Abstract

The gas discharge and photo-luminance properties of a planar lighting source featuring highly uniform light emission and mercury-free design were studied. The current density-voltage characteristics and the associated gas discharge of the devices operating with the values of the ratio of electric field to gas pressure (E/p) between 4.3 kV/Torr-cm and 35.7 kV/Torr-cm indicate that the width of the cathode fall extends over the entire gap between the two electrodes and the device is mostly in the obstructed discharge regime. The optical emission analysis confirmed the electron collision-induced gas emissions and strong effect of gas pressure on the phosphor emission when operated at constant current density, both are indicative of the primary roles played by the electron energy.

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  1. J. Y. Li, S. P. Chen, C.-H. Li, Y.-P. Lin, Y. I. Chou, M. C. Liu, P.-H. Wang, H. K. Zeng, T. C. Hsieh, and J. Y. Juang, “A lighting mechanism for flat electron emission lamp,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091501 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. J. Druyvesteyn and F. M. Penning, “The mechanism of electrical discharges in gases of low pressure,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 12(2), 87–174 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. von Engel, Ionized gases, (American Vacuum Society Classics, 1993).
  4. A. V. Phelps, “Abnormal glow discharges in Ar: experimental and models,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 10(2), 329–343 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. L. Ward, “Calculations of cathode-fall characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 33(9), 2789–2794 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. P. Bokhan, P. A. Bokhan, and D. E. Zakrevsky, “Peculiarities of electron emission from the cathode in an abnormal glow discharge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151503 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Hartmann, H. Matsuo, Y. Ohtsuka, M. Fukao, M. Kando, and Z. Donko, “Heavy-particle hybrid simulation of a high-voltage glow discharge in helium,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 6A), 3633–3640 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Jüstel, H. Nikol, and C. Ronda, “New developments in the field of luminescent materials for lighting and displays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37(22), 3084–3103 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Yumoto, N. Yamaoka, and T. Sakai, “Current-voltage characteristics of nitrogen-gas discharge to the left of the Paschen minimum,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 22(12), 1856–1861 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Yumoto, Y. Kuroda, and T. Sakai, “Electron energy distribution of glow-like discharge in nitrogen at very high E/n conditions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 24(9), 1594–1600 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. M. Jelenković and A. V. Phelps, “Excitation of N2 in dc electrical discharges at very high E/n,” Phys. Rev. A 36(11), 5310–5326 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Bang, B. Abrams, B. Wagner, and P. H. Holloway, “Effects of coatings on temporal cathodoluminescence quenching in ZnS:Ag,Cl,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(12), 7873–7880 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. R. Forrest, D. Bradley, and H. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(13), 1043–1048 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. Y. Li, S. P. Chen, C.-H. Li, Y.-P. Lin, Y. I. Chou, M. C. Liu, P.-H. Wang, H. K. Zeng, T. C. Hsieh, and J. Y. Juang, “A lighting mechanism for flat electron emission lamp,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. P. Bokhan, P. A. Bokhan, and D. E. Zakrevsky, “Peculiarities of electron emission from the cathode in an abnormal glow discharge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Bang, B. Abrams, B. Wagner, and P. H. Holloway, “Effects of coatings on temporal cathodoluminescence quenching in ZnS:Ag,Cl,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(12), 7873–7880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. R. Forrest, D. Bradley, and H. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(13), 1043–1048 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Hartmann, H. Matsuo, Y. Ohtsuka, M. Fukao, M. Kando, and Z. Donko, “Heavy-particle hybrid simulation of a high-voltage glow discharge in helium,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 6A), 3633–3640 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. V. Phelps, “Abnormal glow discharges in Ar: experimental and models,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 10(2), 329–343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. Jüstel, H. Nikol, and C. Ronda, “New developments in the field of luminescent materials for lighting and displays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37(22), 3084–3103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. Yumoto, Y. Kuroda, and T. Sakai, “Electron energy distribution of glow-like discharge in nitrogen at very high E/n conditions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 24(9), 1594–1600 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M. Yumoto, N. Yamaoka, and T. Sakai, “Current-voltage characteristics of nitrogen-gas discharge to the left of the Paschen minimum,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 22(12), 1856–1861 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

B. M. Jelenković and A. V. Phelps, “Excitation of N2 in dc electrical discharges at very high E/n,” Phys. Rev. A 36(11), 5310–5326 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1962 (1)

A. L. Ward, “Calculations of cathode-fall characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 33(9), 2789–2794 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1940 (1)

M. J. Druyvesteyn and F. M. Penning, “The mechanism of electrical discharges in gases of low pressure,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 12(2), 87–174 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, B.

J. Bang, B. Abrams, B. Wagner, and P. H. Holloway, “Effects of coatings on temporal cathodoluminescence quenching in ZnS:Ag,Cl,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(12), 7873–7880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bang, J.

J. Bang, B. Abrams, B. Wagner, and P. H. Holloway, “Effects of coatings on temporal cathodoluminescence quenching in ZnS:Ag,Cl,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(12), 7873–7880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bokhan, A. P.

A. P. Bokhan, P. A. Bokhan, and D. E. Zakrevsky, “Peculiarities of electron emission from the cathode in an abnormal glow discharge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bokhan, P. A.

A. P. Bokhan, P. A. Bokhan, and D. E. Zakrevsky, “Peculiarities of electron emission from the cathode in an abnormal glow discharge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D.

S. R. Forrest, D. Bradley, and H. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(13), 1043–1048 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. P.

J. Y. Li, S. P. Chen, C.-H. Li, Y.-P. Lin, Y. I. Chou, M. C. Liu, P.-H. Wang, H. K. Zeng, T. C. Hsieh, and J. Y. Juang, “A lighting mechanism for flat electron emission lamp,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chou, Y. I.

J. Y. Li, S. P. Chen, C.-H. Li, Y.-P. Lin, Y. I. Chou, M. C. Liu, P.-H. Wang, H. K. Zeng, T. C. Hsieh, and J. Y. Juang, “A lighting mechanism for flat electron emission lamp,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Donko, Z.

P. Hartmann, H. Matsuo, Y. Ohtsuka, M. Fukao, M. Kando, and Z. Donko, “Heavy-particle hybrid simulation of a high-voltage glow discharge in helium,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 6A), 3633–3640 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Druyvesteyn, M. J.

M. J. Druyvesteyn and F. M. Penning, “The mechanism of electrical discharges in gases of low pressure,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 12(2), 87–174 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

S. R. Forrest, D. Bradley, and H. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(13), 1043–1048 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fukao, M.

P. Hartmann, H. Matsuo, Y. Ohtsuka, M. Fukao, M. Kando, and Z. Donko, “Heavy-particle hybrid simulation of a high-voltage glow discharge in helium,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 6A), 3633–3640 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, P.

P. Hartmann, H. Matsuo, Y. Ohtsuka, M. Fukao, M. Kando, and Z. Donko, “Heavy-particle hybrid simulation of a high-voltage glow discharge in helium,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 6A), 3633–3640 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holloway, P. H.

J. Bang, B. Abrams, B. Wagner, and P. H. Holloway, “Effects of coatings on temporal cathodoluminescence quenching in ZnS:Ag,Cl,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(12), 7873–7880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, T. C.

J. Y. Li, S. P. Chen, C.-H. Li, Y.-P. Lin, Y. I. Chou, M. C. Liu, P.-H. Wang, H. K. Zeng, T. C. Hsieh, and J. Y. Juang, “A lighting mechanism for flat electron emission lamp,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jelenkovic, B. M.

B. M. Jelenković and A. V. Phelps, “Excitation of N2 in dc electrical discharges at very high E/n,” Phys. Rev. A 36(11), 5310–5326 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juang, J. Y.

J. Y. Li, S. P. Chen, C.-H. Li, Y.-P. Lin, Y. I. Chou, M. C. Liu, P.-H. Wang, H. K. Zeng, T. C. Hsieh, and J. Y. Juang, “A lighting mechanism for flat electron emission lamp,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jüstel, T.

T. Jüstel, H. Nikol, and C. Ronda, “New developments in the field of luminescent materials for lighting and displays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37(22), 3084–3103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kando, M.

P. Hartmann, H. Matsuo, Y. Ohtsuka, M. Fukao, M. Kando, and Z. Donko, “Heavy-particle hybrid simulation of a high-voltage glow discharge in helium,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 6A), 3633–3640 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, Y.

M. Yumoto, Y. Kuroda, and T. Sakai, “Electron energy distribution of glow-like discharge in nitrogen at very high E/n conditions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 24(9), 1594–1600 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.-H.

J. Y. Li, S. P. Chen, C.-H. Li, Y.-P. Lin, Y. I. Chou, M. C. Liu, P.-H. Wang, H. K. Zeng, T. C. Hsieh, and J. Y. Juang, “A lighting mechanism for flat electron emission lamp,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. Y.

J. Y. Li, S. P. Chen, C.-H. Li, Y.-P. Lin, Y. I. Chou, M. C. Liu, P.-H. Wang, H. K. Zeng, T. C. Hsieh, and J. Y. Juang, “A lighting mechanism for flat electron emission lamp,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-P.

J. Y. Li, S. P. Chen, C.-H. Li, Y.-P. Lin, Y. I. Chou, M. C. Liu, P.-H. Wang, H. K. Zeng, T. C. Hsieh, and J. Y. Juang, “A lighting mechanism for flat electron emission lamp,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M. C.

J. Y. Li, S. P. Chen, C.-H. Li, Y.-P. Lin, Y. I. Chou, M. C. Liu, P.-H. Wang, H. K. Zeng, T. C. Hsieh, and J. Y. Juang, “A lighting mechanism for flat electron emission lamp,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, H.

P. Hartmann, H. Matsuo, Y. Ohtsuka, M. Fukao, M. Kando, and Z. Donko, “Heavy-particle hybrid simulation of a high-voltage glow discharge in helium,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 6A), 3633–3640 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nikol, H.

T. Jüstel, H. Nikol, and C. Ronda, “New developments in the field of luminescent materials for lighting and displays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37(22), 3084–3103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, Y.

P. Hartmann, H. Matsuo, Y. Ohtsuka, M. Fukao, M. Kando, and Z. Donko, “Heavy-particle hybrid simulation of a high-voltage glow discharge in helium,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 6A), 3633–3640 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Penning, F. M.

M. J. Druyvesteyn and F. M. Penning, “The mechanism of electrical discharges in gases of low pressure,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 12(2), 87–174 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Phelps, A. V.

A. V. Phelps, “Abnormal glow discharges in Ar: experimental and models,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 10(2), 329–343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Jelenković and A. V. Phelps, “Excitation of N2 in dc electrical discharges at very high E/n,” Phys. Rev. A 36(11), 5310–5326 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ronda, C.

T. Jüstel, H. Nikol, and C. Ronda, “New developments in the field of luminescent materials for lighting and displays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37(22), 3084–3103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, T.

M. Yumoto, Y. Kuroda, and T. Sakai, “Electron energy distribution of glow-like discharge in nitrogen at very high E/n conditions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 24(9), 1594–1600 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Yumoto, N. Yamaoka, and T. Sakai, “Current-voltage characteristics of nitrogen-gas discharge to the left of the Paschen minimum,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 22(12), 1856–1861 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, H. E.

S. R. Forrest, D. Bradley, and H. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(13), 1043–1048 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, B.

J. Bang, B. Abrams, B. Wagner, and P. H. Holloway, “Effects of coatings on temporal cathodoluminescence quenching in ZnS:Ag,Cl,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(12), 7873–7880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.-H.

J. Y. Li, S. P. Chen, C.-H. Li, Y.-P. Lin, Y. I. Chou, M. C. Liu, P.-H. Wang, H. K. Zeng, T. C. Hsieh, and J. Y. Juang, “A lighting mechanism for flat electron emission lamp,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ward, A. L.

A. L. Ward, “Calculations of cathode-fall characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 33(9), 2789–2794 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Yamaoka, N.

M. Yumoto, N. Yamaoka, and T. Sakai, “Current-voltage characteristics of nitrogen-gas discharge to the left of the Paschen minimum,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 22(12), 1856–1861 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yumoto, M.

M. Yumoto, Y. Kuroda, and T. Sakai, “Electron energy distribution of glow-like discharge in nitrogen at very high E/n conditions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 24(9), 1594–1600 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Yumoto, N. Yamaoka, and T. Sakai, “Current-voltage characteristics of nitrogen-gas discharge to the left of the Paschen minimum,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 22(12), 1856–1861 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zakrevsky, D. E.

A. P. Bokhan, P. A. Bokhan, and D. E. Zakrevsky, “Peculiarities of electron emission from the cathode in an abnormal glow discharge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H. K.

J. Y. Li, S. P. Chen, C.-H. Li, Y.-P. Lin, Y. I. Chou, M. C. Liu, P.-H. Wang, H. K. Zeng, T. C. Hsieh, and J. Y. Juang, “A lighting mechanism for flat electron emission lamp,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

S. R. Forrest, D. Bradley, and H. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(13), 1043–1048 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

T. Jüstel, H. Nikol, and C. Ronda, “New developments in the field of luminescent materials for lighting and displays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37(22), 3084–3103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Y. Li, S. P. Chen, C.-H. Li, Y.-P. Lin, Y. I. Chou, M. C. Liu, P.-H. Wang, H. K. Zeng, T. C. Hsieh, and J. Y. Juang, “A lighting mechanism for flat electron emission lamp,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Bokhan, P. A. Bokhan, and D. E. Zakrevsky, “Peculiarities of electron emission from the cathode in an abnormal glow discharge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. Bang, B. Abrams, B. Wagner, and P. H. Holloway, “Effects of coatings on temporal cathodoluminescence quenching in ZnS:Ag,Cl,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(12), 7873–7880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Ward, “Calculations of cathode-fall characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 33(9), 2789–2794 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Yumoto, N. Yamaoka, and T. Sakai, “Current-voltage characteristics of nitrogen-gas discharge to the left of the Paschen minimum,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 22(12), 1856–1861 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Yumoto, Y. Kuroda, and T. Sakai, “Electron energy distribution of glow-like discharge in nitrogen at very high E/n conditions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 24(9), 1594–1600 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Hartmann, H. Matsuo, Y. Ohtsuka, M. Fukao, M. Kando, and Z. Donko, “Heavy-particle hybrid simulation of a high-voltage glow discharge in helium,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 6A), 3633–3640 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

B. M. Jelenković and A. V. Phelps, “Excitation of N2 in dc electrical discharges at very high E/n,” Phys. Rev. A 36(11), 5310–5326 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. (1)

A. V. Phelps, “Abnormal glow discharges in Ar: experimental and models,” Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 10(2), 329–343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. J. Druyvesteyn and F. M. Penning, “The mechanism of electrical discharges in gases of low pressure,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 12(2), 87–174 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. von Engel, Ionized gases, (American Vacuum Society Classics, 1993).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The current density-voltage characteristics of devices operated at various gas pressures. (○, p = 0.110 Torr; ●, p = 0.130 Torr; □, p = 0.210 Torr); (b) Photo-luminance versus current density (L-J)for the corresponding devices shown in (a).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Optical emission spectrum of device operated at a nitrogen pressure of 0.21 Torr (E/p < 10 kV/Torr-cm) with current densities of 0.086 A/m2 (blue dot line), 0.173 A/m2 (red dash line), and 0.268 A/m2 (black solid line), respectively. The inset shows the variations of the emission intensity with current density for 391.5 nm, 427.5 nm, and 530.0 nm emission lines, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Optical emission spectra for devices operated with various gas pressures at a constant current density of 0.086 A/m2. The blue (dot line), red (dash line), and black (solid line) curves are for pressure of 0.110Torr (30 kV/Torr-cm < E/p), 0.130 Torr (20 kV/Torr-cm < E/p < 30 kV/Torr-cm), and 0.210 Torr (E/p <10kV/Torr-cm), respectively. The inset shows an enlarged portion ranging from 380 nm to 400 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The input power dependence of the photo-luminance obtained for a wider range of gas pressures.(X, p = 0.108 Torr; ○, p = 0.110 Torr; ●, p = 0.130 Torr; ▼, p = 0.150 Torr;▽, p = 0.150 Torr; □, p = 0.210 Torr). The inset shows the variation of the luminance with the gas pressure at a constant input power of 0.21 W.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

J / p 2 = 2 ε o V k v i ( 1 + γ a p p ) / ( p d k ) 2 ,
K = π   L   A P E ,

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