Abstract

We investigated the cause of optical transmittance degradation in tapered fibers. Degradation commences immediately after fabrication and it eventually reduces the transmittance to almost zero. It is a major problem that limits applications of tapered fibers. We systematically investigated the effect of the dust-particle density and the humidity on the degradation dynamics. The results clearly show that the degradation is mostly due to dust particles and that it is not related to the humidity. In a dust free environment it is possible to preserve the transmittance with a degradation of less than the noise (±0.02) over 1 week.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, “Linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of a strongly coupled microdisk-quantum dot system,” Nature 450, 862–865 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Totsuka, N. Kobayashi, and M. Tomita, “Slow light in coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213904 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, R. Riviére, G. Anetsberger, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling and position measurement of a micromechanical oscillator close to the Heisenberg uncertainty limit,” Nat. Phys. 5, 509–514 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Gregora, R. Henze, T. Schröder, and O. Benson, “On-demand positioning of a preselected quantum emitter on a fiber-coupled toroidal microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 153110 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, D. Chang, R. Camacho, M. Eichenfield, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Coherent mixing of mechanical excitations in nano-optomechanical structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 236–242 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Takashima, H. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, K. Sasaki, and M. Takahashi, “Control of spontaneous emission coupling factor β in fiber-coupled microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071115 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Tanaka, T. Asai, K. Toubaru, H. Takashima, H. Fujiwara, M. Fujiwara, R. Okamoto, and S. Takeuchi, “Phase shift spectra of a fiber-microsphere system at the single photon level,” Opt. Express 19, 2278–2285 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Xu and G. Brambilla, “Preservation of micro-optical fibers by embedding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6675–6677 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, and L. M. Tong, “Microfiber resonator in polymer matrix,” IEICE Trans. Electron . E90-C, 415–421 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, D. Chang, R. Camacho, M. Eichenfield, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Coherent mixing of mechanical excitations in nano-optomechanical structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 236–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Brambilla, “Optical fibre nanowires and microwires: a review,” J. Opt. 12, 043001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, R. Riviére, G. Anetsberger, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling and position measurement of a micromechanical oscillator close to the Heisenberg uncertainty limit,” Nat. Phys. 5, 509–514 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Gregora, R. Henze, T. Schröder, and O. Benson, “On-demand positioning of a preselected quantum emitter on a fiber-coupled toroidal microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 153110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Davanço and K. Srinivasan, “Efficient spectroscopy of single embedded emitters using optical fiber taper waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 10542–10563 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gregor, A. Kuhlicke, and O. Benson, “Soft-landing and optical characterization of a preselected single fluorescent particle on a tapered optical fiber,” Opt. Express 17, 24234–24243 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

H. Takashima, H. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, K. Sasaki, and M. Takahashi, “Control of spontaneous emission coupling factor β in fiber-coupled microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Xu and G. Brambilla, “Preservation of micro-optical fibers by embedding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6675–6677 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, and L. M. Tong, “Microfiber resonator in polymer matrix,” IEICE Trans. Electron . E90-C, 415–421 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, “Linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of a strongly coupled microdisk-quantum dot system,” Nature 450, 862–865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Totsuka, N. Kobayashi, and M. Tomita, “Slow light in coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. P. Nayak, P. N. Melentiev, M. Morinaga, F. Le Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Optical nanofiber as an efficient tool for manipulating and probing atomic Fluorescence,” Opt. Express 15, 5431–5438 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, and X. Feng, “Fabrication of optical fibre nanowires and their optical and mechanical characterisation,” Electron. Lett. 42, 517–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Konishi, H. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, “Polarization-discriminated spectra of a fiber-microsphere system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2000 (1)

Anetsberger, G.

A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, R. Riviére, G. Anetsberger, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling and position measurement of a micromechanical oscillator close to the Heisenberg uncertainty limit,” Nat. Phys. 5, 509–514 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arcizet, O.

A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, R. Riviére, G. Anetsberger, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling and position measurement of a micromechanical oscillator close to the Heisenberg uncertainty limit,” Nat. Phys. 5, 509–514 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Asai, T.

Balykin, V. I.

Benson, O.

M. Gregora, R. Henze, T. Schröder, and O. Benson, “On-demand positioning of a preselected quantum emitter on a fiber-coupled toroidal microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 153110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Gregor, A. Kuhlicke, and O. Benson, “Soft-landing and optical characterization of a preselected single fluorescent particle on a tapered optical fiber,” Opt. Express 17, 24234–24243 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Brambilla, G.

G. Brambilla, “Optical fibre nanowires and microwires: a review,” J. Opt. 12, 043001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Xu and G. Brambilla, “Preservation of micro-optical fibers by embedding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6675–6677 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, and X. Feng, “Fabrication of optical fibre nanowires and their optical and mechanical characterisation,” Electron. Lett. 42, 517–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Camacho, R.

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, D. Chang, R. Camacho, M. Eichenfield, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Coherent mixing of mechanical excitations in nano-optomechanical structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 236–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Camilo, G. M.

G. M. Camilo, “Characterization of optical fibers,” Encyclopedia of Telecommunications (Wiley, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, D.

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, D. Chang, R. Camacho, M. Eichenfield, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Coherent mixing of mechanical excitations in nano-optomechanical structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 236–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

Davanço, M.

Eichenfield, M.

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, D. Chang, R. Camacho, M. Eichenfield, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Coherent mixing of mechanical excitations in nano-optomechanical structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 236–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, and X. Feng, “Fabrication of optical fibre nanowires and their optical and mechanical characterisation,” Electron. Lett. 42, 517–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, H.

A. Tanaka, T. Asai, K. Toubaru, H. Takashima, H. Fujiwara, M. Fujiwara, R. Okamoto, and S. Takeuchi, “Phase shift spectra of a fiber-microsphere system at the single photon level,” Opt. Express 19, 2278–2285 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takashima, H. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, K. Sasaki, and M. Takahashi, “Control of spontaneous emission coupling factor β in fiber-coupled microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Konishi, H. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, “Polarization-discriminated spectra of a fiber-microsphere system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

Gregor, M.

Gregora, M.

M. Gregora, R. Henze, T. Schröder, and O. Benson, “On-demand positioning of a preselected quantum emitter on a fiber-coupled toroidal microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 153110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hakuta, K.

Henze, R.

M. Gregora, R. Henze, T. Schröder, and O. Benson, “On-demand positioning of a preselected quantum emitter on a fiber-coupled toroidal microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 153110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, R. Riviére, G. Anetsberger, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling and position measurement of a micromechanical oscillator close to the Heisenberg uncertainty limit,” Nat. Phys. 5, 509–514 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, N.

K. Totsuka, N. Kobayashi, and M. Tomita, “Slow light in coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konishi, H.

H. Konishi, H. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, “Polarization-discriminated spectra of a fiber-microsphere system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlicke, A.

Le Kien, F.

Li, Y. H.

G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, and L. M. Tong, “Microfiber resonator in polymer matrix,” IEICE Trans. Electron . E90-C, 415–421 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, D. Chang, R. Camacho, M. Eichenfield, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Coherent mixing of mechanical excitations in nano-optomechanical structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 236–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Melentiev, P. N.

Morinaga, M.

Nayak, K. P.

Okamoto, R.

Painter, O.

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, D. Chang, R. Camacho, M. Eichenfield, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Coherent mixing of mechanical excitations in nano-optomechanical structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 236–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, “Linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of a strongly coupled microdisk-quantum dot system,” Nature 450, 862–865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riviére, R.

A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, R. Riviére, G. Anetsberger, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling and position measurement of a micromechanical oscillator close to the Heisenberg uncertainty limit,” Nat. Phys. 5, 509–514 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, J.

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, D. Chang, R. Camacho, M. Eichenfield, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Coherent mixing of mechanical excitations in nano-optomechanical structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 236–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St J.

Russell, P. St. J.

Sasaki, K.

H. Takashima, H. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, K. Sasaki, and M. Takahashi, “Control of spontaneous emission coupling factor β in fiber-coupled microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Konishi, H. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, “Polarization-discriminated spectra of a fiber-microsphere system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schliesser, A.

A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, R. Riviére, G. Anetsberger, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling and position measurement of a micromechanical oscillator close to the Heisenberg uncertainty limit,” Nat. Phys. 5, 509–514 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, T.

M. Gregora, R. Henze, T. Schröder, and O. Benson, “On-demand positioning of a preselected quantum emitter on a fiber-coupled toroidal microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 153110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, K.

M. Davanço and K. Srinivasan, “Efficient spectroscopy of single embedded emitters using optical fiber taper waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 10542–10563 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, “Linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of a strongly coupled microdisk-quantum dot system,” Nature 450, 862–865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, M.

H. Takashima, H. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, K. Sasaki, and M. Takahashi, “Control of spontaneous emission coupling factor β in fiber-coupled microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takashima, H.

A. Tanaka, T. Asai, K. Toubaru, H. Takashima, H. Fujiwara, M. Fujiwara, R. Okamoto, and S. Takeuchi, “Phase shift spectra of a fiber-microsphere system at the single photon level,” Opt. Express 19, 2278–2285 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takashima, H. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, K. Sasaki, and M. Takahashi, “Control of spontaneous emission coupling factor β in fiber-coupled microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, S.

A. Tanaka, T. Asai, K. Toubaru, H. Takashima, H. Fujiwara, M. Fujiwara, R. Okamoto, and S. Takeuchi, “Phase shift spectra of a fiber-microsphere system at the single photon level,” Opt. Express 19, 2278–2285 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takashima, H. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, K. Sasaki, and M. Takahashi, “Control of spontaneous emission coupling factor β in fiber-coupled microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Konishi, H. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, “Polarization-discriminated spectra of a fiber-microsphere system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, A.

Tomita, M.

K. Totsuka, N. Kobayashi, and M. Tomita, “Slow light in coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, L. M.

G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, and L. M. Tong, “Microfiber resonator in polymer matrix,” IEICE Trans. Electron . E90-C, 415–421 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Totsuka, K.

K. Totsuka, N. Kobayashi, and M. Tomita, “Slow light in coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toubaru, K.

Vahala, K. J.

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, D. Chang, R. Camacho, M. Eichenfield, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Coherent mixing of mechanical excitations in nano-optomechanical structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 236–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vienne, G.

G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, and L. M. Tong, “Microfiber resonator in polymer matrix,” IEICE Trans. Electron . E90-C, 415–421 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Xu, F.

F. Xu and G. Brambilla, “Preservation of micro-optical fibers by embedding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6675–6677 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, and X. Feng, “Fabrication of optical fibre nanowires and their optical and mechanical characterisation,” Electron. Lett. 42, 517–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Gregora, R. Henze, T. Schröder, and O. Benson, “On-demand positioning of a preselected quantum emitter on a fiber-coupled toroidal microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 153110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Takashima, H. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, K. Sasaki, and M. Takahashi, “Control of spontaneous emission coupling factor β in fiber-coupled microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Konishi, H. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, “Polarization-discriminated spectra of a fiber-microsphere system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, and X. Feng, “Fabrication of optical fibre nanowires and their optical and mechanical characterisation,” Electron. Lett. 42, 517–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron (1)

G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, and L. M. Tong, “Microfiber resonator in polymer matrix,” IEICE Trans. Electron . E90-C, 415–421 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

G. Brambilla, “Optical fibre nanowires and microwires: a review,” J. Opt. 12, 043001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Xu and G. Brambilla, “Preservation of micro-optical fibers by embedding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6675–6677 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, D. Chang, R. Camacho, M. Eichenfield, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Coherent mixing of mechanical excitations in nano-optomechanical structures,” Nat. Photonics 4, 236–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, R. Riviére, G. Anetsberger, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Resolved-sideband cooling and position measurement of a micromechanical oscillator close to the Heisenberg uncertainty limit,” Nat. Phys. 5, 509–514 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, “Linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of a strongly coupled microdisk-quantum dot system,” Nature 450, 862–865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. Totsuka, N. Kobayashi, and M. Tomita, “Slow light in coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

G. M. Camilo, “Characterization of optical fibers,” Encyclopedia of Telecommunications (Wiley, 2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) (a) schematic diagram of the experimental setup used to measure the transmittance profile. (b) transmittance profiles of the three tapered fibers stored in a cleanroom (room A), a semi cleanroom (room B), and a normal laboratory (room C). (c) the transmittance profile of the 850-nm-diameter tapered fiber placed in room A. (d) comparison of the transmittance degradation dynamics of thin (460 nm diameter) and thick (1.2 μm diameter) tapered fibers in room C. Arrows indicate sudden reductions in the transmittance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) calculated spatial mode profiles of propagating light for (a) thin and (b) thick tapered fibers. The upper panel is the intensity cross section in the plane Y = 0. The lower panel shows a two-dimensional view of the propagating light. The dashed line indicates the tapered fiber diameter. The black-color region is where the intensity is less than 0.01. A waveguide mode solver (Fimmwave, Photon Design) was used in these simulations.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental Conditions for Each Tapered Fiber a

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