Abstract

Silicon films with light-trapping structures are fabricated based on Bi2O3 nano-islands, which are obtained by annealing Bi nano-islands in the air at 400°C. The topography exhibits the maximum altitude of over 600nm and the root-mean-square roughness of 150nm, with the lateral size of single island of about 1μm. Highly crystallized sputtered silicon, realized by Cu-induced crystallization, is used to be a light-absorbing layer. Reflectivity of the samples with different thickness of silicon has been studied to reveal the light-trapping efficiency. The average reflectivity under AM1.5 illumination spectrum is 12% when silicon is 480nm thick and the reflectivity for the long wavelength region between 800nm and 1100nm is less than 10% when the silicon is 1.2μm thick. This is a promising low-cost structure for crystallized silicon thin-film solar cells with high efficiency.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. P. D. Maycock, “PV review: World Solar PV market continues explosive growth,” Refocus 6(5), 18–22 (2005).
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  3. R. W. Birkmire, “Compound polycrystalline solar cells: Recent progress and Y2 K perspective,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 65(1-4), 17–28 (2001).
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  4. T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347 (2009).
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  5. B. Li, L. Wang, B. Kang, P. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Review of recent progress in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(5), 549–573 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Bonnet, “Manufacturing of CSS CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 361–362, 547 (2000).
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  8. F. Kessler and D. Rudmann, “Technological aspects of flexible CIGS solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 685–695 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Svelto, C. Flores, A. Caon, R. Contini, and E. Rossi, “The Italian activities on GaAs solar cells for space applications: Achieved results and future programmes,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 35, 99–104 (1994).
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  12. M. Miyao, I. Tsunoda, Y. Sadoh, and A. Kenjo, “Ion-beam stimulated solid-phase crystallization of amorphous Si on SiO2,” Thin Solid Films 383(1-2), 104–106 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Kawazu, H. Kudo, S. Onari, and T. Arai, “Low-Temperature Crystallization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Induced by Nickel Suicide Formation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 1, No. 12), 2698–2704 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Wenyan Zhang, Dejie Li, and Jian Wang. Phys, “Cu-induced poly-Si/SiO2/a-Si multilayer film with high reflectivity across the whole visible band,” Stat. Solidi RRL 3,82 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Radnoczi, A. Robertsson, H. T. G. Hentzell, S. F. Gong, and M. A. Hasan, “Al induced crystallization of a-Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(9), 6394 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. W. Russell, J. Li, and J. W. Mayer, “In situ observation of fractal growth during a-Si crystallization in a Cu3Si matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(9), 5153 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Kawazu, H. Kudo, S. Onari, and T. Arai, “Low-Temperature Crystallization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Induced by Nickel Suicide Formation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 1 No. 4), 729–738 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S.-B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Xiao, L. Wang, X. Li, X. Pi, and D. Yang, “Reflectivity of porous-pyramids structured silicon surface,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(2), 472–475 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, and Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y.-C. Lee, C.-F. Huang, J.-Y. Chang, and M.-L. Wu, “Enhanced light trapping based on guided mode resonance effect for thin-film silicon solar cells with two filling-factor gratings,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7969–7975 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. N. M. Sammes, G. A. Tompsett, H. Nafe, and F. Aldingera, “Bismuth Based Oxide Electrolytes-Structure and Ionic Conductivity,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 19(10), 1801–1826 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Ch. Ossadnik, S. Veprek, and I. Gregora, “Applicability of Raman scattering for the characterization of nanocrystalline silicon,” Thin Solid Films 337(1-2), 148–151 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. Das and M. Jana, “Hydrogen plasma induced microcrystallization in layer-by-layer growth scheme,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 81(2), 169–181 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

J. Xiao, L. Wang, X. Li, X. Pi, and D. Yang, “Reflectivity of porous-pyramids structured silicon surface,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(2), 472–475 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wenyan Zhang, Dejie Li, and Jian Wang. Phys, “Cu-induced poly-Si/SiO2/a-Si multilayer film with high reflectivity across the whole visible band,” Stat. Solidi RRL 3,82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, and Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Lee, C.-F. Huang, J.-Y. Chang, and M.-L. Wu, “Enhanced light trapping based on guided mode resonance effect for thin-film silicon solar cells with two filling-factor gratings,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7969–7975 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S.-B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

B. Li, L. Wang, B. Kang, P. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Review of recent progress in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(5), 549–573 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. D. Maycock, “PV review: World Solar PV market continues explosive growth,” Refocus 6(5), 18–22 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

F. Kessler and D. Rudmann, “Technological aspects of flexible CIGS solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 685–695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Das and M. Jana, “Hydrogen plasma induced microcrystallization in layer-by-layer growth scheme,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 81(2), 169–181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

M. J. McCann, K. R. Catchpole, K. J. Weber, and A. W. Blakers, “A review of thin-film crystalline silicon for solar cell applications. Part 2: Foreign substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 68, 135–171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Birkmire, “Compound polycrystalline solar cells: Recent progress and Y2 K perspective,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 65(1-4), 17–28 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Miyao, I. Tsunoda, Y. Sadoh, and A. Kenjo, “Ion-beam stimulated solid-phase crystallization of amorphous Si on SiO2,” Thin Solid Films 383(1-2), 104–106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. Bonnet, “Manufacturing of CSS CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 361–362, 547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

N. M. Sammes, G. A. Tompsett, H. Nafe, and F. Aldingera, “Bismuth Based Oxide Electrolytes-Structure and Ionic Conductivity,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 19(10), 1801–1826 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Ossadnik, S. Veprek, and I. Gregora, “Applicability of Raman scattering for the characterization of nanocrystalline silicon,” Thin Solid Films 337(1-2), 148–151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. S. Im, R. S. Sposili, and M. A. Crowder, “Single-crystal Si films for thin-film transistor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3434 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

F. Svelto, C. Flores, A. Caon, R. Contini, and E. Rossi, “The Italian activities on GaAs solar cells for space applications: Achieved results and future programmes,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 35, 99–104 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

G. Radnoczi, A. Robertsson, H. T. G. Hentzell, S. F. Gong, and M. A. Hasan, “Al induced crystallization of a-Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(9), 6394 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Russell, J. Li, and J. W. Mayer, “In situ observation of fractal growth during a-Si crystallization in a Cu3Si matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(9), 5153 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

Y. Kawazu, H. Kudo, S. Onari, and T. Arai, “Low-Temperature Crystallization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Induced by Nickel Suicide Formation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 1 No. 4), 729–738 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawazu, H. Kudo, S. Onari, and T. Arai, “Low-Temperature Crystallization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Induced by Nickel Suicide Formation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 1, No. 12), 2698–2704 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

D. L. Staebler and C. R. Wronski, “Reversible conductivity changes in discharge-produced amorphous Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31(4), 292 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Aldingera, F.

N. M. Sammes, G. A. Tompsett, H. Nafe, and F. Aldingera, “Bismuth Based Oxide Electrolytes-Structure and Ionic Conductivity,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 19(10), 1801–1826 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ameri, T.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arai, T.

Y. Kawazu, H. Kudo, S. Onari, and T. Arai, “Low-Temperature Crystallization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Induced by Nickel Suicide Formation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 1, No. 12), 2698–2704 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawazu, H. Kudo, S. Onari, and T. Arai, “Low-Temperature Crystallization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Induced by Nickel Suicide Formation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 1 No. 4), 729–738 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bailat, J.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Birkmire, R. W.

R. W. Birkmire, “Compound polycrystalline solar cells: Recent progress and Y2 K perspective,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 65(1-4), 17–28 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Blakers, A. W.

M. J. McCann, K. R. Catchpole, K. J. Weber, and A. W. Blakers, “A review of thin-film crystalline silicon for solar cell applications. Part 2: Foreign substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 68, 135–171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bonnet, D.

D. Bonnet, “Manufacturing of CSS CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 361–362, 547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Caon, A.

F. Svelto, C. Flores, A. Caon, R. Contini, and E. Rossi, “The Italian activities on GaAs solar cells for space applications: Achieved results and future programmes,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 35, 99–104 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Catchpole, K. R.

M. J. McCann, K. R. Catchpole, K. J. Weber, and A. W. Blakers, “A review of thin-film crystalline silicon for solar cell applications. Part 2: Foreign substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 68, 135–171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.-Y.

Contini, R.

F. Svelto, C. Flores, A. Caon, R. Contini, and E. Rossi, “The Italian activities on GaAs solar cells for space applications: Achieved results and future programmes,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 35, 99–104 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Crowder, M. A.

J. S. Im, R. S. Sposili, and M. A. Crowder, “Single-crystal Si films for thin-film transistor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3434 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Das, D.

D. Das and M. Jana, “Hydrogen plasma induced microcrystallization in layer-by-layer growth scheme,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 81(2), 169–181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dennler, G.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Droz, C.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Flores, C.

F. Svelto, C. Flores, A. Caon, R. Contini, and E. Rossi, “The Italian activities on GaAs solar cells for space applications: Achieved results and future programmes,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 35, 99–104 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, and Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gong, S. F.

G. Radnoczi, A. Robertsson, H. T. G. Hentzell, S. F. Gong, and M. A. Hasan, “Al induced crystallization of a-Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(9), 6394 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gregora, I.

Ch. Ossadnik, S. Veprek, and I. Gregora, “Applicability of Raman scattering for the characterization of nanocrystalline silicon,” Thin Solid Films 337(1-2), 148–151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, M. A.

G. Radnoczi, A. Robertsson, H. T. G. Hentzell, S. F. Gong, and M. A. Hasan, “Al induced crystallization of a-Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(9), 6394 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hentzell, H. T. G.

G. Radnoczi, A. Robertsson, H. T. G. Hentzell, S. F. Gong, and M. A. Hasan, “Al induced crystallization of a-Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(9), 6394 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-F.

Im, J. S.

J. S. Im, R. S. Sposili, and M. A. Crowder, “Single-crystal Si films for thin-film transistor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3434 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jana, M.

D. Das and M. Jana, “Hydrogen plasma induced microcrystallization in layer-by-layer growth scheme,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 81(2), 169–181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, Y.

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, and Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kang, B.

B. Li, L. Wang, B. Kang, P. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Review of recent progress in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(5), 549–573 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kawazu, Y.

Y. Kawazu, H. Kudo, S. Onari, and T. Arai, “Low-Temperature Crystallization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Induced by Nickel Suicide Formation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 1, No. 12), 2698–2704 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawazu, H. Kudo, S. Onari, and T. Arai, “Low-Temperature Crystallization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Induced by Nickel Suicide Formation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 1 No. 4), 729–738 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kenjo, A.

M. Miyao, I. Tsunoda, Y. Sadoh, and A. Kenjo, “Ion-beam stimulated solid-phase crystallization of amorphous Si on SiO2,” Thin Solid Films 383(1-2), 104–106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, F.

F. Kessler and D. Rudmann, “Technological aspects of flexible CIGS solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 685–695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, M.

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, and Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kroll, U.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kudo, H.

Y. Kawazu, H. Kudo, S. Onari, and T. Arai, “Low-Temperature Crystallization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Induced by Nickel Suicide Formation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 1 No. 4), 729–738 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawazu, H. Kudo, S. Onari, and T. Arai, “Low-Temperature Crystallization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Induced by Nickel Suicide Formation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 1, No. 12), 2698–2704 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-C.

Li, B.

B. Li, L. Wang, B. Kang, P. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Review of recent progress in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(5), 549–573 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Dejie

Wenyan Zhang, Dejie Li, and Jian Wang. Phys, “Cu-induced poly-Si/SiO2/a-Si multilayer film with high reflectivity across the whole visible band,” Stat. Solidi RRL 3,82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

S. W. Russell, J. Li, and J. W. Mayer, “In situ observation of fractal growth during a-Si crystallization in a Cu3Si matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(9), 5153 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

J. Xiao, L. Wang, X. Li, X. Pi, and D. Yang, “Reflectivity of porous-pyramids structured silicon surface,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(2), 472–475 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lungenschmied, C.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maycock, P. D.

P. D. Maycock, “PV review: World Solar PV market continues explosive growth,” Refocus 6(5), 18–22 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, J. W.

S. W. Russell, J. Li, and J. W. Mayer, “In situ observation of fractal growth during a-Si crystallization in a Cu3Si matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(9), 5153 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McCann, M. J.

M. J. McCann, K. R. Catchpole, K. J. Weber, and A. W. Blakers, “A review of thin-film crystalline silicon for solar cell applications. Part 2: Foreign substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 68, 135–171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M. D.

S.-B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meier, J.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miyao, M.

M. Miyao, I. Tsunoda, Y. Sadoh, and A. Kenjo, “Ion-beam stimulated solid-phase crystallization of amorphous Si on SiO2,” Thin Solid Films 383(1-2), 104–106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Müller, J.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nafe, H.

N. M. Sammes, G. A. Tompsett, H. Nafe, and F. Aldingera, “Bismuth Based Oxide Electrolytes-Structure and Ionic Conductivity,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 19(10), 1801–1826 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Onari, S.

Y. Kawazu, H. Kudo, S. Onari, and T. Arai, “Low-Temperature Crystallization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Induced by Nickel Suicide Formation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 1 No. 4), 729–738 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawazu, H. Kudo, S. Onari, and T. Arai, “Low-Temperature Crystallization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Induced by Nickel Suicide Formation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 1, No. 12), 2698–2704 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ossadnik, Ch.

Ch. Ossadnik, S. Veprek, and I. Gregora, “Applicability of Raman scattering for the characterization of nanocrystalline silicon,” Thin Solid Films 337(1-2), 148–151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peumans, P.

S.-B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pi, X.

J. Xiao, L. Wang, X. Li, X. Pi, and D. Yang, “Reflectivity of porous-pyramids structured silicon surface,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(2), 472–475 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

B. Li, L. Wang, B. Kang, P. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Review of recent progress in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(5), 549–573 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Radnoczi, G.

G. Radnoczi, A. Robertsson, H. T. G. Hentzell, S. F. Gong, and M. A. Hasan, “Al induced crystallization of a-Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(9), 6394 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rech, B.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rim, S.-B.

S.-B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Robertsson, A.

G. Radnoczi, A. Robertsson, H. T. G. Hentzell, S. F. Gong, and M. A. Hasan, “Al induced crystallization of a-Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(9), 6394 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, E.

F. Svelto, C. Flores, A. Caon, R. Contini, and E. Rossi, “The Italian activities on GaAs solar cells for space applications: Achieved results and future programmes,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 35, 99–104 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rudmann, D.

F. Kessler and D. Rudmann, “Technological aspects of flexible CIGS solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 685–695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Russell, S. W.

S. W. Russell, J. Li, and J. W. Mayer, “In situ observation of fractal growth during a-Si crystallization in a Cu3Si matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(9), 5153 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sadoh, Y.

M. Miyao, I. Tsunoda, Y. Sadoh, and A. Kenjo, “Ion-beam stimulated solid-phase crystallization of amorphous Si on SiO2,” Thin Solid Films 383(1-2), 104–106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sai, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, and Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sammes, N. M.

N. M. Sammes, G. A. Tompsett, H. Nafe, and F. Aldingera, “Bismuth Based Oxide Electrolytes-Structure and Ionic Conductivity,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 19(10), 1801–1826 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schade, H.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scully, S. R.

S.-B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shah, A. V.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sposili, R. S.

J. S. Im, R. S. Sposili, and M. A. Crowder, “Single-crystal Si films for thin-film transistor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3434 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Springer, J.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Staebler, D. L.

D. L. Staebler and C. R. Wronski, “Reversible conductivity changes in discharge-produced amorphous Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31(4), 292 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, F.

F. Svelto, C. Flores, A. Caon, R. Contini, and E. Rossi, “The Italian activities on GaAs solar cells for space applications: Achieved results and future programmes,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 35, 99–104 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tompsett, G. A.

N. M. Sammes, G. A. Tompsett, H. Nafe, and F. Aldingera, “Bismuth Based Oxide Electrolytes-Structure and Ionic Conductivity,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 19(10), 1801–1826 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsunoda, I.

M. Miyao, I. Tsunoda, Y. Sadoh, and A. Kenjo, “Ion-beam stimulated solid-phase crystallization of amorphous Si on SiO2,” Thin Solid Films 383(1-2), 104–106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vallat-Sauvain, E.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vanecek, M.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Veprek, S.

Ch. Ossadnik, S. Veprek, and I. Gregora, “Applicability of Raman scattering for the characterization of nanocrystalline silicon,” Thin Solid Films 337(1-2), 148–151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Jian

Wenyan Zhang, Dejie Li, and Jian Wang. Phys, “Cu-induced poly-Si/SiO2/a-Si multilayer film with high reflectivity across the whole visible band,” Stat. Solidi RRL 3,82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

J. Xiao, L. Wang, X. Li, X. Pi, and D. Yang, “Reflectivity of porous-pyramids structured silicon surface,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(2), 472–475 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Li, L. Wang, B. Kang, P. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Review of recent progress in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(5), 549–573 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

B. Li, L. Wang, B. Kang, P. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Review of recent progress in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(5), 549–573 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weber, K. J.

M. J. McCann, K. R. Catchpole, K. J. Weber, and A. W. Blakers, “A review of thin-film crystalline silicon for solar cell applications. Part 2: Foreign substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 68, 135–171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wronski, C. R.

D. L. Staebler and C. R. Wronski, “Reversible conductivity changes in discharge-produced amorphous Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31(4), 292 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.-L.

Wyrsch, N.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, J.

J. Xiao, L. Wang, X. Li, X. Pi, and D. Yang, “Reflectivity of porous-pyramids structured silicon surface,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(2), 472–475 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.

J. Xiao, L. Wang, X. Li, X. Pi, and D. Yang, “Reflectivity of porous-pyramids structured silicon surface,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(2), 472–475 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Wenyan

Wenyan Zhang, Dejie Li, and Jian Wang. Phys, “Cu-induced poly-Si/SiO2/a-Si multilayer film with high reflectivity across the whole visible band,” Stat. Solidi RRL 3,82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, S.

S.-B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

D. L. Staebler and C. R. Wronski, “Reversible conductivity changes in discharge-produced amorphous Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31(4), 292 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Im, R. S. Sposili, and M. A. Crowder, “Single-crystal Si films for thin-film transistor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3434 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S.-B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, and Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

J. Xiao, L. Wang, X. Li, X. Pi, and D. Yang, “Reflectivity of porous-pyramids structured silicon surface,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(2), 472–475 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Energy Environ. Sci. (1)

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. Radnoczi, A. Robertsson, H. T. G. Hentzell, S. F. Gong, and M. A. Hasan, “Al induced crystallization of a-Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(9), 6394 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Russell, J. Li, and J. W. Mayer, “In situ observation of fractal growth during a-Si crystallization in a Cu3Si matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(9), 5153 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. (1)

N. M. Sammes, G. A. Tompsett, H. Nafe, and F. Aldingera, “Bismuth Based Oxide Electrolytes-Structure and Ionic Conductivity,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 19(10), 1801–1826 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Kawazu, H. Kudo, S. Onari, and T. Arai, “Low-Temperature Crystallization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Induced by Nickel Suicide Formation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 1 No. 4), 729–738 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawazu, H. Kudo, S. Onari, and T. Arai, “Low-Temperature Crystallization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Induced by Nickel Suicide Formation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29(Part 1, No. 12), 2698–2704 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Prog. Photovoltaics (1)

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Refocus (1)

P. D. Maycock, “PV review: World Solar PV market continues explosive growth,” Refocus 6(5), 18–22 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy (2)

F. Kessler and D. Rudmann, “Technological aspects of flexible CIGS solar cells and modules,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 685–695 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (5)

F. Svelto, C. Flores, A. Caon, R. Contini, and E. Rossi, “The Italian activities on GaAs solar cells for space applications: Achieved results and future programmes,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 35, 99–104 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. J. McCann, K. R. Catchpole, K. J. Weber, and A. W. Blakers, “A review of thin-film crystalline silicon for solar cell applications. Part 2: Foreign substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 68, 135–171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Birkmire, “Compound polycrystalline solar cells: Recent progress and Y2 K perspective,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 65(1-4), 17–28 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Li, L. Wang, B. Kang, P. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Review of recent progress in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(5), 549–573 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Das and M. Jana, “Hydrogen plasma induced microcrystallization in layer-by-layer growth scheme,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 81(2), 169–181 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stat. Solidi RRL (1)

Wenyan Zhang, Dejie Li, and Jian Wang. Phys, “Cu-induced poly-Si/SiO2/a-Si multilayer film with high reflectivity across the whole visible band,” Stat. Solidi RRL 3,82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (3)

M. Miyao, I. Tsunoda, Y. Sadoh, and A. Kenjo, “Ion-beam stimulated solid-phase crystallization of amorphous Si on SiO2,” Thin Solid Films 383(1-2), 104–106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Bonnet, “Manufacturing of CSS CdTe solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 361–362, 547 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Ossadnik, S. Veprek, and I. Gregora, “Applicability of Raman scattering for the characterization of nanocrystalline silicon,” Thin Solid Films 337(1-2), 148–151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic sketch of the cross section of the multilayer light-trapping structure based on Bi2O3 nano-islands. The concept of light trapping is illustrated by the arrows representing incoming and scattered sun light.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of (a) Bi nano-islands, (b) oxidated to be Bi2O3 nano-island after annealing in the air for 10 minutes, (c) Bi2O3 nano-islands seen at the inclined angle of 30°, (d) the surface topography of 1.2μm thick Si based on the Bi2O3 nano-islands before and (e) after annealing at 530°C for 10 hours, (f) the Si topography after annealing seen at the inclined angle of 30°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) image (scan size: 5x5 μm) (a) of Bi2O3 nano-islands and (b) as a result of the transfer of that of the Bi2O3 islands.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relationship between the surface root-mean-roughness (Rms) and the silicon thickness.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Angular distribution of the reflected light from the Bi2O3 nano-islands film coated substrate at θi = 5° and λ = 632.8 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Raman spectrum of samples with different volume ratios of Si and Cu. The Si thickness is fixed at 1.2 μm, and the ratio is varied from 120:1 to 30:1. (b) Gauss fitting curves of the Raman spectra of the sample corresponding to the one with 20nm thick Cu. All samples are annealed at 530 °C for 10 hours in a N2 atmosphere.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflectivity as a function of wavelength for different Si thickness, (a) 1.2μm thick Si with smooth topography and (b) 480nm, (c) 720nm, (d) 960nm, (e) 1200nm thick Si with textured topography based on Bi2O3 nano-islands, all the samples are annealed at 530 °C for 10 hours in a N2 atmosphere. (f) Average reflectivity of Si thickness corresponding to (b), (c), (d) and (e) under AM 1.5 illumination spectrum.

Equations (2)

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c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n _ r a t i o = S p o l y S i + S m c S i S p o l y S i + S m c S i + S a S i
R a = R ( λ ) S ( λ ) d λ S ( λ ) d λ

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