Abstract

Separate absorption grading charge multiplication avalanche photodiodes (SAGCM APDs) are widely accepted in photon starved optical communication systems due to the presence of large photocurrent gain. In this work, we present a detailed analysis of dark currents of planar-type SAGCM InGaAs–InP APDs with different thicknesses of multiplication layer. The effect of the diffusion process, the generation-recombination process, the tunneling process and the multiplication process on the total leakage current is discussed. A new empirical formula has been established to predict the optimal multiplication layer thickness of SAGCM APDs with dark current limited by generation-recombination at multiplication gain of 8.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. N. Namekata, S. Adachi, and S. Inoue, “1.5 GHz single-photon detection at telecommunication wavelengths using sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6275–6282 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. S. R. Forrest, M. DiDomenico, R. G. Smith, and H. J. Stocker, “Evidence for tunneling in reverse-biased III-V photodetector diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(7), 580–582 (1980).
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    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Beck, C. Wan, M. Kinch, J. Robinson, P. Mitra, R. Scritchfield, F. Ma, and J. Campbell, “The HgCdTe Electron Avalanche Photodiode,” J. Electron. Mater. 35(6), 1166–1173 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

L. J. J. Tan, D. S. G. Ong, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, S. K. Jones, Y. Qian, and J. P. David, “Temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown in InP and InAlAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1153–1157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Li, H. D. Liu, Q. Zhou, D. McIntosh, and J. C. Campbell, “SiC avalanche photodiode array with microlenses,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11713–11719 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

N. Namekata, S. Adachi, and S. Inoue, “1.5 GHz single-photon detection at telecommunication wavelengths using sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6275–6282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wu, Y. Jian, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Photon-number-resolving detection based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode in the sub-saturated mode,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18782–18787 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Song, C. H. Roh, J. H. Lee, H. G. Choi, D. H. Kim, J. H. Park, and C. Hahn, “Comparative analysis of dark current between SiNx and polyimide surface passivation of an avalanche photodiode based on GaAs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(5), 055012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Hu, X. S. Chen, F. Yin, Z. J. Quan, Z. H. Ye, X. N. Hu, Z. F. Li, and W. Lu, “Analysis of temperature dependence of dark current mechanisms for long-wavelength HgCdTe photovoltaic infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 104502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

2006 (4)

N. Namekata, S. Sasamori, and S. Inoue, “800 MHz single-photon detection at 1550-nm using an InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode operated with a sine wave gating,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10043–10049 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Beck, C. Wan, M. Kinch, J. Robinson, P. Mitra, R. Scritchfield, F. Ma, and J. Campbell, “The HgCdTe Electron Avalanche Photodiode,” J. Electron. Mater. 35(6), 1166–1173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Matukas, V. Palenskis, S. Pralgauskait, R. Gadonas, R. Purlys, A. Ciburys, and A. Vizbaras, “Photosensitivity and noise of ultrafast InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Lith. J. Phys. 46(4), 475–482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao and S. He, “Multiplication characteristics of InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes with a thicker charge layer,” Opt. Commun. 265(2), 476–480 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Wei, J. Chris Dries, H. Wang, M. L. Lange, G. H. Olsen, and S. R. Forrest, “Optimization of 10-Gb/s Long-Wavelength Floating Guard Ring InGaAs–InP Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(7), 977–979 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5(1), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

K. Taguchi, T. Torikai, Y. Sugimoto, K. Makita, and H. Ishihara, “Planar-structure InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs Avalanche photodiodes with preferential lateral extended guard ring for 1.0-1.6 wavelength optical communication use,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(11), 1643–1655 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

S. R. Forrest, “Performance of InxGa1-xAsyP1-y photodiodes with dark current limited by diffusion, generation recombination, and tunneling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 217–226 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (3)

Y. Takanashi, M. Kawashima, and Y. Horikoshi, “Required donor concentration of epitaxial layers for efficient InGaAsP avalanche photodiodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(4), 693–701 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, M. DiDomenico, R. G. Smith, and H. J. Stocker, “Evidence for tunneling in reverse-biased III-V photodetector diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(7), 580–582 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, R. F. Leheny, R. E. Nahory, and M. A. Pollack, “In0.53Ga0.47As photodiodes with dark current limited by generation-recombination and tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(3), 322–325 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, S.

Bayram, C.

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Performance enhancement of GaN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with p-type δ-doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beck, J.

J. Beck, C. Wan, M. Kinch, J. Robinson, P. Mitra, R. Scritchfield, F. Ma, and J. Campbell, “The HgCdTe Electron Avalanche Photodiode,” J. Electron. Mater. 35(6), 1166–1173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beling, A.

Bennett, A. J.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5(1), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bessette, F.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5(1), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J.

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5(1), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J.

Campbell, J. C.

Chen, X. S.

W. D. Hu, X. S. Chen, F. Yin, Z. J. Quan, Z. H. Ye, X. N. Hu, Z. F. Li, and W. Lu, “Analysis of temperature dependence of dark current mechanisms for long-wavelength HgCdTe photovoltaic infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 104502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. G.

H. J. Song, C. H. Roh, J. H. Lee, H. G. Choi, D. H. Kim, J. H. Park, and C. Hahn, “Comparative analysis of dark current between SiNx and polyimide surface passivation of an avalanche photodiode based on GaAs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(5), 055012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chris Dries, J.

R. Wei, J. Chris Dries, H. Wang, M. L. Lange, G. H. Olsen, and S. R. Forrest, “Optimization of 10-Gb/s Long-Wavelength Floating Guard Ring InGaAs–InP Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(7), 977–979 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ciburys, A.

J. Matukas, V. Palenskis, S. Pralgauskait, R. Gadonas, R. Purlys, A. Ciburys, and A. Vizbaras, “Photosensitivity and noise of ultrafast InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Lith. J. Phys. 46(4), 475–482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

David, J. P.

L. J. J. Tan, D. S. G. Ong, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, S. K. Jones, Y. Qian, and J. P. David, “Temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown in InP and InAlAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1153–1157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

DiDomenico, M.

S. R. Forrest, M. DiDomenico, R. G. Smith, and H. J. Stocker, “Evidence for tunneling in reverse-biased III-V photodetector diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(7), 580–582 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, A. R.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dynes, J. F.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

R. Wei, J. Chris Dries, H. Wang, M. L. Lange, G. H. Olsen, and S. R. Forrest, “Optimization of 10-Gb/s Long-Wavelength Floating Guard Ring InGaAs–InP Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(7), 977–979 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, “Performance of InxGa1-xAsyP1-y photodiodes with dark current limited by diffusion, generation recombination, and tunneling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 217–226 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, M. DiDomenico, R. G. Smith, and H. J. Stocker, “Evidence for tunneling in reverse-biased III-V photodetector diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(7), 580–582 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, R. F. Leheny, R. E. Nahory, and M. A. Pollack, “In0.53Ga0.47As photodiodes with dark current limited by generation-recombination and tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(3), 322–325 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gadonas, R.

J. Matukas, V. Palenskis, S. Pralgauskait, R. Gadonas, R. Purlys, A. Ciburys, and A. Vizbaras, “Photosensitivity and noise of ultrafast InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Lith. J. Phys. 46(4), 475–482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, C.

H. J. Song, C. H. Roh, J. H. Lee, H. G. Choi, D. H. Kim, J. H. Park, and C. Hahn, “Comparative analysis of dark current between SiNx and polyimide surface passivation of an avalanche photodiode based on GaAs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(5), 055012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

Y. Zhao and S. He, “Multiplication characteristics of InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes with a thicker charge layer,” Opt. Commun. 265(2), 476–480 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Horikoshi, Y.

Y. Takanashi, M. Kawashima, and Y. Horikoshi, “Required donor concentration of epitaxial layers for efficient InGaAsP avalanche photodiodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(4), 693–701 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W. D.

W. D. Hu, X. S. Chen, F. Yin, Z. J. Quan, Z. H. Ye, X. N. Hu, Z. F. Li, and W. Lu, “Analysis of temperature dependence of dark current mechanisms for long-wavelength HgCdTe photovoltaic infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 104502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X. N.

W. D. Hu, X. S. Chen, F. Yin, Z. J. Quan, Z. H. Ye, X. N. Hu, Z. F. Li, and W. Lu, “Analysis of temperature dependence of dark current mechanisms for long-wavelength HgCdTe photovoltaic infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 104502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, S.

Ishihara, H.

K. Taguchi, T. Torikai, Y. Sugimoto, K. Makita, and H. Ishihara, “Planar-structure InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs Avalanche photodiodes with preferential lateral extended guard ring for 1.0-1.6 wavelength optical communication use,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(11), 1643–1655 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jian, Y.

Jones, S. K.

L. J. J. Tan, D. S. G. Ong, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, S. K. Jones, Y. Qian, and J. P. David, “Temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown in InP and InAlAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1153–1157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, Y.

Kawashima, M.

Y. Takanashi, M. Kawashima, and Y. Horikoshi, “Required donor concentration of epitaxial layers for efficient InGaAsP avalanche photodiodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(4), 693–701 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. H.

H. J. Song, C. H. Roh, J. H. Lee, H. G. Choi, D. H. Kim, J. H. Park, and C. Hahn, “Comparative analysis of dark current between SiNx and polyimide surface passivation of an avalanche photodiode based on GaAs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(5), 055012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kinch, M.

J. Beck, C. Wan, M. Kinch, J. Robinson, P. Mitra, R. Scritchfield, F. Ma, and J. Campbell, “The HgCdTe Electron Avalanche Photodiode,” J. Electron. Mater. 35(6), 1166–1173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-H.

Lange, M. L.

R. Wei, J. Chris Dries, H. Wang, M. L. Lange, G. H. Olsen, and S. R. Forrest, “Optimization of 10-Gb/s Long-Wavelength Floating Guard Ring InGaAs–InP Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(7), 977–979 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

H. J. Song, C. H. Roh, J. H. Lee, H. G. Choi, D. H. Kim, J. H. Park, and C. Hahn, “Comparative analysis of dark current between SiNx and polyimide surface passivation of an avalanche photodiode based on GaAs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(5), 055012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leheny, R. F.

S. R. Forrest, R. F. Leheny, R. E. Nahory, and M. A. Pollack, “In0.53Ga0.47As photodiodes with dark current limited by generation-recombination and tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(3), 322–325 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Li, K. J.

Li, Z. F.

W. D. Hu, X. S. Chen, F. Yin, Z. J. Quan, Z. H. Ye, X. N. Hu, Z. F. Li, and W. Lu, “Analysis of temperature dependence of dark current mechanisms for long-wavelength HgCdTe photovoltaic infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 104502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Litski, S.

Liu, H. D.

Liu, H.-D.

Lu, W.

W. D. Hu, X. S. Chen, F. Yin, Z. J. Quan, Z. H. Ye, X. N. Hu, Z. F. Li, and W. Lu, “Analysis of temperature dependence of dark current mechanisms for long-wavelength HgCdTe photovoltaic infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 104502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, F.

J. Beck, C. Wan, M. Kinch, J. Robinson, P. Mitra, R. Scritchfield, F. Ma, and J. Campbell, “The HgCdTe Electron Avalanche Photodiode,” J. Electron. Mater. 35(6), 1166–1173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Makita, K.

K. Taguchi, T. Torikai, Y. Sugimoto, K. Makita, and H. Ishihara, “Planar-structure InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs Avalanche photodiodes with preferential lateral extended guard ring for 1.0-1.6 wavelength optical communication use,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(11), 1643–1655 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Matukas, J.

J. Matukas, V. Palenskis, S. Pralgauskait, R. Gadonas, R. Purlys, A. Ciburys, and A. Vizbaras, “Photosensitivity and noise of ultrafast InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Lith. J. Phys. 46(4), 475–482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McClintock, R.

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Performance enhancement of GaN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with p-type δ-doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, D.

McIntosh, D. C.

Mitra, P.

J. Beck, C. Wan, M. Kinch, J. Robinson, P. Mitra, R. Scritchfield, F. Ma, and J. Campbell, “The HgCdTe Electron Avalanche Photodiode,” J. Electron. Mater. 35(6), 1166–1173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morse, M.

Nahory, R. E.

S. R. Forrest, R. F. Leheny, R. E. Nahory, and M. A. Pollack, “In0.53Ga0.47As photodiodes with dark current limited by generation-recombination and tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(3), 322–325 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Namekata, N.

Ng, J. S.

L. J. J. Tan, D. S. G. Ong, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, S. K. Jones, Y. Qian, and J. P. David, “Temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown in InP and InAlAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1153–1157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Olsen, G. H.

R. Wei, J. Chris Dries, H. Wang, M. L. Lange, G. H. Olsen, and S. R. Forrest, “Optimization of 10-Gb/s Long-Wavelength Floating Guard Ring InGaAs–InP Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(7), 977–979 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ong, D. S. G.

L. J. J. Tan, D. S. G. Ong, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, S. K. Jones, Y. Qian, and J. P. David, “Temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown in InP and InAlAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1153–1157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Palenskis, V.

J. Matukas, V. Palenskis, S. Pralgauskait, R. Gadonas, R. Purlys, A. Ciburys, and A. Vizbaras, “Photosensitivity and noise of ultrafast InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Lith. J. Phys. 46(4), 475–482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, J. H.

H. J. Song, C. H. Roh, J. H. Lee, H. G. Choi, D. H. Kim, J. H. Park, and C. Hahn, “Comparative analysis of dark current between SiNx and polyimide surface passivation of an avalanche photodiode based on GaAs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(5), 055012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pau, J. L.

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Performance enhancement of GaN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with p-type δ-doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pauchard, A.

Pollack, M. A.

S. R. Forrest, R. F. Leheny, R. E. Nahory, and M. A. Pollack, “In0.53Ga0.47As photodiodes with dark current limited by generation-recombination and tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(3), 322–325 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Pralgauskait, S.

J. Matukas, V. Palenskis, S. Pralgauskait, R. Gadonas, R. Purlys, A. Ciburys, and A. Vizbaras, “Photosensitivity and noise of ultrafast InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Lith. J. Phys. 46(4), 475–482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Purlys, R.

J. Matukas, V. Palenskis, S. Pralgauskait, R. Gadonas, R. Purlys, A. Ciburys, and A. Vizbaras, “Photosensitivity and noise of ultrafast InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Lith. J. Phys. 46(4), 475–482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qian, Y.

L. J. J. Tan, D. S. G. Ong, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, S. K. Jones, Y. Qian, and J. P. David, “Temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown in InP and InAlAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1153–1157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Quan, Z. J.

W. D. Hu, X. S. Chen, F. Yin, Z. J. Quan, Z. H. Ye, X. N. Hu, Z. F. Li, and W. Lu, “Analysis of temperature dependence of dark current mechanisms for long-wavelength HgCdTe photovoltaic infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 104502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Performance enhancement of GaN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with p-type δ-doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J.

J. Beck, C. Wan, M. Kinch, J. Robinson, P. Mitra, R. Scritchfield, F. Ma, and J. Campbell, “The HgCdTe Electron Avalanche Photodiode,” J. Electron. Mater. 35(6), 1166–1173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roh, C. H.

H. J. Song, C. H. Roh, J. H. Lee, H. G. Choi, D. H. Kim, J. H. Park, and C. Hahn, “Comparative analysis of dark current between SiNx and polyimide surface passivation of an avalanche photodiode based on GaAs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(5), 055012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salvail, L.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5(1), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, G.

Sasamori, S.

Scritchfield, R.

J. Beck, C. Wan, M. Kinch, J. Robinson, P. Mitra, R. Scritchfield, F. Ma, and J. Campbell, “The HgCdTe Electron Avalanche Photodiode,” J. Electron. Mater. 35(6), 1166–1173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, A. W.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. G.

S. R. Forrest, M. DiDomenico, R. G. Smith, and H. J. Stocker, “Evidence for tunneling in reverse-biased III-V photodetector diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(7), 580–582 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Smolin, J.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5(1), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Song, H. J.

H. J. Song, C. H. Roh, J. H. Lee, H. G. Choi, D. H. Kim, J. H. Park, and C. Hahn, “Comparative analysis of dark current between SiNx and polyimide surface passivation of an avalanche photodiode based on GaAs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(5), 055012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stocker, H. J.

S. R. Forrest, M. DiDomenico, R. G. Smith, and H. J. Stocker, “Evidence for tunneling in reverse-biased III-V photodetector diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(7), 580–582 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

K. Taguchi, T. Torikai, Y. Sugimoto, K. Makita, and H. Ishihara, “Planar-structure InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs Avalanche photodiodes with preferential lateral extended guard ring for 1.0-1.6 wavelength optical communication use,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(11), 1643–1655 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, K.

K. Taguchi, T. Torikai, Y. Sugimoto, K. Makita, and H. Ishihara, “Planar-structure InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs Avalanche photodiodes with preferential lateral extended guard ring for 1.0-1.6 wavelength optical communication use,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(11), 1643–1655 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Takanashi, Y.

Y. Takanashi, M. Kawashima, and Y. Horikoshi, “Required donor concentration of epitaxial layers for efficient InGaAsP avalanche photodiodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(4), 693–701 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Tan, C. H.

L. J. J. Tan, D. S. G. Ong, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, S. K. Jones, Y. Qian, and J. P. David, “Temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown in InP and InAlAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1153–1157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tan, L. J. J.

L. J. J. Tan, D. S. G. Ong, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, S. K. Jones, Y. Qian, and J. P. David, “Temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown in InP and InAlAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1153–1157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Torikai, T.

K. Taguchi, T. Torikai, Y. Sugimoto, K. Makita, and H. Ishihara, “Planar-structure InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs Avalanche photodiodes with preferential lateral extended guard ring for 1.0-1.6 wavelength optical communication use,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(11), 1643–1655 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Vizbaras, A.

J. Matukas, V. Palenskis, S. Pralgauskait, R. Gadonas, R. Purlys, A. Ciburys, and A. Vizbaras, “Photosensitivity and noise of ultrafast InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Lith. J. Phys. 46(4), 475–482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wan, C.

J. Beck, C. Wan, M. Kinch, J. Robinson, P. Mitra, R. Scritchfield, F. Ma, and J. Campbell, “The HgCdTe Electron Avalanche Photodiode,” J. Electron. Mater. 35(6), 1166–1173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

R. Wei, J. Chris Dries, H. Wang, M. L. Lange, G. H. Olsen, and S. R. Forrest, “Optimization of 10-Gb/s Long-Wavelength Floating Guard Ring InGaAs–InP Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(7), 977–979 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wei, R.

R. Wei, J. Chris Dries, H. Wang, M. L. Lange, G. H. Olsen, and S. R. Forrest, “Optimization of 10-Gb/s Long-Wavelength Floating Guard Ring InGaAs–InP Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(7), 977–979 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, E.

Wu, G.

Ye, Z. H.

W. D. Hu, X. S. Chen, F. Yin, Z. J. Quan, Z. H. Ye, X. N. Hu, Z. F. Li, and W. Lu, “Analysis of temperature dependence of dark current mechanisms for long-wavelength HgCdTe photovoltaic infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 104502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yin, F.

W. D. Hu, X. S. Chen, F. Yin, Z. J. Quan, Z. H. Ye, X. N. Hu, Z. F. Li, and W. Lu, “Analysis of temperature dependence of dark current mechanisms for long-wavelength HgCdTe photovoltaic infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 104502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z. L.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zadka, M.

Zeng, H.

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao and S. He, “Multiplication characteristics of InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes with a thicker charge layer,” Opt. Commun. 265(2), 476–480 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. R. Forrest, R. F. Leheny, R. E. Nahory, and M. A. Pollack, “In0.53Ga0.47As photodiodes with dark current limited by generation-recombination and tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(3), 322–325 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, M. DiDomenico, R. G. Smith, and H. J. Stocker, “Evidence for tunneling in reverse-biased III-V photodetector diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(7), 580–582 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Performance enhancement of GaN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with p-type δ-doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. R. Forrest, “Performance of InxGa1-xAsyP1-y photodiodes with dark current limited by diffusion, generation recombination, and tunneling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 217–226 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. J. J. Tan, D. S. G. Ong, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, S. K. Jones, Y. Qian, and J. P. David, “Temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown in InP and InAlAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1153–1157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. Wei, J. Chris Dries, H. Wang, M. L. Lange, G. H. Olsen, and S. R. Forrest, “Optimization of 10-Gb/s Long-Wavelength Floating Guard Ring InGaAs–InP Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(7), 977–979 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. D. Hu, X. S. Chen, F. Yin, Z. J. Quan, Z. H. Ye, X. N. Hu, Z. F. Li, and W. Lu, “Analysis of temperature dependence of dark current mechanisms for long-wavelength HgCdTe photovoltaic infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 104502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryptology (1)

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5(1), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

J. Beck, C. Wan, M. Kinch, J. Robinson, P. Mitra, R. Scritchfield, F. Ma, and J. Campbell, “The HgCdTe Electron Avalanche Photodiode,” J. Electron. Mater. 35(6), 1166–1173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. C. Campbell, “Recent Advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 109–121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Taguchi, T. Torikai, Y. Sugimoto, K. Makita, and H. Ishihara, “Planar-structure InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs Avalanche photodiodes with preferential lateral extended guard ring for 1.0-1.6 wavelength optical communication use,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(11), 1643–1655 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Takanashi, M. Kawashima, and Y. Horikoshi, “Required donor concentration of epitaxial layers for efficient InGaAsP avalanche photodiodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(4), 693–701 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lith. J. Phys. (1)

J. Matukas, V. Palenskis, S. Pralgauskait, R. Gadonas, R. Purlys, A. Ciburys, and A. Vizbaras, “Photosensitivity and noise of ultrafast InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Lith. J. Phys. 46(4), 475–482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Zhao and S. He, “Multiplication characteristics of InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes with a thicker charge layer,” Opt. Commun. 265(2), 476–480 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

H. J. Song, C. H. Roh, J. H. Lee, H. G. Choi, D. H. Kim, J. H. Park, and C. Hahn, “Comparative analysis of dark current between SiNx and polyimide surface passivation of an avalanche photodiode based on GaAs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(5), 055012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic cross-section of the InGaAs–InP APD with a floating guard ring.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The change of measured dark current (IdT ), photocurrent (IL ) and M with bias for APD II; (b) The IdT-M characteristic for APD II, the solid line is a linear fit of the measurements, and the inset is an enlargement of the rectangular region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The IdM versus Bias of APD II under 24-40 V; (b) The IdM-Bias characteristic of APD II under 24-33 V and the fit with the combination of Igr and Idiff ; (c) The IdM-Bias characteristic of APD II under 33-40 V and the fit with the combination of Igr and Itun ; (d) The IdM-Bias characteristic of APD IV and the fit with the combination of Igr and Idiff , Idiff is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than Igr , and not shown here.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The ratio of Igr to (Igr + Itun ) at M = 8; (b) The change of IdT with the multiplication layer thickness.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The relation of integrated charge density with the optimal multiplication layer thickness for SAGCM APDs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The voltage characteristic for optimized APDs with different integrated charge density; (b) The change of voltage versus integrated charge density.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The temperature coefficient of APD III at temperature range of −40 to 100 °C.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Structural Parameters of the APD Structure

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I d T = I d M × M + I d 0 ,
I g r ( q n i A w / τ e f f ) [ 1 exp ( q V / 2 k T ) ] ,
I t u n γ A exp ( θ m 0 1 / 2 ε g 3 / 2 / q E m ) ,
I d i f f = I S [ 1 exp ( q V / k T ) ] ,
I S , P + ν = q n i , I n P 2 D n , I n P ( p + ) τ n , I n P ( p + ) A p , I n P ( p + ) N A , I n P ( p + ) + q n i , I n G a A s 2 D p , I n G a A s τ p , I n G a A s A n , I n G a A s N D , I n G a A s ) + I s , p + ν , r a d i a l ,
I S , P T = q n i , I n P 2 D n , I n P ( p + ) τ n , I n P ( p + ) A p , I n P ( p + ) N A , I n P ( p + ) + q n i , I n P 2 D p , I n P ( n + ) τ p , I n P ( n + ) A n , I n P ( n + ) N D , I n P ( n + ) ) + I s , P T , r a d i a l ,
y = 2 . 82 + 1 . 28exp ( x / 0. 529 ) ,
Δ V b d Δ T = [ ( 42.5 × X d ) + 0.5 ] × w X d ,

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