Abstract

Over the past years there has been increasing evidence that the CIE color rendering index R a fails to correspond to the perceived color quality of many light sources, especially some Light-Emitting-Diodes. Several proposals to update, complement or even replace the CIE R a have therefore been made. The performance of thirteen color quality metrics was evaluated by calculating the average correlation of the metric predictions with the visual scaling of the perceived color quality obtained in several psychophysical studies. Two aspects of perceived color quality were investigated, appreciation (preference or attractiveness) and naturalness. The memory color quality metric (S a) of Smet et al. was found to correlate highly with perceived appreciation (r = 0.88). It was found to be statistically better (p<0.0001) at it than all other metrics. The CIE R a performed the worst. A metric that combines the gamut area index (GAI) and the CIE R a using an arithmetic mean correlated highly with the perceived naturalness of a light source (r = 0.85). It was found to be statistically better at predicting naturalness than all other metrics (p<0.0001). A negative correlation was found, between the capabilities of a light source’s ability to predict appreciation and naturalness, indicating that a complete description of the color quality of a light source probably requires more than one metric.

© 2011 OSA

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2011

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Color appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, “The quality of light sources,” Color. Technol. 127, 75–87 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Bodrogi, S. Brückner, and T. Q. Khanh, “Ordinal scale based description of color rendering,” Color Res. Appl. n/a (2010).

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier, “Color rendering: Beyond pride and prejudice,” Color Res. Appl. 35(6), 401–409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Memory colors and color quality evaluation of conventional and solid-state lamps,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26229–26244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

S. Jost-Boissard, M. Fontoynont, and J. Blanc-Gonnet, “Perceived lighting quality of LED sources for the presentation of fruit and vegetables,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Approaches to color rendering measurement,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1412–1419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: A tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33(3), 192–202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, and K. I. Sohng, ““Factors of incomplete adaptation for color reproduction considering subjective white point shift for varying illuminant,” IEICE Trans. Fundamentals 91A, 1438–1442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. Hashimoto, T. Yano, M. Shimizu, and Y. Nayatani, “New method for specifying color-rendering properties of light sources based on feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl. 32(5), 361–371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and C. Li, “Uniform color spaces based on CIECAM02 color appearance model,” Color Res. Appl. 31(4), 320–330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. Ohno, “Spectral design considerations for white LED color rendering,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 111302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

X. Guo and K. W. Houser, “A review of color rendering indices and their application to commercial light sources,” Lighting Res. Tech. 36(3), 183–199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

C. Li, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and R. W. G. Hunt, “CMC 2000 chromatic adaptation transform: CMCCAT2000,” Color Res. Appl. 27(1), 49–58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

L. V. Hedges and J. L. Vevea, “Fixed- and random-effects models in meta-analysis,” Psychol. Methods 3(4), 486–504 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992

X. L. Meng, R. Rosenthal, and D. B. Rubin, “Comparing correlated correlation coefficients,” Psychol. Bull. 111(1), 172–175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1972

W. A. Thornton, “A validation of the color preference index,” Illum. Eng. 62, 191–194 (1972).

W. A. Thornton, “Color-discrimination index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62(2), 191–194 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967

D. B. Judd, “A flattery index for artificial illuminants,” Illum. Eng. 62, 593–598 (1967).

1965

D. Nickerson and C. W. Jerome, “Color rendering of light sources: CIE method of specification and its application,” Illum. Eng. 60, 262–271 (1965).

1959

C. L. Sanders, “Color preferences for natural objects,” Illum. Eng. 54, 452–456 (1959).

1957

Blanc-Gonnet, J.

S. Jost-Boissard, M. Fontoynont, and J. Blanc-Gonnet, “Perceived lighting quality of LED sources for the presentation of fruit and vegetables,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bodrogi, P.

P. Bodrogi, S. Brückner, and T. Q. Khanh, “Ordinal scale based description of color rendering,” Color Res. Appl. n/a (2010).

Brückner, S.

P. Bodrogi, S. Brückner, and T. Q. Khanh, “Ordinal scale based description of color rendering,” Color Res. Appl. n/a (2010).

Burnham, R. W.

Clark, J. R.

Cui, G.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and C. Li, “Uniform color spaces based on CIECAM02 color appearance model,” Color Res. Appl. 31(4), 320–330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davis, W.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Approaches to color rendering measurement,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1412–1419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deconinck, G.

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Color appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Memory colors and color quality evaluation of conventional and solid-state lamps,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26229–26244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fontoynont, M.

S. Jost-Boissard, M. Fontoynont, and J. Blanc-Gonnet, “Perceived lighting quality of LED sources for the presentation of fruit and vegetables,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Freyssinier, J. P.

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier, “Color rendering: Beyond pride and prejudice,” Color Res. Appl. 35(6), 401–409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: A tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33(3), 192–202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

X. Guo and K. W. Houser, “A review of color rendering indices and their application to commercial light sources,” Lighting Res. Tech. 36(3), 183–199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hanselaer, P.

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Color appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Memory colors and color quality evaluation of conventional and solid-state lamps,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26229–26244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hashimoto, K.

K. Hashimoto, T. Yano, M. Shimizu, and Y. Nayatani, “New method for specifying color-rendering properties of light sources based on feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl. 32(5), 361–371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hedges, L. V.

L. V. Hedges and J. L. Vevea, “Fixed- and random-effects models in meta-analysis,” Psychol. Methods 3(4), 486–504 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Houser, K. W.

X. Guo and K. W. Houser, “A review of color rendering indices and their application to commercial light sources,” Lighting Res. Tech. 36(3), 183–199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, R. W. G.

C. Li, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and R. W. G. Hunt, “CMC 2000 chromatic adaptation transform: CMCCAT2000,” Color Res. Appl. 27(1), 49–58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jerome, C. W.

D. Nickerson and C. W. Jerome, “Color rendering of light sources: CIE method of specification and its application,” Illum. Eng. 60, 262–271 (1965).

Jost-Boissard, S.

S. Jost-Boissard, M. Fontoynont, and J. Blanc-Gonnet, “Perceived lighting quality of LED sources for the presentation of fruit and vegetables,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, “A flattery index for artificial illuminants,” Illum. Eng. 62, 593–598 (1967).

Khanh, T. Q.

P. Bodrogi, S. Brückner, and T. Q. Khanh, “Ordinal scale based description of color rendering,” Color Res. Appl. n/a (2010).

Lee, M. H.

S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, and K. I. Sohng, ““Factors of incomplete adaptation for color reproduction considering subjective white point shift for varying illuminant,” IEICE Trans. Fundamentals 91A, 1438–1442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, and K. I. Sohng, ““Factors of incomplete adaptation for color reproduction considering subjective white point shift for varying illuminant,” IEICE Trans. Fundamentals 91A, 1438–1442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and C. Li, “Uniform color spaces based on CIECAM02 color appearance model,” Color Res. Appl. 31(4), 320–330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and R. W. G. Hunt, “CMC 2000 chromatic adaptation transform: CMCCAT2000,” Color Res. Appl. 27(1), 49–58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, M. R.

M. R. Luo, “The quality of light sources,” Color. Technol. 127, 75–87 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and C. Li, “Uniform color spaces based on CIECAM02 color appearance model,” Color Res. Appl. 31(4), 320–330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and R. W. G. Hunt, “CMC 2000 chromatic adaptation transform: CMCCAT2000,” Color Res. Appl. 27(1), 49–58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meng, X. L.

X. L. Meng, R. Rosenthal, and D. B. Rubin, “Comparing correlated correlation coefficients,” Psychol. Bull. 111(1), 172–175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nayatani, Y.

K. Hashimoto, T. Yano, M. Shimizu, and Y. Nayatani, “New method for specifying color-rendering properties of light sources based on feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl. 32(5), 361–371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Newhall, S. M.

Nickerson, D.

D. Nickerson and C. W. Jerome, “Color rendering of light sources: CIE method of specification and its application,” Illum. Eng. 60, 262–271 (1965).

Ohno, Y.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Approaches to color rendering measurement,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1412–1419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohno, “Spectral design considerations for white LED color rendering,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 111302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pointer, M. R.

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Color appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Memory colors and color quality evaluation of conventional and solid-state lamps,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26229–26244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rea, M. S.

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier, “Color rendering: Beyond pride and prejudice,” Color Res. Appl. 35(6), 401–409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: A tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33(3), 192–202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rigg, B.

C. Li, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and R. W. G. Hunt, “CMC 2000 chromatic adaptation transform: CMCCAT2000,” Color Res. Appl. 27(1), 49–58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rosenthal, R.

X. L. Meng, R. Rosenthal, and D. B. Rubin, “Comparing correlated correlation coefficients,” Psychol. Bull. 111(1), 172–175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D. B.

X. L. Meng, R. Rosenthal, and D. B. Rubin, “Comparing correlated correlation coefficients,” Psychol. Bull. 111(1), 172–175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ryckaert, W. R.

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Color appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Memory colors and color quality evaluation of conventional and solid-state lamps,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26229–26244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanders, C. L.

C. L. Sanders, “Color preferences for natural objects,” Illum. Eng. 54, 452–456 (1959).

Shimizu, M.

K. Hashimoto, T. Yano, M. Shimizu, and Y. Nayatani, “New method for specifying color-rendering properties of light sources based on feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl. 32(5), 361–371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smet, K.

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Color appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Smet, K. A. G.

Sohng, K. I.

S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, and K. I. Sohng, ““Factors of incomplete adaptation for color reproduction considering subjective white point shift for varying illuminant,” IEICE Trans. Fundamentals 91A, 1438–1442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, W. A.

W. A. Thornton, “A validation of the color preference index,” Illum. Eng. 62, 191–194 (1972).

W. A. Thornton, “Color-discrimination index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62(2), 191–194 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vevea, J. L.

L. V. Hedges and J. L. Vevea, “Fixed- and random-effects models in meta-analysis,” Psychol. Methods 3(4), 486–504 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yano, T.

K. Hashimoto, T. Yano, M. Shimizu, and Y. Nayatani, “New method for specifying color-rendering properties of light sources based on feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl. 32(5), 361–371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Color Res. Appl.

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Color appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and C. Li, “Uniform color spaces based on CIECAM02 color appearance model,” Color Res. Appl. 31(4), 320–330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and R. W. G. Hunt, “CMC 2000 chromatic adaptation transform: CMCCAT2000,” Color Res. Appl. 27(1), 49–58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Bodrogi, S. Brückner, and T. Q. Khanh, “Ordinal scale based description of color rendering,” Color Res. Appl. n/a (2010).

K. Hashimoto, T. Yano, M. Shimizu, and Y. Nayatani, “New method for specifying color-rendering properties of light sources based on feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl. 32(5), 361–371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: A tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33(3), 192–202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier, “Color rendering: Beyond pride and prejudice,” Color Res. Appl. 35(6), 401–409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Color. Technol.

M. R. Luo, “The quality of light sources,” Color. Technol. 127, 75–87 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Fundamentals

S. H. Lee, M. H. Lee, and K. I. Sohng, ““Factors of incomplete adaptation for color reproduction considering subjective white point shift for varying illuminant,” IEICE Trans. Fundamentals 91A, 1438–1442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Illum. Eng.

C. L. Sanders, “Color preferences for natural objects,” Illum. Eng. 54, 452–456 (1959).

D. B. Judd, “A flattery index for artificial illuminants,” Illum. Eng. 62, 593–598 (1967).

W. A. Thornton, “A validation of the color preference index,” Illum. Eng. 62, 191–194 (1972).

D. Nickerson and C. W. Jerome, “Color rendering of light sources: CIE method of specification and its application,” Illum. Eng. 60, 262–271 (1965).

J. Mod. Opt.

S. Jost-Boissard, M. Fontoynont, and J. Blanc-Gonnet, “Perceived lighting quality of LED sources for the presentation of fruit and vegetables,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1420 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Approaches to color rendering measurement,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1412–1419 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Lighting Res. Tech.

X. Guo and K. W. Houser, “A review of color rendering indices and their application to commercial light sources,” Lighting Res. Tech. 36(3), 183–199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohno, “Spectral design considerations for white LED color rendering,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 111302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Psychol. Bull.

X. L. Meng, R. Rosenthal, and D. B. Rubin, “Comparing correlated correlation coefficients,” Psychol. Bull. 111(1), 172–175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Psychol. Methods

L. V. Hedges and J. L. Vevea, “Fixed- and random-effects models in meta-analysis,” Psychol. Methods 3(4), 486–504 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. E. Hunter, and F. L. Schmidt, Methods of Meta-analysis:Correcting Error and Bias in Research Findings (Sage Publications, Inc., Newbury Park, CA, 2004).

A. Field, Discovering Statistics Using SPSS (SAGE Publications Ltd, London, UK, 2009).

L. V. Hedges, and I. Olkin, Statistical Methods for Meta-analysis (Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1985).

D. Farnsworth, The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test for the Examination of Color Discrimination (Munsell Color Company, Inc., 1957).

S. A. Fotios, “The perception of light sources of different color properties,” (Univ. of Manchester, Inst. of Sci. and Technol., Manchester, UK, 1997).

N. Narendran, and L. Deng, “Color Rendering Properties of LED Light Sources,” in Solid State Lighting II: Proceedings of SPIE (2002).

S. Jost-Boissard, M. Fontoynont, and J. Blanc-Gonnet, Personal communication (2009).

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Tables (4)

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Table 1 Scalings of Perceived Color Quality of All Light Sources in Visual Experiments

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Table 2 Spearman Correlation Coefficients Between Metric Predictions and Visual Scalings of Perceived Color Quality of Individual Studies a

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Table 3 Cross Comparison of Predictive Performance of Metrics a

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Table 4 Erroneous Transpositions Between Rank Order Found in Psychophysical Studies and Rank Order Predicted by Metrics a

Equations (14)

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R i   =   100 4.6   Δ E i .
R a = i = 1 8 R i .
R C R I = 100 ( N 1 + N 2 17 ) 1 3 .
F C I = 100 ( G A t e s t s o u r c e G A D 65 ) 3 2 .
G A I = 100 G A t e s t s o u r c e G A E E S .
G A I _ R a = G A I + R a 2 .
C S A = π r ( 1 + r L ) ,  with  r = G A π  and  L = 1 w ' 2 ;   w ' = 1 ( u + v ) .
S i   ( X i ) =   e   1 2   [ ( X i a i,1 ) T ( a i,3 a i,5 a i,5 a i,4 )   ( X i a i,2 ) ]       ( i = 1..10 ) .
S a =   i = 1 n S i n .
R f = 100 4.6 Δ E f , k ¯ .
C P I = 156 7.18 Δ E ¯ ,
r ¯ = i = 1 K N i r i / i = 1 K N i ,
S E r = 1 K ( i = 1 K N i ( r i r ¯ ) 2 i = 1 K N i i = 1 K ( 1 r ¯ 2 ) 2 N ¯ 1 ) .
Z r = r ¯ S E r .

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