Abstract

An all-fiber, tunable, short-wave infrared transmitter is demonstrated using efficient four-wave mixing in conventional L and O bands. To realize this source a highly-nonlinear fiber, exhibiting low bend loss over the short-wave infrared spectral band, is employed because of its advantageous properties as a nonlinear mixing medium. The transmitter was subsequently exploited to probe and detect trace levels of carbon dioxide in the 2051-nm spectral region where its beam properties, tunability, narrow linewidth, and stability all coalesce to permit this application. This work indicates this transmitter can serve as a robust source for sensing carbon dioxide and other trace gasses in the short-wave infrared spectral region and should therefore play an important role in future applications.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (3)

2009 (7)

J. S. Gregg, L. M. Losey, R. J. Andres, T. J. Blasing, and G. Marland, “The Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Use in North America,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 48(12), 2528–2542 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Raybaut, T. Schmid, A. Godard, A. K. Mohamed, M. Lefebvre, F. Marnas, P. Flamant, A. Bohman, P. Geiser, and P. Kaspersen, “High-energy single-longitudinal mode nearly diffraction-limited optical parametric source with 3 MHz frequency stability for CO2 DIAL,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2069–2071 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Piao, J. Fang, P. Ciais, P. Peylin, Y. Huang, S. Sitch, and T. Wang, “The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in China,” Nature 458(7241), 1009–1013 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. R. van der Werf, D. C. Morton, R. S. DeFries, J. G. J. Olivier, P. S. Kasibhatla, R. B. Jackson, G. J. Collatz, and J. T. Randerson, “CO2 emissions from forest loss,” Nat. Geosci. 2(11), 737–738 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, and J.-P. Champion, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-Based Highly Nonlinear Fibers and Their Application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 103–113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

R. Jiang, C.-S. Bres, N. Alic, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic, “Translation of Gbps Phase-Modulated Optical Signal From Near-Infrared to Visible Band,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 131–137 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Myslivets, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Spatially Resolved Measurement in Waveguides With Arbitrary Chromatic Dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(21), 1793–1795 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

R. Jiang, R. E. Saperstein, N. Alic, M. Nezhad, C. J. McKinstrie, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, and S. Radic, “Continuous-Wave Band Translation Between the Near-Infrared and Visible Spectral Ranges,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 58–66 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, and P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(48), 18925–18930 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kameyama, T. Ando, K. Asaka, Y. Hirano, and S. Wadaka, “Compact all-fiber pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind sensing,” Appl. Opt. 46(11), 1953–1962 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

M. E. Marhic, K. K.-Y. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Wide-Band Tuning of the Gain Spectra of One-Pump Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1133–1141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Koch, B. W. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Y. Beyon, F. Amzajerdian, J. Yu, R. E. Davis, S. Ismail, S. Vay, M. J. Kavaya, and U. N. Singh, “Coherent differential absorption lidar measurements of CO2.,” Appl. Opt. 43(26), 5092–5099 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. Lavrov, A. B. Utkin, R. Vilar, and A. Fernandes, “Applications of lidar in ultraviolet, visible, and infrared ranges for early forest fire detection,” Appl. Phys. B 76(1), 87–95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies and D. M. Tratt, “Differential laser absorption spectrometry for global profiling of tropospheric carbon dioxide: selection of optimum sounding frequencies for high-precision measurements,” Appl. Opt. 42(33), 6569–6577 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. O. Andreae and P. Merlet, “Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 15(4), 955–966 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Affum-Baffoe, K.

S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alic, N.

Amzajerdian, F.

Ando, T.

Andreae, M. O.

M. O. Andreae and P. Merlet, “Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 15(4), 955–966 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Andres, R. J.

J. S. Gregg, L. M. Losey, R. J. Andres, T. J. Blasing, and G. Marland, “The Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Use in North America,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 48(12), 2528–2542 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, A. E.

W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, and P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(48), 18925–18930 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aoki, S.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aparicio, J. M.

Asaka, K.

Baker, T. R.

S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balch, K.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, and J.-P. Champion, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, B. W.

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, and J.-P. Champion, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, and J.-P. Champion, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beyon, J. Y.

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, and J.-P. Champion, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blasing, T. J.

J. S. Gregg, L. M. Losey, R. J. Andres, T. J. Blasing, and G. Marland, “The Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Use in North America,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 48(12), 2528–2542 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boggio, J.

Bohman, A.

Boskovic, A.

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, and J.-P. Champion, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bousquet, P.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bres, C.-S.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, and J.-P. Champion, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bruhwiler, L.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruhwiler, L. M. P.

W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, and P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(48), 18925–18930 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, and J.-P. Champion, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J.-P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, and J.-P. Champion, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chavez Boggio, J. M.

Chernikov, S. V.

Ciais, P.

S. Piao, J. Fang, P. Ciais, P. Peylin, Y. Huang, S. Sitch, and T. Wang, “The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in China,” Nature 458(7241), 1009–1013 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collatz, G. J.

G. R. van der Werf, D. C. Morton, R. S. DeFries, J. G. J. Olivier, P. S. Kasibhatla, R. B. Jackson, G. J. Collatz, and J. T. Randerson, “CO2 emissions from forest loss,” Nat. Geosci. 2(11), 737–738 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Comiskey, J. A.

S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, and P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(48), 18925–18930 (2007).
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B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
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S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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Fang, J.

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S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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Flamant, P.

Ford, J. E.

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B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
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Gholami, F.

Gloor, M.

S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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Gurney, K. R.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
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S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
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Hirano, M.

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-Based Highly Nonlinear Fibers and Their Application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 103–113 (2009).
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W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, and P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(48), 18925–18930 (2007).
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S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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S. Piao, J. Fang, P. Ciais, P. Peylin, Y. Huang, S. Sitch, and T. Wang, “The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in China,” Nature 458(7241), 1009–1013 (2009).
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B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
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Jackson, R. B.

G. R. van der Werf, D. C. Morton, R. S. DeFries, J. G. J. Olivier, P. S. Kasibhatla, R. B. Jackson, G. J. Collatz, and J. T. Randerson, “CO2 emissions from forest loss,” Nat. Geosci. 2(11), 737–738 (2009).
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W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, and P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(48), 18925–18930 (2007).
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Jordan, A.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
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Kasibhatla, P. S.

G. R. van der Werf, D. C. Morton, R. S. DeFries, J. G. J. Olivier, P. S. Kasibhatla, R. B. Jackson, G. J. Collatz, and J. T. Randerson, “CO2 emissions from forest loss,” Nat. Geosci. 2(11), 737–738 (2009).
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Kaspersen, P.

Kavaya, M. J.

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M. E. Marhic, K. K.-Y. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Wide-Band Tuning of the Gain Spectra of One-Pump Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1133–1141 (2004).
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Krol, M. C.

W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, and P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(48), 18925–18930 (2007).
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Kuo, B. P.-P.

Langenfelds, R. L.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
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Lavrov, A.

A. Lavrov, A. B. Utkin, R. Vilar, and A. Fernandes, “Applications of lidar in ultraviolet, visible, and infrared ranges for early forest fire detection,” Appl. Phys. B 76(1), 87–95 (2003).
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Lefebvre, M.

Levring, O. A.

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S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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Lloyd, J.

S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
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Lopez-Gonzalez, G.

S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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Losey, L. M.

J. S. Gregg, L. M. Losey, R. J. Andres, T. J. Blasing, and G. Marland, “The Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Use in North America,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 48(12), 2528–2542 (2009).
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Lovett, J. C.

S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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Machida, T.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
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Makana, J.-R.

S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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M. E. Marhic, K. K.-Y. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Wide-Band Tuning of the Gain Spectra of One-Pump Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1133–1141 (2004).
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Marland, G.

J. S. Gregg, L. M. Losey, R. J. Andres, T. J. Blasing, and G. Marland, “The Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Use in North America,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 48(12), 2528–2542 (2009).
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Marnas, F.

Masarie, K.

W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, and P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(48), 18925–18930 (2007).
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S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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McKinstrie, C. J.

Menzies, R. T.

Merlet, P.

M. O. Andreae and P. Merlet, “Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 15(4), 955–966 (2001).
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G. R. van der Werf, D. C. Morton, R. S. DeFries, J. G. J. Olivier, P. S. Kasibhatla, R. B. Jackson, G. J. Collatz, and J. T. Randerson, “CO2 emissions from forest loss,” Nat. Geosci. 2(11), 737–738 (2009).
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R. Jiang, C.-S. Bres, N. Alic, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic, “Translation of Gbps Phase-Modulated Optical Signal From Near-Infrared to Visible Band,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 131–137 (2008).
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M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-Based Highly Nonlinear Fibers and Their Application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 103–113 (2009).
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B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
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S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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G. R. van der Werf, D. C. Morton, R. S. DeFries, J. G. J. Olivier, P. S. Kasibhatla, R. B. Jackson, G. J. Collatz, and J. T. Randerson, “CO2 emissions from forest loss,” Nat. Geosci. 2(11), 737–738 (2009).
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M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-Based Highly Nonlinear Fibers and Their Application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 103–113 (2009).
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S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, and P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(48), 18925–18930 (2007).
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W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, and P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(48), 18925–18930 (2007).
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Petros, M.

Peylin, P.

S. Piao, J. Fang, P. Ciais, P. Peylin, Y. Huang, S. Sitch, and T. Wang, “The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in China,” Nature 458(7241), 1009–1013 (2009).
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S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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S. Piao, J. Fang, P. Ciais, P. Peylin, Y. Huang, S. Sitch, and T. Wang, “The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in China,” Nature 458(7241), 1009–1013 (2009).
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Ramonet, M.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
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G. R. van der Werf, D. C. Morton, R. S. DeFries, J. G. J. Olivier, P. S. Kasibhatla, R. B. Jackson, G. J. Collatz, and J. T. Randerson, “CO2 emissions from forest loss,” Nat. Geosci. 2(11), 737–738 (2009).
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W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, and P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(48), 18925–18930 (2007).
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Raymer, M. G.

Reitsma, J. M.

S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, and J.-P. Champion, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Saperstein, R. E.

Schmid, T.

Sheil, D.

S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
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Singh, U. N.

Sitch, S.

S. Piao, J. Fang, P. Ciais, P. Peylin, Y. Huang, S. Sitch, and T. Wang, “The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in China,” Nature 458(7241), 1009–1013 (2009).
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S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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Stafford, R.

Steele, L. P.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
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B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
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Stossel, B.

Sunderland, T.

S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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Sweeney, C.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
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W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, and P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(48), 18925–18930 (2007).
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W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, and P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(48), 18925–18930 (2007).
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B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
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Taplin, J.

S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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Taylor, D.

S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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Taylor, J. R.

Thomas, S. C.

S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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Tratt, D. M.

Utkin, A. B.

A. Lavrov, A. B. Utkin, R. Vilar, and A. Fernandes, “Applications of lidar in ultraviolet, visible, and infrared ranges for early forest fire detection,” Appl. Phys. B 76(1), 87–95 (2003).
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G. R. van der Werf, D. C. Morton, R. S. DeFries, J. G. J. Olivier, P. S. Kasibhatla, R. B. Jackson, G. J. Collatz, and J. T. Randerson, “CO2 emissions from forest loss,” Nat. Geosci. 2(11), 737–738 (2009).
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W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, and P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(48), 18925–18930 (2007).
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Vay, S.

Vilar, R.

A. Lavrov, A. B. Utkin, R. Vilar, and A. Fernandes, “Applications of lidar in ultraviolet, visible, and infrared ranges for early forest fire detection,” Appl. Phys. B 76(1), 87–95 (2003).
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Vinnichenko, N.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
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Votere, R.

S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadaka, S.

Wang, T.

S. Piao, J. Fang, P. Ciais, P. Peylin, Y. Huang, S. Sitch, and T. Wang, “The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in China,” Nature 458(7241), 1009–1013 (2009).
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E. Nisbet and R. Weiss, “Atmospheric science: top-down versus bottom-up,” Science 328(5983), 1241–1243 (2010).
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Wennberg, P. O.

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S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonké, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, O. L. Phillips, J. M. Reitsma, L. White, J. A. Comiskey, M. N. Djuikouo K, C. E. N. Ewango, T. R. Feldpausch, A. C. Hamilton, M. Gloor, T. Hart, A. Hladik, J. Lloyd, J. C. Lovett, J.-R. Makana, Y. Malhi, F. M. Mbago, H. J. Ndangalasi, J. Peacock, K. S.-H. Peh, D. Sheil, T. Sunderland, M. D. Swaine, J. Taplin, D. Taylor, S. C. Thomas, R. Votere, and H. Wöll, “Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests,” Nature 457(7232), 1003–1006 (2009).
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M. E. Marhic, K. K.-Y. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Wide-Band Tuning of the Gain Spectra of One-Pump Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1133–1141 (2004).
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W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, and P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(48), 18925–18930 (2007).
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Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Lavrov, A. B. Utkin, R. Vilar, and A. Fernandes, “Applications of lidar in ultraviolet, visible, and infrared ranges for early forest fire detection,” Appl. Phys. B 76(1), 87–95 (2003).
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M. O. Andreae and P. Merlet, “Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 15(4), 955–966 (2001).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. E. Marhic, K. K.-Y. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Wide-Band Tuning of the Gain Spectra of One-Pump Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1133–1141 (2004).
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M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-Based Highly Nonlinear Fibers and Their Application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 103–113 (2009).
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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

E. Myslivets, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Spatially Resolved Measurement in Waveguides With Arbitrary Chromatic Dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(21), 1793–1795 (2008).
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J. S. Gregg, L. M. Losey, R. J. Andres, T. J. Blasing, and G. Marland, “The Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Use in North America,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 48(12), 2528–2542 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, and J.-P. Champion, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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G. R. van der Werf, D. C. Morton, R. S. DeFries, J. G. J. Olivier, P. S. Kasibhatla, R. B. Jackson, G. J. Collatz, and J. T. Randerson, “CO2 emissions from forest loss,” Nat. Geosci. 2(11), 737–738 (2009).
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Nature (2)

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Opt. Express (3)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, C. Sweeney, A. E. Andrews, T. J. Conway, K. Masarie, J. B. Miller, L. M. P. Bruhwiler, G. Pétron, A. I. Hirsch, D. E. J. Worthy, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, P. O. Wennberg, M. C. Krol, and P. P. Tans, “An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(48), 18925–18930 (2007).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup depicting (top) the parametric SWIR transmitter; (bottom left) the optical spectrum following NIR-to-SWIR conversion in HNLF; (bottom right) the optical spectrum following rejection of pump, signal, and excess amplified quantum noise; Acronyms: AM – amplitude modulator, EDFA – Erbium doped fiber amplifier, DWDM – dense wavelength division multiplexer, VOA – variable optical attenuator, Rx – optical receiver.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured conversion gain spectra for several different pump wavelength positions; (b) Measured conversion gain spectrum with pump wavelength optimized for peak conversion gain at 2051 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured idler optical spectra at four different positions; (b) CO2 absorption data obtained from HITRAN2008 database; (c) Measured idler pulses corresponding to the four different idler wavelengths shown in (a).

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