Abstract

In this paper, we use numerical simulations to show that the symbol rate has a significant effect on the nonlinearity-limited performance of coherent optical communication systems. We consider the case where orthogonal subcarriers are used to maximize the spectral efficiency. Symbol rates from 0.78125 Gbaud to 100 Gbaud and links of up to 3200 km, without inline dispersion compensation, were simulated. The results show that the optimal symbol rates for the 800-km link and 3200-km link were 6.25-Gbaud and 3.125-Gbaud respectively. The optimal baud rate decreases as the length of the link is increased. After 3200 km, the performance of the 100-Gbaud system was worst in the nonlinearity-limited regime producing a received Q 2.4-dB lower than the 3.125-Gband system. The variation in the nonlinearity-limited performance is explained by using Cross-Phase-Modulation (XPM) theory and by considering the RF spectra of the intensity fluctuations of the signal along the link. The findings of the paper suggest that the maximum capacity of nonlinear dispersive optical links can only be achieved by using multiple subcarriers carrying a few Gbaud each, and not by high symbol rate systems.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, and D. W. Peckham, “448-Gb/s Reduced-Guard-Interval CO-OFDM Transmission Over 2000 km of Ultra-Large-Area Fiber and Five 80-GHz-Grid ROADMs,” Lightwave Technology Journalism 29, 483–490 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X. Li, X. Chen, G. Goldfarb, E. Mateo, I. Kim, F. Yaman, and G. Li, “Electronic post-compensation of WDM transmission impairments using coherent detection and digital signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(2), 880–888 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R.-J. Essiambre, G. J. Foschini, G. Kramer, and P. J. Winzer, “Capacity limits of information transport in fiber-optic networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(16), 163901 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. D. Ellis, Z. Jian, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 423–433 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Forghieri, “Granularity in WDM networks: the role of fiber nonlinearities,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(10), 1400–1402 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G.-D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 64–72 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 42(10), 587–589 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, and Y. Takatori, “No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3705–3713 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. D. Ellis and F. C. G. Gunning, “Spectral density enhancement using coherent WDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 504–506 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance Limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in High-Speed PM-QPSK Systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 1.2-Tb/s multicarrier no-guard-interval CO-OFDM superchannel using ultra-large-area fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 826–828 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. K. Chiang, N. Kagi, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Cross-phase modulation in fiber links with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 249–260 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Shieh and T. Yan, “Ultrahigh-Speed Signal Transmission Over Nonlinear and Dispersive Fiber Optic Channel: The Multicarrier Advantage,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 276–283 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Goebel, S. Hellerbrand, and N. Hanik, “Link-aware precoding for nonlinear optical OFDM transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2010), OTuE4.
  15. L. B. Du and A. J. Lowery, “Improved nonlinearity precompensation for long-haul high-data-rate transmission using coherent optical OFDM,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19920–19925 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. Rafique and A. D. Ellis, “Impact of signal-ASE four-wave mixing on the effectiveness of digital back-propagation in 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK systems,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3449–3454 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. Ip and J. M. Kahn, “Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital backpropagation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(20), 3416–3425 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, and D. W. Peckham, “448-Gb/s Reduced-Guard-Interval CO-OFDM Transmission Over 2000 km of Ultra-Large-Area Fiber and Five 80-GHz-Grid ROADMs,” Lightwave Technology Journalism 29, 483–490 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Rafique and A. D. Ellis, “Impact of signal-ASE four-wave mixing on the effectiveness of digital back-propagation in 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK systems,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3449–3454 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance Limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in High-Speed PM-QPSK Systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 1.2-Tb/s multicarrier no-guard-interval CO-OFDM superchannel using ultra-large-area fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 826–828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Ellis, Z. Jian, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 423–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Shieh and T. Yan, “Ultrahigh-Speed Signal Transmission Over Nonlinear and Dispersive Fiber Optic Channel: The Multicarrier Advantage,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 276–283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

2006

W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 42(10), 587–589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. D. Ellis and F. C. G. Gunning, “Spectral density enhancement using coherent WDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 504–506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1996

F. Forghieri, “Granularity in WDM networks: the role of fiber nonlinearities,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(10), 1400–1402 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Chiang, N. Kagi, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Cross-phase modulation in fiber links with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 249–260 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Athaudage, C.

W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 42(10), 587–589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bosco, G.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance Limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in High-Speed PM-QPSK Systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carena, A.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance Limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in High-Speed PM-QPSK Systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, and D. W. Peckham, “448-Gb/s Reduced-Guard-Interval CO-OFDM Transmission Over 2000 km of Ultra-Large-Area Fiber and Five 80-GHz-Grid ROADMs,” Lightwave Technology Journalism 29, 483–490 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 1.2-Tb/s multicarrier no-guard-interval CO-OFDM superchannel using ultra-large-area fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 826–828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Chiang, T. K.

T. K. Chiang, N. Kagi, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Cross-phase modulation in fiber links with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 249–260 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cotter, D.

Curri, V.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance Limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in High-Speed PM-QPSK Systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De Man, E.

de Waardt, H.

Du, L. B.

Duthel, T.

Ellis, A. D.

Essiambre, R.-J.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. J. Foschini, G. Kramer, and P. J. Winzer, “Capacity limits of information transport in fiber-optic networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(16), 163901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fludger, C. S.

Forghieri, F.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance Limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in High-Speed PM-QPSK Systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Forghieri, “Granularity in WDM networks: the role of fiber nonlinearities,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(10), 1400–1402 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Foschini, G. J.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. J. Foschini, G. Kramer, and P. J. Winzer, “Capacity limits of information transport in fiber-optic networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(16), 163901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geyer, J.

Gnauck, A. H.

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, and D. W. Peckham, “448-Gb/s Reduced-Guard-Interval CO-OFDM Transmission Over 2000 km of Ultra-Large-Area Fiber and Five 80-GHz-Grid ROADMs,” Lightwave Technology Journalism 29, 483–490 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Goldfarb, G.

Gunning, F. C. G.

A. D. Ellis and F. C. G. Gunning, “Spectral density enhancement using coherent WDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 504–506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ip, E.

Ishihara, K.

Jian, Z.

Kagi, N.

T. K. Chiang, N. Kagi, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Cross-phase modulation in fiber links with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 249–260 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, J. M.

Kazovsky, L. G.

T. K. Chiang, N. Kagi, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Cross-phase modulation in fiber links with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 249–260 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Khoe, G.-D.

Kim, I.

Kobayashi, T.

Kramer, G.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. J. Foschini, G. Kramer, and P. J. Winzer, “Capacity limits of information transport in fiber-optic networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(16), 163901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kudo, R.

Li, G.

Li, X.

Lingle, R.

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 1.2-Tb/s multicarrier no-guard-interval CO-OFDM superchannel using ultra-large-area fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 826–828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, and D. W. Peckham, “448-Gb/s Reduced-Guard-Interval CO-OFDM Transmission Over 2000 km of Ultra-Large-Area Fiber and Five 80-GHz-Grid ROADMs,” Lightwave Technology Journalism 29, 483–490 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 1.2-Tb/s multicarrier no-guard-interval CO-OFDM superchannel using ultra-large-area fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 826–828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lowery, A. J.

Marhic, M. E.

T. K. Chiang, N. Kagi, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Cross-phase modulation in fiber links with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 249–260 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, H.

Mateo, E.

Miyamoto, Y.

Peckham, D. W.

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, and D. W. Peckham, “448-Gb/s Reduced-Guard-Interval CO-OFDM Transmission Over 2000 km of Ultra-Large-Area Fiber and Five 80-GHz-Grid ROADMs,” Lightwave Technology Journalism 29, 483–490 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 1.2-Tb/s multicarrier no-guard-interval CO-OFDM superchannel using ultra-large-area fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 826–828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Poggiolini, P.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance Limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in High-Speed PM-QPSK Systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rafique, D.

Sano, A.

Schmidt, E.-D.

Schulien, C.

Shieh, W.

W. Shieh and T. Yan, “Ultrahigh-Speed Signal Transmission Over Nonlinear and Dispersive Fiber Optic Channel: The Multicarrier Advantage,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 276–283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 42(10), 587–589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takatori, Y.

van den Borne, D.

Winzer, P. J.

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, and D. W. Peckham, “448-Gb/s Reduced-Guard-Interval CO-OFDM Transmission Over 2000 km of Ultra-Large-Area Fiber and Five 80-GHz-Grid ROADMs,” Lightwave Technology Journalism 29, 483–490 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R.-J. Essiambre, G. J. Foschini, G. Kramer, and P. J. Winzer, “Capacity limits of information transport in fiber-optic networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(16), 163901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wuth, T.

Yamada, E.

Yaman, F.

Yamazaki, E.

Yan, T.

W. Shieh and T. Yan, “Ultrahigh-Speed Signal Transmission Over Nonlinear and Dispersive Fiber Optic Channel: The Multicarrier Advantage,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 276–283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, E.

Zhu, B.

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, and D. W. Peckham, “448-Gb/s Reduced-Guard-Interval CO-OFDM Transmission Over 2000 km of Ultra-Large-Area Fiber and Five 80-GHz-Grid ROADMs,” Lightwave Technology Journalism 29, 483–490 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 1.2-Tb/s multicarrier no-guard-interval CO-OFDM superchannel using ultra-large-area fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 826–828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 42(10), 587–589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

W. Shieh and T. Yan, “Ultrahigh-Speed Signal Transmission Over Nonlinear and Dispersive Fiber Optic Channel: The Multicarrier Advantage,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 276–283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

F. Forghieri, “Granularity in WDM networks: the role of fiber nonlinearities,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(10), 1400–1402 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Ellis and F. C. G. Gunning, “Spectral density enhancement using coherent WDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 504–506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance Limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in High-Speed PM-QPSK Systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 1.2-Tb/s multicarrier no-guard-interval CO-OFDM superchannel using ultra-large-area fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 826–828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Lightwave Technology Journalism

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, and D. W. Peckham, “448-Gb/s Reduced-Guard-Interval CO-OFDM Transmission Over 2000 km of Ultra-Large-Area Fiber and Five 80-GHz-Grid ROADMs,” Lightwave Technology Journalism 29, 483–490 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. J. Foschini, G. Kramer, and P. J. Winzer, “Capacity limits of information transport in fiber-optic networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(16), 163901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

B. Goebel, S. Hellerbrand, and N. Hanik, “Link-aware precoding for nonlinear optical OFDM transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2010), OTuE4.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulation setup: inserts show typical optical spectra at various points.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Received Q against launch power after 1600 km and 3200 km for four different symbol rates.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Received Q against subcarrier symbol rate at 2-dBm launch power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectra of the intensity waveform; the resolution bandwidth was set to 50 MHz. Note the different frequency scales, chosen to highlight the low-frequency fluctuations.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η X P M = α 2 α 2 + ( ω . D . Δ λ ) 2 [ 1 + 4 sin 2 ( ω . D . Δ λ . L 2 ) . e α L ( 1 e α L ) 2 ] sin ( N . ω . D . Δ λ . L 2 ) sin ( ω . D . Δ λ . L 2 )

Metrics