Abstract

We demonstrate a variable focal length achromatic lens that consists of a flat liquid crystal diffractive lens and a pressure-controlled fluidic refractive lens. The diffractive lens is composed of a flat binary Fresnel zone structure and a thin liquid crystal layer, producing high efficiency and millisecond switching times while applying a low ac voltage input. The focusing power of the diffractive lens is adjusted by electrically modifying the sub-zones and re-establishing phase wrapping points. The refractive lens includes a fluid chamber with a flat glass surface and an opposing elastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane surface. Inserting fluid volume through a pump system into the clear aperture region alters the membrane curvature and adjusts the refractive lens’ focal position. Primary chromatic aberration is remarkably reduced through the coupling of the fluidic and diffractive lenses at selected focal lengths. Potential applications include miniature color imaging systems, medical and ophthalmic devices, or any design that utilizes variable focal length achromats.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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2011 (1)

H. C. Lin and Y. H. Lin, “An electrically tunable focusing liquid crystal lens with a built-in planar polymeric lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 083503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1515–1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1985 (1)

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, and R. Sato, “Variable-focus liquid-crystal fresnel lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24(Part 2, No. 8), L626–L628 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, P. A.

Apter, B.

Bagwell, B. E.

B. E. Bagwell, D. V. Wick, R. Batchko, J. D. Mansell, T. Martinez, S. R. Restaino, D. M. Payne, J. Harriman, S. Serati, G. Sharp, and J. Schwiegerling, “Liquid crystal based active optics,” Proc. SPIE 6289, 628908, 628908-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bahat-Treidel, E.

Batchko, R.

B. E. Bagwell, D. V. Wick, R. Batchko, J. D. Mansell, T. Martinez, S. R. Restaino, D. M. Payne, J. Harriman, S. Serati, G. Sharp, and J. Schwiegerling, “Liquid crystal based active optics,” Proc. SPIE 6289, 628908, 628908-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chau, F. S.

Daimon, M.

Dodge, M. R.

Efron, U.

Fan, Y. H.

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4789–4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1515–1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fox, D.

Gauza, S.

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4789–4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

George, N.

Harriman, J.

B. E. Bagwell, D. V. Wick, R. Batchko, J. D. Mansell, T. Martinez, S. R. Restaino, D. M. Payne, J. Harriman, S. Serati, G. Sharp, and J. Schwiegerling, “Liquid crystal based active optics,” Proc. SPIE 6289, 628908, 628908-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Justis, N.

Kumar, A. S.

Lavrentovich, O. D.

Leung, H. M.

Lin, H. C.

H. C. Lin and Y. H. Lin, “An electrically tunable focusing liquid crystal lens with a built-in planar polymeric lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 083503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

H. C. Lin and Y. H. Lin, “An electrically tunable focusing liquid crystal lens with a built-in planar polymeric lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 083503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y. H.

Mansell, J. D.

B. E. Bagwell, D. V. Wick, R. Batchko, J. D. Mansell, T. Martinez, S. R. Restaino, D. M. Payne, J. Harriman, S. Serati, G. Sharp, and J. Schwiegerling, “Liquid crystal based active optics,” Proc. SPIE 6289, 628908, 628908-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marks, R.

Martinez, T.

B. E. Bagwell, D. V. Wick, R. Batchko, J. D. Mansell, T. Martinez, S. R. Restaino, D. M. Payne, J. Harriman, S. Serati, G. Sharp, and J. Schwiegerling, “Liquid crystal based active optics,” Proc. SPIE 6289, 628908, 628908-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Masumura, A.

Mathine, D. L.

Payne, D. M.

B. E. Bagwell, D. V. Wick, R. Batchko, J. D. Mansell, T. Martinez, S. R. Restaino, D. M. Payne, J. Harriman, S. Serati, G. Sharp, and J. Schwiegerling, “Liquid crystal based active optics,” Proc. SPIE 6289, 628908, 628908-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Peyman, G.

Pishnyak, O.

Ren, H.

H. Ren, D. Fox, P. A. Anderson, B. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus liquid lens controlled using a servo motor,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8031–8036 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4789–4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1515–1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Restaino, S. R.

B. E. Bagwell, D. V. Wick, R. Batchko, J. D. Mansell, T. Martinez, S. R. Restaino, D. M. Payne, J. Harriman, S. Serati, G. Sharp, and J. Schwiegerling, “Liquid crystal based active optics,” Proc. SPIE 6289, 628908, 628908-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reza Dodge, M.

Sato, R.

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, and R. Sato, “Variable-focus liquid-crystal fresnel lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24(Part 2, No. 8), L626–L628 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

O. Pishnyak, S. Sato, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Electrically tunable lens based on a dual-frequency nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Opt. 45(19), 4576–4582 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, and R. Sato, “Variable-focus liquid-crystal fresnel lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24(Part 2, No. 8), L626–L628 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Schwiegerling, J.

Serati, S.

B. E. Bagwell, D. V. Wick, R. Batchko, J. D. Mansell, T. Martinez, S. R. Restaino, D. M. Payne, J. Harriman, S. Serati, G. Sharp, and J. Schwiegerling, “Liquid crystal based active optics,” Proc. SPIE 6289, 628908, 628908-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, G.

B. E. Bagwell, D. V. Wick, R. Batchko, J. D. Mansell, T. Martinez, S. R. Restaino, D. M. Payne, J. Harriman, S. Serati, G. Sharp, and J. Schwiegerling, “Liquid crystal based active optics,” Proc. SPIE 6289, 628908, 628908-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stone, T.

Sugiyama, A.

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, and R. Sato, “Variable-focus liquid-crystal fresnel lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24(Part 2, No. 8), L626–L628 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Valley, P.

Wick, D. V.

B. E. Bagwell, D. V. Wick, R. Batchko, J. D. Mansell, T. Martinez, S. R. Restaino, D. M. Payne, J. Harriman, S. Serati, G. Sharp, and J. Schwiegerling, “Liquid crystal based active optics,” Proc. SPIE 6289, 628908, 628908-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

Wu, S. T.

H. Ren, D. Fox, P. A. Anderson, B. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus liquid lens controlled using a servo motor,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8031–8036 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4789–4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1515–1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

Zhang, D. Y.

Zhou, G.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. C. Lin and Y. H. Lin, “An electrically tunable focusing liquid crystal lens with a built-in planar polymeric lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 083503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4789–4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1515–1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Sato, A. Sugiyama, and R. Sato, “Variable-focus liquid-crystal fresnel lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24(Part 2, No. 8), L626–L628 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. E. Bagwell, D. V. Wick, R. Batchko, J. D. Mansell, T. Martinez, S. R. Restaino, D. M. Payne, J. Harriman, S. Serati, G. Sharp, and J. Schwiegerling, “Liquid crystal based active optics,” Proc. SPIE 6289, 628908, 628908-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. C. O'Shea, T. J. Suleski, A. D. Kathman, and D. W. Prather, Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication, and Test (SPIE Press Book, 2004).

J. E. Greivenkamp, Field guide to geometrical optics (SPIE Press, 2004).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the hybrid liquid crystal diffractive lens and fluidic lens.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Chromatic dispersion of the variable focal plano-convex lens alone applying methanol at the three test wavelengths when set for 80 mm focal length and higher.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The test setup: three laser beams aligned and collimated to measure the focal lengths of the diffractive and fluidic lens by a color CCD camera on a rail.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sample images of the best focus spots for the diffractive lens B when it is set to the focal length of 133 mm at the green wavelength.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a-e) Focal spots when the diffractive and fluidic lenses are combined to produce the best focus for the red and the blue lights. The focal length values at the green wavelength are: (a) fdiffractive = 1000 mm, ffluidic = 252 mm; (b) fdiffractive = 500 mm, ffluidic = 126 mm; (c) fdiffractive = 250 mm, ffluidic = 63 mm; (d) fdiffractive = 400 mm, ffluidic = 101 mm; (e) fdiffractive = 200 mm, ffluidic = 51 mm; (f) overall focal length of the hybrid system for the green, red and blue wavelengths.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values Needed for Fluidic Lens Focal Lengths fg (in mm) at Different Fluid Abbe Number Values and Given Diffractive Lens Focal Lengths at the Design Wavelength of 555 nm

Tables Icon

Table 2 Diffractive Lens A Results: Measured and Calculated Focal Lengths at the Three Test Wavelengths

Tables Icon

Table 3 Diffractive Lens B Results: Measured and Calculated Focal Lengths at the Three Test Wavelengths

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