Abstract

We demonstrate an enhancement of optical transmission by creating randomly distributed nanoholes in a glass surface using a simple bottom-up fabrication process. V-shaped holes with sub-100 nm diameter are created by anodized aluminum oxide template and dry etching on glass substrates. The broadband and omnidirectional antireflective effect of the proposed nanostructures is confirmed by measuring the transmittance of the patterned glasses, leading to 3% better transmission. Subsequently, the short-circuit current and the open-circuit voltage of a solar cell with nanostructures are enhanced by 3-4%, improving the solar cell efficiency from 10.47% to 11.20% after two weeks of outdoor testing.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. G. Bernhard, “Structural and functional adaptation in a visual system,” Endeavour 26, 79 (1967).
  2. P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, “Reduction of lens reflection by moth eye principle,” Nature 244(5414), 281–282 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. H. Sun, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061112 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small 6(9), 984–987 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. T. Wu, F. H. Ko, and C. H. Lin, “Self-organized tantalum oxide nanopyramidal arrays for antireflective structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171911 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, and U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50-420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(11), 6023–6026 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(9), 973–978 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Zhao, J. S. Wang, and G. Z. Mao, “Colloidal subwavelength nanostructures for antireflection optical coatings,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1885–1887 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Xu, N. Lu, D. Qi, J. Hao, L. Gao, B. Zhang, and L. Chi, “Biomimetic antireflective Si nanopillar arrays,” Small 4(11), 1972–1975 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Light-extraction enhancement of red AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with antireflective subwavelength structures,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20991–20997 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Tao, W. Zhou, H. Yang, and L. Chen, “Surface texturing by solution deposition for omnidirectional antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081118 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Park, S. Yoon, K. Kang, and S. Jeon, “Antireflection behavior of multidimensional nanostructures patterned using a conformable elastomeric phase mask in a single exposure step,” Small 6(18), 1981–1985 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Y. F. Li, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Zhu, H. P. Dong, F. Jia, Z. H. Wang, Z. Q. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Li, W. Q. Xu, and B. Yang, “Biomimetic surfaces for high-performance optics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21, 4731–4734 (2009).
  18. P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology 8(2), 53–56 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Y. Liang, H. Chik, A. J. Yin, and J. Xu, “Two-dimensional lateral superlattices of nanostructures: Nonlithographic formation by anodic membrane template,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(4), 2544–2546 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. D. Plummer, M. D. Deal, and P. B. Griffin, Silicon VLSI Technology - Fundamentals, Practice and Modeling (Prentice Hall, 2000).
  21. S. Grigoropoulos, E. Gogolides, A. D. Tserepi, and A. G. Nassiopoulos, “Highly anisotropic silicon reactive ion etching for nanofabrication using mixtures of SF6/CHF3 gases,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15(3), 640–645 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. H. Chiu, P. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Chen, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, S. H. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, and Y. C. Chang, “Broadband and omnidirectional antireflection employing disordered GaN nanopillars,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8748–8754 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. B. Ran, G. Q. Ding, W. C. Liu, Y. Deng, and W. T. Hou, “Wetting on nanoporous alumina surface: transition between Wenzel and Cassie states controlled by surface structure,” Langmuir 24(18), 9952–9955 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small 6(9), 984–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Park, S. Yoon, K. Kang, and S. Jeon, “Antireflection behavior of multidimensional nanostructures patterned using a conformable elastomeric phase mask in a single exposure step,” Small 6(18), 1981–1985 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

Y. F. Li, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Zhu, H. P. Dong, F. Jia, Z. H. Wang, Z. Q. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Li, W. Q. Xu, and B. Yang, “Biomimetic surfaces for high-performance optics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21, 4731–4734 (2009).

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(9), 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Light-extraction enhancement of red AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with antireflective subwavelength structures,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20991–20997 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

C. H. Chiu, P. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Chen, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, S. H. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, and Y. C. Chang, “Broadband and omnidirectional antireflection employing disordered GaN nanopillars,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8748–8754 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, N. Lu, D. Qi, J. Hao, L. Gao, B. Zhang, and L. Chi, “Biomimetic antireflective Si nanopillar arrays,” Small 4(11), 1972–1975 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Ran, G. Q. Ding, W. C. Liu, Y. Deng, and W. T. Hou, “Wetting on nanoporous alumina surface: transition between Wenzel and Cassie states controlled by surface structure,” Langmuir 24(18), 9952–9955 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Sun, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

C. T. Wu, F. H. Ko, and C. H. Lin, “Self-organized tantalum oxide nanopyramidal arrays for antireflective structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tao, W. Zhou, H. Yang, and L. Chen, “Surface texturing by solution deposition for omnidirectional antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

J. Y. Liang, H. Chik, A. J. Yin, and J. Xu, “Two-dimensional lateral superlattices of nanostructures: Nonlithographic formation by anodic membrane template,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(4), 2544–2546 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, and U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50-420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(11), 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. Grigoropoulos, E. Gogolides, A. D. Tserepi, and A. G. Nassiopoulos, “Highly anisotropic silicon reactive ion etching for nanofabrication using mixtures of SF6/CHF3 gases,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15(3), 640–645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology 8(2), 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, “Reduction of lens reflection by moth eye principle,” Nature 244(5414), 281–282 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

C. G. Bernhard, “Structural and functional adaptation in a visual system,” Endeavour 26, 79 (1967).

Algra, R. E.

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(9), 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arafune, K.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bakkers, E.

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(9), 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernhard, C. G.

C. G. Bernhard, “Structural and functional adaptation in a visual system,” Endeavour 26, 79 (1967).

Birner, A.

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, and U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50-420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(11), 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burkhard, G. F.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. C.

Chang, Y. H.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chattopadhyay, S.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. C.

Chen, K. H.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

M. Tao, W. Zhou, H. Yang, and L. Chen, “Surface texturing by solution deposition for omnidirectional antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. C.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. J.

Chi, L.

H. Xu, N. Lu, D. Qi, J. Hao, L. Gao, B. Zhang, and L. Chi, “Biomimetic antireflective Si nanopillar arrays,” Small 4(11), 1972–1975 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chik, H.

J. Y. Liang, H. Chik, A. J. Yin, and J. Xu, “Two-dimensional lateral superlattices of nanostructures: Nonlithographic formation by anodic membrane template,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(4), 2544–2546 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. H.

Choi, E. S.

Clapham, P. B.

P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, “Reduction of lens reflection by moth eye principle,” Nature 244(5414), 281–282 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Connor, S. T.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y.

C. B. Ran, G. Q. Ding, W. C. Liu, Y. Deng, and W. T. Hou, “Wetting on nanoporous alumina surface: transition between Wenzel and Cassie states controlled by surface structure,” Langmuir 24(18), 9952–9955 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diedenhofen, S. L.

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(9), 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ding, G. Q.

C. B. Ran, G. Q. Ding, W. C. Liu, Y. Deng, and W. T. Hou, “Wetting on nanoporous alumina surface: transition between Wenzel and Cassie states controlled by surface structure,” Langmuir 24(18), 9952–9955 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, H. P.

Y. F. Li, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Zhu, H. P. Dong, F. Jia, Z. H. Wang, Z. Q. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Li, W. Q. Xu, and B. Yang, “Biomimetic surfaces for high-performance optics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21, 4731–4734 (2009).

Fan, S. H.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gao, L.

H. Xu, N. Lu, D. Qi, J. Hao, L. Gao, B. Zhang, and L. Chi, “Biomimetic antireflective Si nanopillar arrays,” Small 4(11), 1972–1975 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gogolides, E.

S. Grigoropoulos, E. Gogolides, A. D. Tserepi, and A. G. Nassiopoulos, “Highly anisotropic silicon reactive ion etching for nanofabrication using mixtures of SF6/CHF3 gases,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15(3), 640–645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gosele, U.

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, and U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50-420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(11), 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grigoropoulos, S.

S. Grigoropoulos, E. Gogolides, A. D. Tserepi, and A. G. Nassiopoulos, “Highly anisotropic silicon reactive ion etching for nanofabrication using mixtures of SF6/CHF3 gases,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15(3), 640–645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J.

H. Xu, N. Lu, D. Qi, J. Hao, L. Gao, B. Zhang, and L. Chi, “Biomimetic antireflective Si nanopillar arrays,” Small 4(11), 1972–1975 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartsuiker, A.

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(9), 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hou, W. T.

C. B. Ran, G. Q. Ding, W. C. Liu, Y. Deng, and W. T. Hou, “Wetting on nanoporous alumina surface: transition between Wenzel and Cassie states controlled by surface structure,” Langmuir 24(18), 9952–9955 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. H.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. M.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J. W. P.

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, S. H.

Hsu, Y. K.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. F.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hutley, M. C.

P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, “Reduction of lens reflection by moth eye principle,” Nature 244(5414), 281–282 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Immink, G.

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(9), 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S. J.

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small 6(9), 984–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jen, Y. J.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S.

J. Park, S. Yoon, K. Kang, and S. Jeon, “Antireflection behavior of multidimensional nanostructures patterned using a conformable elastomeric phase mask in a single exposure step,” Small 6(18), 1981–1985 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jia, F.

Y. F. Li, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Zhu, H. P. Dong, F. Jia, Z. H. Wang, Z. Q. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Li, W. Q. Xu, and B. Yang, “Biomimetic surfaces for high-performance optics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21, 4731–4734 (2009).

Jiang, B.

C. H. Sun, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, P.

C. H. Sun, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, Y.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kang, K.

J. Park, S. Yoon, K. Kang, and S. Jeon, “Antireflection behavior of multidimensional nanostructures patterned using a conformable elastomeric phase mask in a single exposure step,” Small 6(18), 1981–1985 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, F. H.

C. T. Wu, F. H. Ko, and C. H. Lin, “Self-organized tantalum oxide nanopyramidal arrays for antireflective structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology 8(2), 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. S.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. T.

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small 6(9), 984–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Light-extraction enhancement of red AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with antireflective subwavelength structures,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20991–20997 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, A. P.

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, and U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50-420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(11), 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. B.

Y. F. Li, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Zhu, H. P. Dong, F. Jia, Z. H. Wang, Z. Q. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Li, W. Q. Xu, and B. Yang, “Biomimetic surfaces for high-performance optics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21, 4731–4734 (2009).

Li, Y.

Y. F. Li, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Zhu, H. P. Dong, F. Jia, Z. H. Wang, Z. Q. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Li, W. Q. Xu, and B. Yang, “Biomimetic surfaces for high-performance optics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21, 4731–4734 (2009).

Li, Y. F.

Y. F. Li, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Zhu, H. P. Dong, F. Jia, Z. H. Wang, Z. Q. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Li, W. Q. Xu, and B. Yang, “Biomimetic surfaces for high-performance optics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21, 4731–4734 (2009).

Liang, J. Y.

J. Y. Liang, H. Chik, A. J. Yin, and J. Xu, “Two-dimensional lateral superlattices of nanostructures: Nonlithographic formation by anodic membrane template,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(4), 2544–2546 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

C. T. Wu, F. H. Ko, and C. H. Lin, “Self-organized tantalum oxide nanopyramidal arrays for antireflective structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T. A.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. C.

C. B. Ran, G. Q. Ding, W. C. Liu, Y. Deng, and W. T. Hou, “Wetting on nanoporous alumina surface: transition between Wenzel and Cassie states controlled by surface structure,” Langmuir 24(18), 9952–9955 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, H. C.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, N.

H. Xu, N. Lu, D. Qi, J. Hao, L. Gao, B. Zhang, and L. Chi, “Biomimetic antireflective Si nanopillar arrays,” Small 4(11), 1972–1975 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, T. C.

Mao, G. Z.

McGehee, M.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, B. B.

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morris, G. M.

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology 8(2), 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Muller, F.

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, and U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50-420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(11), 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Muskens, O. L.

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(9), 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nassiopoulos, A. G.

S. Grigoropoulos, E. Gogolides, A. D. Tserepi, and A. G. Nassiopoulos, “Highly anisotropic silicon reactive ion etching for nanofabrication using mixtures of SF6/CHF3 gases,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15(3), 640–645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nielsch, K.

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, and U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50-420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(11), 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ohshita, Y.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C. L.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

J. Park, S. Yoon, K. Kang, and S. Jeon, “Antireflection behavior of multidimensional nanostructures patterned using a conformable elastomeric phase mask in a single exposure step,” Small 6(18), 1981–1985 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, C. Y.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peters, D. W.

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, D.

H. Xu, N. Lu, D. Qi, J. Hao, L. Gao, B. Zhang, and L. Chi, “Biomimetic antireflective Si nanopillar arrays,” Small 4(11), 1972–1975 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ran, C. B.

C. B. Ran, G. Q. Ding, W. C. Liu, Y. Deng, and W. T. Hou, “Wetting on nanoporous alumina surface: transition between Wenzel and Cassie states controlled by surface structure,” Langmuir 24(18), 9952–9955 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivas, J. G.

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(9), 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ruby, D. S.

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sai, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. M.

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small 6(9), 984–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Light-extraction enhancement of red AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with antireflective subwavelength structures,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20991–20997 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C. H.

C. H. Sun, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z. Q.

Y. F. Li, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Zhu, H. P. Dong, F. Jia, Z. H. Wang, Z. Q. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Li, W. Q. Xu, and B. Yang, “Biomimetic surfaces for high-performance optics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21, 4731–4734 (2009).

Tao, M.

M. Tao, W. Zhou, H. Yang, and L. Chen, “Surface texturing by solution deposition for omnidirectional antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tserepi, A. D.

S. Grigoropoulos, E. Gogolides, A. D. Tserepi, and A. G. Nassiopoulos, “Highly anisotropic silicon reactive ion etching for nanofabrication using mixtures of SF6/CHF3 gases,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15(3), 640–645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vecchi, G.

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(9), 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vos, W. L.

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(9), 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. S.

Wang, Q.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

Wang, Z. H.

Y. F. Li, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Zhu, H. P. Dong, F. Jia, Z. H. Wang, Z. Q. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Li, W. Q. Xu, and B. Yang, “Biomimetic surfaces for high-performance optics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21, 4731–4734 (2009).

Wu, C. T.

C. T. Wu, F. H. Ko, and C. H. Lin, “Self-organized tantalum oxide nanopyramidal arrays for antireflective structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

H. Xu, N. Lu, D. Qi, J. Hao, L. Gao, B. Zhang, and L. Chi, “Biomimetic antireflective Si nanopillar arrays,” Small 4(11), 1972–1975 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

J. Y. Liang, H. Chik, A. J. Yin, and J. Xu, “Two-dimensional lateral superlattices of nanostructures: Nonlithographic formation by anodic membrane template,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(4), 2544–2546 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W. Q.

Y. F. Li, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Zhu, H. P. Dong, F. Jia, Z. H. Wang, Z. Q. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Li, W. Q. Xu, and B. Yang, “Biomimetic surfaces for high-performance optics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21, 4731–4734 (2009).

Xu, Y. Q.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

Y. F. Li, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Zhu, H. P. Dong, F. Jia, Z. H. Wang, Z. Q. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Li, W. Q. Xu, and B. Yang, “Biomimetic surfaces for high-performance optics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21, 4731–4734 (2009).

Yang, H.

M. Tao, W. Zhou, H. Yang, and L. Chen, “Surface texturing by solution deposition for omnidirectional antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yin, A. J.

J. Y. Liang, H. Chik, A. J. Yin, and J. Xu, “Two-dimensional lateral superlattices of nanostructures: Nonlithographic formation by anodic membrane template,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(4), 2544–2546 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.

J. Park, S. Yoon, K. Kang, and S. Jeon, “Antireflection behavior of multidimensional nanostructures patterned using a conformable elastomeric phase mask in a single exposure step,” Small 6(18), 1981–1985 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, J. S.

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small 6(9), 984–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Light-extraction enhancement of red AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with antireflective subwavelength structures,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20991–20997 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, P. C.

Yu, Z. F.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yugami, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

H. Xu, N. Lu, D. Qi, J. Hao, L. Gao, B. Zhang, and L. Chi, “Biomimetic antireflective Si nanopillar arrays,” Small 4(11), 1972–1975 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J. H.

Y. F. Li, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Zhu, H. P. Dong, F. Jia, Z. H. Wang, Z. Q. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Li, W. Q. Xu, and B. Yang, “Biomimetic surfaces for high-performance optics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21, 4731–4734 (2009).

Zhang, L.

Y. F. Li, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Zhu, H. P. Dong, F. Jia, Z. H. Wang, Z. Q. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Li, W. Q. Xu, and B. Yang, “Biomimetic surfaces for high-performance optics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21, 4731–4734 (2009).

Zhao, Y.

Zhou, W.

M. Tao, W. Zhou, H. Yang, and L. Chen, “Surface texturing by solution deposition for omnidirectional antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S. J.

Y. F. Li, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Zhu, H. P. Dong, F. Jia, Z. H. Wang, Z. Q. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Li, W. Q. Xu, and B. Yang, “Biomimetic surfaces for high-performance optics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21, 4731–4734 (2009).

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (2)

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(9), 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Li, J. H. Zhang, S. J. Zhu, H. P. Dong, F. Jia, Z. H. Wang, Z. Q. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Li, W. Q. Xu, and B. Yang, “Biomimetic surfaces for high-performance optics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21, 4731–4734 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Tao, W. Zhou, H. Yang, and L. Chen, “Surface texturing by solution deposition for omnidirectional antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Sun, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Wu, F. H. Ko, and C. H. Lin, “Self-organized tantalum oxide nanopyramidal arrays for antireflective structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Endeavour (1)

C. G. Bernhard, “Structural and functional adaptation in a visual system,” Endeavour 26, 79 (1967).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, and U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50-420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(11), 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Liang, H. Chik, A. J. Yin, and J. Xu, “Two-dimensional lateral superlattices of nanostructures: Nonlithographic formation by anodic membrane template,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(4), 2544–2546 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

S. Grigoropoulos, E. Gogolides, A. D. Tserepi, and A. G. Nassiopoulos, “Highly anisotropic silicon reactive ion etching for nanofabrication using mixtures of SF6/CHF3 gases,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15(3), 640–645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

C. B. Ran, G. Q. Ding, W. C. Liu, Y. Deng, and W. T. Hou, “Wetting on nanoporous alumina surface: transition between Wenzel and Cassie states controlled by surface structure,” Langmuir 24(18), 9952–9955 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (2)

Y. J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology 8(2), 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

P. B. Clapham and M. C. Hutley, “Reduction of lens reflection by moth eye principle,” Nature 244(5414), 281–282 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Small (3)

H. Xu, N. Lu, D. Qi, J. Hao, L. Gao, B. Zhang, and L. Chi, “Biomimetic antireflective Si nanopillar arrays,” Small 4(11), 1972–1975 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small 6(9), 984–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Park, S. Yoon, K. Kang, and S. Jeon, “Antireflection behavior of multidimensional nanostructures patterned using a conformable elastomeric phase mask in a single exposure step,” Small 6(18), 1981–1985 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. D. Plummer, M. D. Deal, and P. B. Griffin, Silicon VLSI Technology - Fundamentals, Practice and Modeling (Prentice Hall, 2000).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the process for preparing AR structures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of the AAO nanohole structures formed by different pore widening conditions, leading to various diameters of 51.5 (a), 66.8 (b), 74 (c), and 85.6 nm (d).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SEM images of glass surface after etching for 4 min. AAO pattern is formed with 50 min of pore widening time and removed after etching (inset: size distribution of nanoholes on glass). (b) 45° oblique view of etched pattern in glass substrate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Optical transmittance of patterned glass at normal incidence for different diameters adjusted by pore widening time from 50 to 80 min followed by 4 min of etching. The bare glass data is shown as a reference. (b) Transmittance comparison for different hole depths etched for 1 to 5 min. Pore widening time is 60 min. (c) Transmission comparison between the experimental data (symbols) and the simulated data (lines) of the optimal AR structure. (d) Incident angle dependence of transmittance (inset: the schematic illustration of a simulated structure).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Transmittance comparison after 2 weeks of outdoor testing. (b) Current-voltage characteristics of solar cells without and with the nanostructured glass.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mean diameters, standard deviations of diameters, and filling fraction of holes at the top surface of AAO layers for different pore widening times in Fig. 2

Metrics