, and R. Yakimova, “P- and n-type doping in SiC sublimation epitaxy using highly doped substrates,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 85–88 (2009).

Yeh, W.-Y.

H.-Y. Lee, Y.-H. Chou, C.-T. Lee, W.-Y. Yeh, and M.-T. Chu, “Mechanisms of lighting enhancement of Al nanoclusters-embedded Al-doped ZnO film in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 014503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yi, G.-C.

S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G.-C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimoto, M.

S. Murata, Y. Nakamura, T. Maeda, Y. Shibata, M. Ikuta, M. Sugiura, S. Nitta, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, M. Yoshimoto, T. Furusho, and H. Kinoshita, “Dependence of dap emission properties on impurity concentrations in N-/B-co-doped 6H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 556–557, 335–338 (2007).

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and B- doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. S.

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

X. Li, J. Gao, L. Xue, and Y. Han, “Porous polymer films with gradient-refractive-index structure for broadband and omnidirectional antireflection coatings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 259–265 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. 21, 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

C.-H. Sun, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G.-C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-K. Kim, S. D. Lee, H. Kim, J.-C. Park, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, S.-J. Park, and S.-W. Kim, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays grown using aqueous solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boden, and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergenek, C. Wiesmann, R. Wirth, L.O’Faolain, N.Linder, K.Streubel, and T. F.Krauss, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from AlGaInP thin-film light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice constant effect of photonic crystals on the light output of blue light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-K. Lee, C.-L. Ho, and P.-C. Chen, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN blue LED by liquid-phase-deposited ZnO rods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 252–254 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and B- doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Lee, Y.-H. Chou, C.-T. Lee, W.-Y. Yeh, and M.-T. Chu, “Mechanisms of lighting enhancement of Al nanoclusters-embedded Al-doped ZnO film in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 014503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Mater. Sci. Forum (2)

S. Murata, Y. Nakamura, T. Maeda, Y. Shibata, M. Ikuta, M. Sugiura, S. Nitta, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, M. Yoshimoto, T. Furusho, and H. Kinoshita, “Dependence of dap emission properties on impurity concentrations in N-/B-co-doped 6H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 556–557, 335–338 (2007).

P. Hens, M. Syväjärvi, F. Oehlschläger, P. Wellmann, and R. Yakimova, “P- and n-type doping in SiC sublimation epitaxy using highly doped substrates,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 85–88 (2009).

Nat. Photonics (2)

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics 3, 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3294–3297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1:
Fig. 1:

Schematic cross-section of modeled monolithic white LED (a) with cylinder structure, (b) with moth-eye structure, and (c) simulated spectrum with two peaks for Al-N emission and B-N emission respectively. The Al-N emission is simulated as a 1.5 order Gaussian distribution and B-N emission is simulated as a standard Gaussian distribution.

Fig. 2:
Fig. 2:

(a) CRI, (b) CCT, (c) distance to the Planckian locus, and (d) integrated intensity of cylinder (blue line) and moth-eye structures (red line) as functions of the structure height.

Fig. 3:
Fig. 3:

(a) Transmittance curves, and (b) transmitted spectra of the three examples a, b, and c listed in table. 1

Fig. 4:
Fig. 4:

(a) Locations of all the transmitted spectra in CIE 1931 (x, y) chromaticity diagram, and (b) zoom-in for examples a, b, and c, where blue and red dots stand for the cylinder and moth-eye structures with varied structure height, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1: Comparison of three examples: (a) none structure, (b) highest CRI, and (c) highest intensity in terms of CRI, CCT, DC, chromatic coordinates, intensity, structure, and height

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