Abstract

The experimental characterization of the coherence properties of hard X-ray sources is reported and discussed. The source is described by its Mutual Optical Intensity (MOI). The coherent-mode decomposition is applied to the MOI described by a Gaussian-Schell model. The method allows for a direct, quantitative characterization of the degree of coherence of both synchrotron and laboratory sources. The latter represents the first example of characterizing a low coherence hard x-ray source.

© 2011 OSA

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2009 (2)

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent X-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 018101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. De Caro, C. Giannini, D. Pelliccia, C. Mocuta, T. Metzger, A. Guagliardi, A. Cedola, I. Burkeeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line holography and coherent diffractive imaging with x-ray waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 081408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(5), 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A 73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (4)

A. Y. Nikulin, R. A. Dilanian, N. A. Zatsepin, B. M. Gable, B. C. Muddle, A. Y. Souvorov, Y. Nishino, and T. Ishikawa, “3-D X-ray diffraction imaging with nanoscale resolution using incoherent radiation,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1246–1250 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay X-ray holography,” Nature 448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Q. Tran, G. J. Williams, A. Roberts, S. Flewett, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, M. D. de Jonge, and K. A. Nugent, “Experimental measurement of the four-dimensional coherence function for an undulator x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(22), 224801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent diffractive imaging and partial coherence,” Phys. Rev. B 75(10), 104102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional mapping of a deformation field inside a nanocrystal,” Nature 442(7098), 63–66 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

I. A. Vartanyants, I. K. Robinson, J. D. Onken, M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, F. Pfeiffer, T. H. Metzger, Z. Zhong, and G. Bauer, “Coherent x-ray diffraction from quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 71(24), 245302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. W. Miao, T. Ishikawa, B. Johnson, E. H. Anderson, B. Lai, and K. O. Hodgson, “High resolution 3D x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(8), 088303 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, and T. Ishikawa, “Characterization of the transverse coherence of hard synchrotron radiation by intensity interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(14), 140801 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Leitenberger, S. M. Kuznetsov, and A. Snigirev, “Interferometric measurements with hard X-rays using a double slit,” Opt. Commun. 191(1-2), 91–96 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “Direct measurement of transverse coherence length of hard X rays from interference fringes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(13), 2745–2748 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

R. Coïsson and S. Marchesini, “Gauss-schell sources as models for synchrotron radiation,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 4(Pt 5), 263–266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Cloetens, J. P. Guigay, C. De Martino, J. Baruchel, and M. Schlenker, “Fractional Talbot imaging of phase gratings with hard x rays,” Opt. Lett. 22(14), 1059–1061 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (2)

1978 (1)

1972 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttg.) 35, 227–246 (1972).

Abbey, B.

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A 73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[PubMed]

Anderson, E. H.

J. W. Miao, T. Ishikawa, B. Johnson, E. H. Anderson, B. Lai, and K. O. Hodgson, “High resolution 3D x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(8), 088303 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artyukhin, A. B.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(5), 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajt, S.

H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay X-ray holography,” Nature 448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Balaur, E.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barty, A.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(5), 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay X-ray holography,” Nature 448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baruchel, J.

Bauer, G.

I. A. Vartanyants, I. K. Robinson, J. D. Onken, M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, F. Pfeiffer, T. H. Metzger, Z. Zhong, and G. Bauer, “Coherent x-ray diffraction from quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 71(24), 245302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, T.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(5), 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beetz, T.

Benner, W. H.

H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay X-ray holography,” Nature 448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bergh, M.

H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay X-ray holography,” Nature 448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay X-ray holography,” Nature 448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
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H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

He, H.

Hodgson, K. O.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Miao, T. Ishikawa, B. Johnson, E. H. Anderson, B. Lai, and K. O. Hodgson, “High resolution 3D x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(8), 088303 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(5), 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay X-ray holography,” Nature 448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(5), 055501 (2008).
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Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent X-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 018101 (2009).
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Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent X-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 018101 (2009).
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A. Y. Nikulin, R. A. Dilanian, N. A. Zatsepin, B. M. Gable, B. C. Muddle, A. Y. Souvorov, Y. Nishino, and T. Ishikawa, “3-D X-ray diffraction imaging with nanoscale resolution using incoherent radiation,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1246–1250 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Miao, T. Ishikawa, B. Johnson, E. H. Anderson, B. Lai, and K. O. Hodgson, “High resolution 3D x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(8), 088303 (2002).
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M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, and T. Ishikawa, “Characterization of the transverse coherence of hard synchrotron radiation by intensity interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(14), 140801 (2001).
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Johnson, B.

J. W. Miao, T. Ishikawa, B. Johnson, E. H. Anderson, B. Lai, and K. O. Hodgson, “High resolution 3D x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(8), 088303 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinney, J. H.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(5), 055501 (2008).
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Kirz, J.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
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H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay X-ray holography,” Nature 448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
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L. De Caro, C. Giannini, D. Pelliccia, C. Mocuta, T. Metzger, A. Guagliardi, A. Cedola, I. Burkeeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line holography and coherent diffractive imaging with x-ray waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 081408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lai, B.

J. W. Miao, T. Ishikawa, B. Johnson, E. H. Anderson, B. Lai, and K. O. Hodgson, “High resolution 3D x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(8), 088303 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, R. W.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
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W. Leitenberger, S. M. Kuznetsov, and A. Snigirev, “Interferometric measurements with hard X-rays using a double slit,” Opt. Commun. 191(1-2), 91–96 (2001).
[CrossRef]

London, R. A.

H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay X-ray holography,” Nature 448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maeshima, K.

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent X-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 018101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maia, F. R. N. C.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marchesini, S.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(5), 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay X-ray holography,” Nature 448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 1179–1200 (2006).
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R. Coïsson and S. Marchesini, “Gauss-schell sources as models for synchrotron radiation,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 4(Pt 5), 263–266 (1997).
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L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 394–398 (2008).
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Metzger, T.

L. De Caro, C. Giannini, D. Pelliccia, C. Mocuta, T. Metzger, A. Guagliardi, A. Cedola, I. Burkeeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line holography and coherent diffractive imaging with x-ray waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 081408 (2008).
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Metzger, T. H.

I. A. Vartanyants, I. K. Robinson, J. D. Onken, M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, F. Pfeiffer, T. H. Metzger, Z. Zhong, and G. Bauer, “Coherent x-ray diffraction from quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 71(24), 245302 (2005).
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Miao, J.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miao, J. W.

J. W. Miao, T. Ishikawa, B. Johnson, E. H. Anderson, B. Lai, and K. O. Hodgson, “High resolution 3D x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(8), 088303 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minor, A. M.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(5), 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mocuta, C.

L. De Caro, C. Giannini, D. Pelliccia, C. Mocuta, T. Metzger, A. Guagliardi, A. Cedola, I. Burkeeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line holography and coherent diffractive imaging with x-ray waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 081408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Möller, T.

H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay X-ray holography,” Nature 448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
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A. Y. Nikulin, R. A. Dilanian, N. A. Zatsepin, B. M. Gable, B. C. Muddle, A. Y. Souvorov, Y. Nishino, and T. Ishikawa, “3-D X-ray diffraction imaging with nanoscale resolution using incoherent radiation,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1246–1250 (2007).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishino, Y.

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent X-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 018101 (2009).
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A. Y. Nikulin, R. A. Dilanian, N. A. Zatsepin, B. M. Gable, B. C. Muddle, A. Y. Souvorov, Y. Nishino, and T. Ishikawa, “3-D X-ray diffraction imaging with nanoscale resolution using incoherent radiation,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1246–1250 (2007).
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Noy, A.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(5), 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 1179–1200 (2006).
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L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 394–398 (2008).
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G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A 73(10), 949–957 (2008).
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van Buuren, T.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(5), 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Spoel, D.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van der Veen, J. F.

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vartanyants, I.

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vartanyants, I. A.

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional mapping of a deformation field inside a nanocrystal,” Nature 442(7098), 63–66 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Vartanyants, I. K. Robinson, J. D. Onken, M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, F. Pfeiffer, T. H. Metzger, Z. Zhong, and G. Bauer, “Coherent x-ray diffraction from quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 71(24), 245302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vine, D. J.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, S.

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A 73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[PubMed]

Weierstall, U.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(5), 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, T.

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitehead, L. W.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Willey, T.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(5), 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, G. J.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A 73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[PubMed]

C. Q. Tran, G. J. Williams, A. Roberts, S. Flewett, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, M. D. de Jonge, and K. A. Nugent, “Experimental measurement of the four-dimensional coherence function for an undulator x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(22), 224801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent diffractive imaging and partial coherence,” Phys. Rev. B 75(10), 104102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional mapping of a deformation field inside a nanocrystal,” Nature 442(7098), 63–66 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Vartanyants, I. K. Robinson, J. D. Onken, M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, F. Pfeiffer, T. H. Metzger, Z. Zhong, and G. Bauer, “Coherent x-ray diffraction from quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 71(24), 245302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

Woods, B. W.

H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay X-ray holography,” Nature 448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yabashi, M.

M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, and T. Ishikawa, “Characterization of the transverse coherence of hard synchrotron radiation by intensity interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(14), 140801 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zatsepin, N. A.

A. Y. Nikulin, R. A. Dilanian, N. A. Zatsepin, B. M. Gable, B. C. Muddle, A. Y. Souvorov, Y. Nishino, and T. Ishikawa, “3-D X-ray diffraction imaging with nanoscale resolution using incoherent radiation,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1246–1250 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, Z.

I. A. Vartanyants, I. K. Robinson, J. D. Onken, M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, F. Pfeiffer, T. H. Metzger, Z. Zhong, and G. Bauer, “Coherent x-ray diffraction from quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 71(24), 245302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cytometry A (1)

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A 73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

R. Coïsson and S. Marchesini, “Gauss-schell sources as models for synchrotron radiation,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 4(Pt 5), 263–266 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

A. Y. Nikulin, R. A. Dilanian, N. A. Zatsepin, B. M. Gable, B. C. Muddle, A. Y. Souvorov, Y. Nishino, and T. Ishikawa, “3-D X-ray diffraction imaging with nanoscale resolution using incoherent radiation,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1246–1250 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (2)

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, S. Boutet, S. Marchesini, M. Frank, B. W. Woods, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, U. Rohner, A. Szöke, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, D. A. Shapiro, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, E. Plönjes, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond time-delay X-ray holography,” Nature 448(7154), 676–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional mapping of a deformation field inside a nanocrystal,” Nature 442(7098), 63–66 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Leitenberger, S. M. Kuznetsov, and A. Snigirev, “Interferometric measurements with hard X-rays using a double slit,” Opt. Commun. 191(1-2), 91–96 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optik (Stuttg.) (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttg.) 35, 227–246 (1972).

Phys. Rev. B (3)

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent diffractive imaging and partial coherence,” Phys. Rev. B 75(10), 104102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. De Caro, C. Giannini, D. Pelliccia, C. Mocuta, T. Metzger, A. Guagliardi, A. Cedola, I. Burkeeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line holography and coherent diffractive imaging with x-ray waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 081408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Vartanyants, I. K. Robinson, J. D. Onken, M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, F. Pfeiffer, T. H. Metzger, Z. Zhong, and G. Bauer, “Coherent x-ray diffraction from quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 71(24), 245302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(5), 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent X-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 018101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, and T. Ishikawa, “Characterization of the transverse coherence of hard synchrotron radiation by intensity interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(14), 140801 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Tran, G. J. Williams, A. Roberts, S. Flewett, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, M. D. de Jonge, and K. A. Nugent, “Experimental measurement of the four-dimensional coherence function for an undulator x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(22), 224801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and A. Snigirev, “Direct measurement of transverse coherence length of hard X rays from interference fringes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(13), 2745–2748 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Miao, T. Ishikawa, B. Johnson, E. H. Anderson, B. Lai, and K. O. Hodgson, “High resolution 3D x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(8), 088303 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. C. Schell, Multiple Plate Antenna, Ph.D. Thesis (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1961).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup (not to scale).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SEM picture of the first sample used for the laboratory measured. (b) Measured diffraction pattern from the sample in (a) (black curve) superimposed to the calculated intensity pattern (red curve) obtained using a GS model with σ = 30 μm and μ = 1.6 μm. (c) Relative weight of the first 90 modes, calculated with the previous parameters. (d) SEM picture of the second sample used for the laboratory measured. (e) Measured diffraction pattern from the sample in (d) (black curve) superimposed to the calculated intensity pattern (red curve) obtained using a GS model with σ = 30 μm and μ = 1.6 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Diffraction pattern from a slit of 2.5 μm width (black curve), measured with synchrotron radiation. The red curve is the calculation obtained using a GS model with σ = 3 μm and μ = 3 μm. (b) Relative weight of the first 8 modes. (c) Diffraction pattern from a slit of 1 μm width (black curve), measured with synchrotron radiation. The red curve is the calculation obtained using a GS model with σ = 3 μm and μ = 3 μm. (d) MOI J ( ξ 1 , ξ 2 ) from Eq. (1), calculated using a GS model with σ = 3 μm and μ = 3 μm.

Equations (5)

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J ( ξ 1 , ξ 2 ) = n = 0 η n φ n * ( ξ 1 ) φ n ( ξ 2 ) .
J ( ξ 1 , ξ 2 ) = [ I ( ξ 1 ) I ( ξ 2 ) ] 1 / 2 g ( ξ 2 ξ 1 ) ,
I ( ξ ) = I 0 exp [ ξ 2 2 σ 2 ] , g ( ξ 2 ξ 1 ) = exp [ ( ξ 2 ξ 1 ) 2 2 μ 2 ] .
φ n ( ξ ) = ( 2 c π ) 1 / 4 1 2 n n ! H ( ξ 2 c ) n exp ( c ξ 2 ) , η n = I 0 ( π a + b + c ) 1 / 2 ( b a + b + c ) n ,
T ( x ) = { exp [ k ( i δ + β ) t ] 1 i f i f x S x S ,

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