Abstract

Horizontal metal/insulator/Si/insulator/metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide (PWG), which is inserted in a conventional Si wire waveguide, is fabricated using the standard Si-CMOS technology. A thin insulator between the metal and the Si core plays a key role: it not only increases the propagation distance as the theoretical prediction, but also prevents metal diffusion and/or metal-Si reaction. Cu-PWGs with the Si core width of ~134–21 nm and ~12-nm-thick SiO2 on each side exhibit a relatively low propagation loss of ~0.37–0.63 dB/µm around the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm, which is ~2.6 times smaller than the Al-counterparts. A simple tapered coupler can provide an effective coupling between the PWG and the conventional Si wire waveguide. The coupling efficiency as high as ~0.1–0.4 dB per facet is measured. The PWG allows a sharp bending. The pure bending loss of a Cu-PWG direct 90° bend is measured to be ~0.6–1.0 dB. These results indicate the potential for seamless integration of various functional nanoplasmonic devices in existing Si electronic photonic integrated circuits (Si-EPICs).

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Dragoman and D. Dragoman, “Plasmonics: applications to nanoscale terahertz and optical devices,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32(1), 1–41 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Plasmonic nanoguides and circuits (Pan Stanford Publishing, 2009).
  3. R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Modes of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25(9), 2511–2521 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Chen, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “Subwavelength confinement in an integrated metal slot waveguide on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 31(14), 2133–2135 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Theoretical investigation of compact couplers between dielectric slab waveguides and two-dimensional metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1211–1221 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Salvador, A. Martinez, C. Garcia-Meca, R. Ortuno, and J. Marti, “Analysis of hybrid dielectric plasmonic waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 14(6), 1496–1501 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. N. Feng, M. L. Brongersma, and L. D. Negro, “Metal-dielectric slot waveguide structures for the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons at 1.55 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 479–485 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Dai and S. He, “A silicon-based hybrid plasmonic waveguide with a metal cap for a nano-scale light confinement,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16646–16653 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Z. Han, A. Y. Elezzabi, and V. Van, “Experimental realization of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides on a silicon platform,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 502–504 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. J. Dikken, M. Spasenovic, E. Verhagen, D. van Oosten, and L. K. Kuipers, “Characterization of bending losses for curved plasmonic nanowire waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16112–16119 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Sederberg, V. Van, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Monolithic integration of plasmonic waveguides into a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor- and photonic-compatible platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Theoretical investigation of silicon MOS-type plasmonic slot waveguide based MZI modulators,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27802–27819 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Silicon-based plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11791–11799 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2922–2926 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon-plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. W. Peng, S. J. Lee, G. C. A. Liang, N. Singh, S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Improved carrier injection in gate-all-around Schottky barrier silicon nanowire field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073503 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Y. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fully complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for silicon electronic photonic integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021107 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  23. http://refractiveindex.info
  24. C. Y. Chang, and S. M. Sze, ULSI technology (McGraw-Hill Book Co. Ltd., 2000).
  25. M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “A review of the optical properties of alloys and intermetallics for plasmonics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(14), 143201 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. http://www.rsoftinc.com
  27. S. Y. Zhu, Q. Fang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Propagation losses in undoped and n-doped polycrystalline silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20891–20899 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-loss amorphous silicon wire waveguide for integrated photonics: effect of fabrication process and the thermal stability,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25283–25291 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. T. Barwicz, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakick, M. A. Popović, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Optical loss in silicon microphotonic waveguides induced by metallic contamination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

S. Y. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fully complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for silicon electronic photonic integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (9)

M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “A review of the optical properties of alloys and intermetallics for plasmonics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(14), 143201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-loss amorphous silicon wire waveguide for integrated photonics: effect of fabrication process and the thermal stability,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25283–25291 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Han, A. Y. Elezzabi, and V. Van, “Experimental realization of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides on a silicon platform,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 502–504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Dikken, M. Spasenovic, E. Verhagen, D. van Oosten, and L. K. Kuipers, “Characterization of bending losses for curved plasmonic nanowire waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16112–16119 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sederberg, V. Van, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Monolithic integration of plasmonic waveguides into a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor- and photonic-compatible platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Theoretical investigation of silicon MOS-type plasmonic slot waveguide based MZI modulators,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27802–27819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Silicon-based plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11791–11799 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2922–2926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon-plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dai and S. He, “A silicon-based hybrid plasmonic waveguide with a metal cap for a nano-scale light confinement,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16646–16653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, Q. Fang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Propagation losses in undoped and n-doped polycrystalline silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20891–20899 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

T. Barwicz, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakick, M. A. Popović, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Optical loss in silicon microphotonic waveguides induced by metallic contamination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Salvador, A. Martinez, C. Garcia-Meca, R. Ortuno, and J. Marti, “Analysis of hybrid dielectric plasmonic waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 14(6), 1496–1501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Dragoman and D. Dragoman, “Plasmonics: applications to nanoscale terahertz and optical devices,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32(1), 1–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Peng, S. J. Lee, G. C. A. Liang, N. Singh, S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Improved carrier injection in gate-all-around Schottky barrier silicon nanowire field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Modes of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25(9), 2511–2521 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Feng, M. L. Brongersma, and L. D. Negro, “Metal-dielectric slot waveguide structures for the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons at 1.55 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 479–485 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Theoretical investigation of compact couplers between dielectric slab waveguides and two-dimensional metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1211–1221 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “Subwavelength confinement in an integrated metal slot waveguide on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 31(14), 2133–2135 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, M. D.

M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “A review of the optical properties of alloys and intermetallics for plasmonics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(14), 143201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barwicz, T.

T. Barwicz, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakick, M. A. Popović, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Optical loss in silicon microphotonic waveguides induced by metallic contamination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blaber, M. G.

M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “A review of the optical properties of alloys and intermetallics for plasmonics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(14), 143201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Blaize, S.

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2922–2926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

N. N. Feng, M. L. Brongersma, and L. D. Negro, “Metal-dielectric slot waveguide structures for the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons at 1.55 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 479–485 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bruyant, A.

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2922–2926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chelnokov, A.

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2922–2926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

Dai, D.

Delacour, C.

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2922–2926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desiatov, B.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon-plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diest, K.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dikken, D. J.

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dragoman, D.

M. Dragoman and D. Dragoman, “Plasmonics: applications to nanoscale terahertz and optical devices,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32(1), 1–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dragoman, M.

M. Dragoman and D. Dragoman, “Plasmonics: applications to nanoscale terahertz and optical devices,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32(1), 1–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elezzabi, A. Y.

Z. Han, A. Y. Elezzabi, and V. Van, “Experimental realization of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides on a silicon platform,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 502–504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sederberg, V. Van, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Monolithic integration of plasmonic waveguides into a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor- and photonic-compatible platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Fang, Q.

Fedeli, J. M.

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2922–2926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, N. N.

N. N. Feng, M. L. Brongersma, and L. D. Negro, “Metal-dielectric slot waveguide structures for the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons at 1.55 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 479–485 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ford, M. J.

M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “A review of the optical properties of alloys and intermetallics for plasmonics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(14), 143201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Meca, C.

R. Salvador, A. Martinez, C. Garcia-Meca, R. Ortuno, and J. Marti, “Analysis of hybrid dielectric plasmonic waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 14(6), 1496–1501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goykhman, I.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon-plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grosse, P.

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2922–2926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, Z.

He, S.

Holzwarth, C. W.

T. Barwicz, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakick, M. A. Popović, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Optical loss in silicon microphotonic waveguides induced by metallic contamination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

T. Barwicz, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakick, M. A. Popović, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Optical loss in silicon microphotonic waveguides induced by metallic contamination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krasavin, A. V.

Kuipers, L. K.

Kwong, D. L.

S. Y. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fully complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for silicon electronic photonic integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-loss amorphous silicon wire waveguide for integrated photonics: effect of fabrication process and the thermal stability,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25283–25291 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Theoretical investigation of silicon MOS-type plasmonic slot waveguide based MZI modulators,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27802–27819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, Q. Fang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Propagation losses in undoped and n-doped polycrystalline silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20891–20899 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Peng, S. J. Lee, G. C. A. Liang, N. Singh, S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Improved carrier injection in gate-all-around Schottky barrier silicon nanowire field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laluet, J. Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. J.

J. W. Peng, S. J. Lee, G. C. A. Liang, N. Singh, S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Improved carrier injection in gate-all-around Schottky barrier silicon nanowire field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lerondel, G.

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2922–2926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, U.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon-plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, G. C. A.

J. W. Peng, S. J. Lee, G. C. A. Liang, N. Singh, S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Improved carrier injection in gate-all-around Schottky barrier silicon nanowire field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liow, T. Y.

S. Y. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fully complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for silicon electronic photonic integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Lo, G. Q.

S. Y. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fully complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for silicon electronic photonic integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Theoretical investigation of silicon MOS-type plasmonic slot waveguide based MZI modulators,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27802–27819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-loss amorphous silicon wire waveguide for integrated photonics: effect of fabrication process and the thermal stability,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25283–25291 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, Q. Fang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Propagation losses in undoped and n-doped polycrystalline silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20891–20899 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Peng, S. J. Lee, G. C. A. Liang, N. Singh, S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Improved carrier injection in gate-all-around Schottky barrier silicon nanowire field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marti, J.

R. Salvador, A. Martinez, C. Garcia-Meca, R. Ortuno, and J. Marti, “Analysis of hybrid dielectric plasmonic waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 14(6), 1496–1501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

R. Salvador, A. Martinez, C. Garcia-Meca, R. Ortuno, and J. Marti, “Analysis of hybrid dielectric plasmonic waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 14(6), 1496–1501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Negro, L. D.

N. N. Feng, M. L. Brongersma, and L. D. Negro, “Metal-dielectric slot waveguide structures for the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons at 1.55 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 479–485 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ortuno, R.

R. Salvador, A. Martinez, C. Garcia-Meca, R. Ortuno, and J. Marti, “Analysis of hybrid dielectric plasmonic waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 14(6), 1496–1501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peng, J. W.

J. W. Peng, S. J. Lee, G. C. A. Liang, N. Singh, S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Improved carrier injection in gate-all-around Schottky barrier silicon nanowire field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pile, D. F.

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, M. A.

T. Barwicz, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakick, M. A. Popović, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Optical loss in silicon microphotonic waveguides induced by metallic contamination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rakick, P. T.

T. Barwicz, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakick, M. A. Popović, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Optical loss in silicon microphotonic waveguides induced by metallic contamination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Salas-Montiel, R.

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2922–2926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salvador, R.

R. Salvador, A. Martinez, C. Garcia-Meca, R. Ortuno, and J. Marti, “Analysis of hybrid dielectric plasmonic waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 14(6), 1496–1501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sederberg, S.

S. Sederberg, V. Van, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Monolithic integration of plasmonic waveguides into a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor- and photonic-compatible platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, J.

Singh, N.

J. W. Peng, S. J. Lee, G. C. A. Liang, N. Singh, S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Improved carrier injection in gate-all-around Schottky barrier silicon nanowire field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

T. Barwicz, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakick, M. A. Popović, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Optical loss in silicon microphotonic waveguides induced by metallic contamination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spasenovic, M.

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van, V.

S. Sederberg, V. Van, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Monolithic integration of plasmonic waveguides into a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor- and photonic-compatible platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Han, A. Y. Elezzabi, and V. Van, “Experimental realization of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides on a silicon platform,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 502–504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Oosten, D.

Verhagen, E.

Veronis, G.

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, W.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M. B.

Yu, S.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S. Y.

S. Y. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fully complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for silicon electronic photonic integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-loss amorphous silicon wire waveguide for integrated photonics: effect of fabrication process and the thermal stability,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25283–25291 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Theoretical investigation of silicon MOS-type plasmonic slot waveguide based MZI modulators,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27802–27819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, Q. Fang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Propagation losses in undoped and n-doped polycrystalline silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20891–20899 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Peng, S. J. Lee, G. C. A. Liang, N. Singh, S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Improved carrier injection in gate-all-around Schottky barrier silicon nanowire field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

S. Sederberg, V. Van, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Monolithic integration of plasmonic waveguides into a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor- and photonic-compatible platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon-plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Peng, S. J. Lee, G. C. A. Liang, N. Singh, S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Improved carrier injection in gate-all-around Schottky barrier silicon nanowire field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fully complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for silicon electronic photonic integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakick, M. A. Popović, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Optical loss in silicon microphotonic waveguides induced by metallic contamination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Modes of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25(9), 2511–2521 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. N. Feng, M. L. Brongersma, and L. D. Negro, “Metal-dielectric slot waveguide structures for the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons at 1.55 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 479–485 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. (1)

R. Salvador, A. Martinez, C. Garcia-Meca, R. Ortuno, and J. Marti, “Analysis of hybrid dielectric plasmonic waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 14(6), 1496–1501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “A review of the optical properties of alloys and intermetallics for plasmonics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(14), 143201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys. (1)

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, and A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2922–2926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Dragoman and D. Dragoman, “Plasmonics: applications to nanoscale terahertz and optical devices,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32(1), 1–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Plasmonic nanoguides and circuits (Pan Stanford Publishing, 2009).

http://www.rsoftinc.com

http://refractiveindex.info

C. Y. Chang, and S. M. Sze, ULSI technology (McGraw-Hill Book Co. Ltd., 2000).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of a horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide studied in this work. It contains a Si core with width of WP and length of LP, which is inserted in a conventional Si wire waveguide with width of WSi through two identical tapered couplers with length of LC; (b) the cross section of conventional wire Si waveguide region; and (c) the cross section of PWG region. The tapered coupler has the similar cross section as PWG but with the Si core width changing linearly from WP at the PWG terminal to WSi at the Si waveguide terminal. The whole structure is covered by a thick SiO2 cladding layer. A thin SiN layer is introduced for fabrication convenience, not for function.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The top-view Ex–field distribution (at y = 0) showing 1550 nm TE light launched at 500-nm-wide input Si waveguide (left) transfers through a 0.5-µm-long tapered coupler, 2-µm-long Cu/Si(50 nm)/Cu PWG, and another 0.5-µm-long tapered coupler to a 500-nm-wide output Si waveguide (right); (b) the corresponding modal profile, i.e., Ex(x, y) distribution at Z = 2 µm, of the Cu/Si(50 nm)/Cu PWG; (c) and (d) the corresponding figures for the Cu/SiO2(12 nm)/Si(50 nm)/SiO2(12 nm)/Cu PWG. The effective modal index and the coupling efficiency between the Si waveguide and the PWG can be extracted from simulation [17].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SEM image of the structure after Si pattering; (b) SEM image of the structure after SiO2 window opening; and (c) XTEM image of the final Cu-PWG at the PWG region.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Enlarged XTEM images of final Cu-PWGs with different Si core widths and ~12-nm-thick thermal SiO2 on each side. The Si core width at the middle of the height is (a) ~134 nm; (b) ~80nm, (c) ~50nm, and (d) ~21 nm, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Theoretical and experimental propagation losses of Al/SiO2(7 nm)/Si(WP)/SiO2(7 nm)/Al and Al/HfO2(7 nm)/Si(WP)/HfO2(7 nm)/Al PWGs at TE 1550 nm as a function of the Si core width, the error bar represents the linearly fitting deviation. The insets are the XTEM images of Al/HfO2(7 nm)/Si(85 nm)/HfO2(7 nm)/Al and Al/SiO2(7 nm)/Si(82 nm)/SiO2(7 nm)/Al PWGs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmitted power measured from one set of Cu/SiO2/Si(WP)/SiO2/Cu PWGs with LC = 1 µm launched by 1550 nm TE light as a function of the PWG length LP, from the linearly fitting lines, the propagation losses of PWGs can be extracted. The transmitted powers measured from one set of Cu/Si(WP)/Cu PWGs with LC=1 µm are also shown, which do not depend on LP linearly.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Theoretical and experimental propagation losses of Cu/SiO2(12 nm)/Si(WP)/SiO2(12 nm)/Cu and Al/SiO2(12 nm)/Si(WP)/SiO2(12 nm)/Al PWGs at TE 1550 nm as a function of the Si core width, WP. The error bar represents the linearly fitting deviation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) The transmitted power from Cu/SiO2(12 nm)/Si(50 nm)/SiO2(12 nm)/Cu PWGs with LP ranging from 1 to 20 µm as a function of wavelength ranging from 1520 to 1620 nm measured by an optical spectrum analyzer; (2) the extracted wavelength dependent propagation losses for Cu-PWGs with different WPs. The data points at 1550 nm (the solid symbols) are averaged from four sets of PWGs and the error bar represents the statistic standard deviation. The simulation result for Cu/SiO2(12 nm)/Si(80 nm)/SiO2(12 nm)/Cu PWG is also shown as the dash curve for comparison.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Theoretical and experimental coupling losses between the 500-nm-wide Si wire waveguide and the Cu/SiO2(12 nm)/Si(WP)/SiO2(12 nm)/Cu PWG with various WPs as a function of the tapered coupler length, LC. The experimental data are averaged from four sets of waveguides measured at TE 1550 nm. The error bar represents the statistic standard deviation.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The wavelength dependence of coupling loss between the 500-nm-wide Si waveguide and the Cu/SiO2(12 nm)/Si(WP)/SiO2(12 nm)/Cu PWG with various WP of 134, 80, 50 and 21 nm through a 1-µm-long tapered coupler. The data points at 1550 nm (the solid symbols) are averaged from four sets of waveguide and the error bar represents the statistic standard deviation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Layout of the bent PWG with the dimensions indicated; (b) SEM image of the Si core of the bent PWG; and (c) SEM image of the bent PWG after the SiO2 window opening (before the metal deposition).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Top-views of (a) Ex and (b) Hy distributions (at y = 0) in the bent Cu/SiO2(12 nm)/Si(50 nm)/SiO2(12 nm)/Cu PWG with two direct 90° bends obtained from the 3D FDTD simulation.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

The pure bending loss of the 90° bend as a function of wavelength measured from one set of Cu/SiO2(12 nm)/Si(WP)/SiO2(12 nm)/Cu PWGs with WP of 80, 50, and 21 nm. The data points at 1550 nm (the solid symbols) are averaged from four sets of PWGs and the error bar represents the statistic standard deviation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Structure Parameters of the Fabricated Horizontal Metal/Insulator/Si/Insulator/Metal Nanoplasmonic Waveguides and their Optical Properties Measured at 1550 nm TE Light.

Metrics