Abstract

An optical analysis is developed to separate forward light scatter of the human eye from the conventional wavefront aberrations in a double pass optical system. To quantify the separate contributions made by these micro- and macro-aberrations, respectively, to the spot image blur in the Shark-Hartmann aberrometer, we develop a metric called radial variance for spot blur. We prove an additivity property for radial variance that allows us to distinguish between spot blurs from macro-aberrations and micro-aberrations. When the method is applied to tear break-up in the human eye, we find that micro-aberrations in the second pass accounts for about 87% of the double pass image blur in the Shack-Hartmann wavefront aberrometer under our experimental conditions.

© 2011 OSA

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    [PubMed]
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2011 (1)

N. L. Himebaugh, C. G. Begley, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “The spatial orrelation between tear break-up and optical aberrations,” in preparation (2011).

2010 (3)

J. Nam, J. Rubinstein, and L. N. Thibos, “Wavelength adjustment using an eye model from aberrometry data,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27(7), 1561–1574 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, L. Thibos, C. G. Begley, and A. Bradley, “Measurement of the time course of optical quality and visual deterioration during tear break-up,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(6), 3318–3326 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ferrer-Blasco, S. García-Lázaro, R. Montés-Micó, A. Cerviño, and J. M. González-Méijome, “Dynamic changes in the air-tear film interface modulation transfer function,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 248(1), 127–132 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

S. M. Rae and H. C. Price, “The effect of soft contact lens wear and time from blink on wavefront aberration measurement variation,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 92(3), 274–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, J. Xu, X. Sun, R. Chu, H. Zhuang, and J. C. He, “Dynamic wavefront aberrations and visual acuity in normal and dry eyes,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 92(3), 267–273 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Gao, R. S. Jonnal, B. Cense, O. P. Kocaoglu, Q. Wang, and D. T. Miller, “Measuring directionality of the retinal reflection with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Opt. Express 17(25), 23085–23097 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, K. Bessho, Y. Hori, T. Inoue, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Serial measurements of higher-order aberrations after blinking in patients with dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 133–138 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hori, T. Inoue, H. Watanabe, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Effects of suppression of blinking on quality of vision in borderline cases of evaporative dry eye,” Cornea 27(3), 275–278 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. King-Smith, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, B. A. Fink, and R. J. Braun, “Contributions of evaporation and other mechanisms to tear film thinning and break-up,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 85(8), 623–630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. Koh and N. Maeda, “Wavefront sensing and the dynamics of tear film,” Cornea 26(9Suppl 1), S41–S45 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, S. Ninomiya, K. Bessho, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Serial measurements of higher-order aberrations after blinking in normal subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(8), 3318–3324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, and R. M. Hill, “Interferometric imaging of the full thickness of the precorneal tear film,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(9), 2097–2104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Mihashi, Y. Hirohara, S. Koh, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, and T. Fujikado, “Tear film break-up time evaluated by real-time Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensing,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 50(2), 85–89 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

J. Nam and J. Rubinstein, “Weighted Zernike expansion with applications to the optical aberration of the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(9), 1709–1716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Neal, C. D. Baer, and D. M. Topa, “Errors in Zernike transformations and non-modal reconstruction methods,” J. Refract. Surg. 21(5), S558–S562 (2005).
[PubMed]

R. Montés-Micó, J. L. Alió, and W. N. Charman, “Dynamic changes in the tear film in dry eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(5), 1615–1619 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

W. J. Donnelly, K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, E. J. Sarver, and R. A. Applegate, “Quantifying scatter in Shack-Hartmann images to evaluate nuclear cataract,” J. Refract. Surg. 20(5), S515–S522 (2004).
[PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, “Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations,” J. Vis. 4(4), 329–351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Montés-Micó, J. L. Alió, G. Muñoz, J. J. Pérez-Santonja, and W. N. Charman, “Postblink changes in total and corneal ocular aberrations,” Ophthalmology 111(4), 758–767 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Montés-Micó, A. Cáliz, and J. L. Alió, “Wavefront analysis of higher order aberrations in dry eye patients,” J. Refract. Surg. 20(3), 243–247 (2004).
[PubMed]

R. Montés-Micó, A. Cáliz, and J. L. Alió, “Changes in ocular aberrations after instillation of artificial tears in dry-eye patients,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30(8), 1649–1652 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

N. H. Himebaugh, K. E. Thorn, L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, and C. G. Begley, “Temporal changes in visual acuity, optical aberrations and light scatter secondary to tear film break-up in soft contact lens wearers,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(12s), 5 (2003).

2002 (3)

N. L. Himebaugh, L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, G. Wilson, and C. G. Begley, “Predicting optical effects of tear film break up on retinal image quality using the Shack-Hartmann aberrometer and computational optical modeling,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 506(Pt B), 1141–1147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Thai, A. Tomlinson, and W. H. Ridder, “Contact lens drying and visual performance: the vision cycle with contact lenses,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 79(6), 381–388 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, T. Kuroda, Y. Hori, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, Y. Tano, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, “Effect of tear film break-up on higher-order aberrations measured with wavefront sensor,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134(1), 115–117 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

R. Tutt, A. Bradley, C. Begley, and L. N. Thibos, “Optical and visual impact of tear break-up in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(13), 4117–4123 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

L. N. Thibos and X. Hong, “Clinical applications of the Shack-Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 76(12), 817–825 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

C. Albarrán, A. M. Pons, A. Lorente, R. Montés, and J. M. Artigas, “Influence of the tear film on optical quality of the eye,” Cont. Lens Anterior Eye 20(4), 129–135 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

G. T. Timberlake, M. G. Doane, and J. H. Bertera, “Short-term, low-contrast visual acuity reduction associated with in vivo contact lens drying,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69(10), 755–760 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

1973 (1)

F. J. Holly, “Formation and stability of the tear film,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 13(1), 73–96 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1947 (1)

A. Marechal, “Etude des effets combines de la diffraction et des aberrations geometriques sur l'image d'un point lumineux,” Rev. d'Opt 26, 257–277 (1947).

Albarrán, C.

C. Albarrán, A. M. Pons, A. Lorente, R. Montés, and J. M. Artigas, “Influence of the tear film on optical quality of the eye,” Cont. Lens Anterior Eye 20(4), 129–135 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alió, J. L.

R. Montés-Micó, J. L. Alió, and W. N. Charman, “Dynamic changes in the tear film in dry eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(5), 1615–1619 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Montés-Micó, A. Cáliz, and J. L. Alió, “Changes in ocular aberrations after instillation of artificial tears in dry-eye patients,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30(8), 1649–1652 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Montés-Micó, A. Cáliz, and J. L. Alió, “Wavefront analysis of higher order aberrations in dry eye patients,” J. Refract. Surg. 20(3), 243–247 (2004).
[PubMed]

R. Montés-Micó, J. L. Alió, G. Muñoz, J. J. Pérez-Santonja, and W. N. Charman, “Postblink changes in total and corneal ocular aberrations,” Ophthalmology 111(4), 758–767 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applegate, R. A.

W. J. Donnelly, K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, E. J. Sarver, and R. A. Applegate, “Quantifying scatter in Shack-Hartmann images to evaluate nuclear cataract,” J. Refract. Surg. 20(5), S515–S522 (2004).
[PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, “Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations,” J. Vis. 4(4), 329–351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artigas, J. M.

C. Albarrán, A. M. Pons, A. Lorente, R. Montés, and J. M. Artigas, “Influence of the tear film on optical quality of the eye,” Cont. Lens Anterior Eye 20(4), 129–135 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baer, C. D.

D. R. Neal, C. D. Baer, and D. M. Topa, “Errors in Zernike transformations and non-modal reconstruction methods,” J. Refract. Surg. 21(5), S558–S562 (2005).
[PubMed]

Begley, C.

R. Tutt, A. Bradley, C. Begley, and L. N. Thibos, “Optical and visual impact of tear break-up in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(13), 4117–4123 (2000).
[PubMed]

Begley, C. G.

N. L. Himebaugh, C. G. Begley, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “The spatial orrelation between tear break-up and optical aberrations,” in preparation (2011).

H. Liu, L. Thibos, C. G. Begley, and A. Bradley, “Measurement of the time course of optical quality and visual deterioration during tear break-up,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(6), 3318–3326 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. H. Himebaugh, K. E. Thorn, L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, and C. G. Begley, “Temporal changes in visual acuity, optical aberrations and light scatter secondary to tear film break-up in soft contact lens wearers,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(12s), 5 (2003).

N. L. Himebaugh, L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, G. Wilson, and C. G. Begley, “Predicting optical effects of tear film break up on retinal image quality using the Shack-Hartmann aberrometer and computational optical modeling,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 506(Pt B), 1141–1147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bertera, J. H.

G. T. Timberlake, M. G. Doane, and J. H. Bertera, “Short-term, low-contrast visual acuity reduction associated with in vivo contact lens drying,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69(10), 755–760 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bessho, K.

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, K. Bessho, Y. Hori, T. Inoue, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Serial measurements of higher-order aberrations after blinking in patients with dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 133–138 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, S. Ninomiya, K. Bessho, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Serial measurements of higher-order aberrations after blinking in normal subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(8), 3318–3324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bille, J. F.

Bradley, A.

N. L. Himebaugh, C. G. Begley, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “The spatial orrelation between tear break-up and optical aberrations,” in preparation (2011).

H. Liu, L. Thibos, C. G. Begley, and A. Bradley, “Measurement of the time course of optical quality and visual deterioration during tear break-up,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(6), 3318–3326 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, “Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations,” J. Vis. 4(4), 329–351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. H. Himebaugh, K. E. Thorn, L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, and C. G. Begley, “Temporal changes in visual acuity, optical aberrations and light scatter secondary to tear film break-up in soft contact lens wearers,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(12s), 5 (2003).

N. L. Himebaugh, L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, G. Wilson, and C. G. Begley, “Predicting optical effects of tear film break up on retinal image quality using the Shack-Hartmann aberrometer and computational optical modeling,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 506(Pt B), 1141–1147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Tutt, A. Bradley, C. Begley, and L. N. Thibos, “Optical and visual impact of tear break-up in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(13), 4117–4123 (2000).
[PubMed]

Braun, R. J.

P. E. King-Smith, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, B. A. Fink, and R. J. Braun, “Contributions of evaporation and other mechanisms to tear film thinning and break-up,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 85(8), 623–630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cáliz, A.

R. Montés-Micó, A. Cáliz, and J. L. Alió, “Wavefront analysis of higher order aberrations in dry eye patients,” J. Refract. Surg. 20(3), 243–247 (2004).
[PubMed]

R. Montés-Micó, A. Cáliz, and J. L. Alió, “Changes in ocular aberrations after instillation of artificial tears in dry-eye patients,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30(8), 1649–1652 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Cerviño, A.

T. Ferrer-Blasco, S. García-Lázaro, R. Montés-Micó, A. Cerviño, and J. M. González-Méijome, “Dynamic changes in the air-tear film interface modulation transfer function,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 248(1), 127–132 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Charman, W. N.

R. Montés-Micó, J. L. Alió, and W. N. Charman, “Dynamic changes in the tear film in dry eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(5), 1615–1619 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Montés-Micó, J. L. Alió, G. Muñoz, J. J. Pérez-Santonja, and W. N. Charman, “Postblink changes in total and corneal ocular aberrations,” Ophthalmology 111(4), 758–767 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, R.

Y. Wang, J. Xu, X. Sun, R. Chu, H. Zhuang, and J. C. He, “Dynamic wavefront aberrations and visual acuity in normal and dry eyes,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 92(3), 267–273 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doane, M. G.

G. T. Timberlake, M. G. Doane, and J. H. Bertera, “Short-term, low-contrast visual acuity reduction associated with in vivo contact lens drying,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69(10), 755–760 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donnelly, W. J.

W. J. Donnelly, K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, E. J. Sarver, and R. A. Applegate, “Quantifying scatter in Shack-Hartmann images to evaluate nuclear cataract,” J. Refract. Surg. 20(5), S515–S522 (2004).
[PubMed]

Ferrer-Blasco, T.

T. Ferrer-Blasco, S. García-Lázaro, R. Montés-Micó, A. Cerviño, and J. M. González-Méijome, “Dynamic changes in the air-tear film interface modulation transfer function,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 248(1), 127–132 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fink, B. A.

P. E. King-Smith, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, B. A. Fink, and R. J. Braun, “Contributions of evaporation and other mechanisms to tear film thinning and break-up,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 85(8), 623–630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, and R. M. Hill, “Interferometric imaging of the full thickness of the precorneal tear film,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(9), 2097–2104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujikado, T.

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, K. Bessho, Y. Hori, T. Inoue, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Serial measurements of higher-order aberrations after blinking in patients with dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 133–138 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hori, T. Inoue, H. Watanabe, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Effects of suppression of blinking on quality of vision in borderline cases of evaporative dry eye,” Cornea 27(3), 275–278 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, S. Ninomiya, K. Bessho, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Serial measurements of higher-order aberrations after blinking in normal subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(8), 3318–3324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mihashi, Y. Hirohara, S. Koh, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, and T. Fujikado, “Tear film break-up time evaluated by real-time Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensing,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 50(2), 85–89 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, T. Kuroda, Y. Hori, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, Y. Tano, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, “Effect of tear film break-up on higher-order aberrations measured with wavefront sensor,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134(1), 115–117 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

García-Lázaro, S.

T. Ferrer-Blasco, S. García-Lázaro, R. Montés-Micó, A. Cerviño, and J. M. González-Méijome, “Dynamic changes in the air-tear film interface modulation transfer function,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 248(1), 127–132 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Goelz, S.

González-Méijome, J. M.

T. Ferrer-Blasco, S. García-Lázaro, R. Montés-Micó, A. Cerviño, and J. M. González-Méijome, “Dynamic changes in the air-tear film interface modulation transfer function,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 248(1), 127–132 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, B.

He, J. C.

Y. Wang, J. Xu, X. Sun, R. Chu, H. Zhuang, and J. C. He, “Dynamic wavefront aberrations and visual acuity in normal and dry eyes,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 92(3), 267–273 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, R. M.

Himebaugh, N. H.

N. H. Himebaugh, K. E. Thorn, L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, and C. G. Begley, “Temporal changes in visual acuity, optical aberrations and light scatter secondary to tear film break-up in soft contact lens wearers,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(12s), 5 (2003).

Himebaugh, N. L.

N. L. Himebaugh, C. G. Begley, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “The spatial orrelation between tear break-up and optical aberrations,” in preparation (2011).

N. L. Himebaugh, L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, G. Wilson, and C. G. Begley, “Predicting optical effects of tear film break up on retinal image quality using the Shack-Hartmann aberrometer and computational optical modeling,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 506(Pt B), 1141–1147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hirohara, Y.

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hori, T. Inoue, H. Watanabe, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Effects of suppression of blinking on quality of vision in borderline cases of evaporative dry eye,” Cornea 27(3), 275–278 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, K. Bessho, Y. Hori, T. Inoue, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Serial measurements of higher-order aberrations after blinking in patients with dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 133–138 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, S. Ninomiya, K. Bessho, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Serial measurements of higher-order aberrations after blinking in normal subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(8), 3318–3324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mihashi, Y. Hirohara, S. Koh, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, and T. Fujikado, “Tear film break-up time evaluated by real-time Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensing,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 50(2), 85–89 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, T. Kuroda, Y. Hori, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, Y. Tano, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, “Effect of tear film break-up on higher-order aberrations measured with wavefront sensor,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134(1), 115–117 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. J. Holly, “Formation and stability of the tear film,” Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 13(1), 73–96 (1973).
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Hong, X.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, “Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations,” J. Vis. 4(4), 329–351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. N. Thibos and X. Hong, “Clinical applications of the Shack-Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 76(12), 817–825 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hori, Y.

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, K. Bessho, Y. Hori, T. Inoue, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Serial measurements of higher-order aberrations after blinking in patients with dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 133–138 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hori, T. Inoue, H. Watanabe, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Effects of suppression of blinking on quality of vision in borderline cases of evaporative dry eye,” Cornea 27(3), 275–278 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, T. Kuroda, Y. Hori, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, Y. Tano, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, “Effect of tear film break-up on higher-order aberrations measured with wavefront sensor,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134(1), 115–117 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, T.

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hori, T. Inoue, H. Watanabe, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Effects of suppression of blinking on quality of vision in borderline cases of evaporative dry eye,” Cornea 27(3), 275–278 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, K. Bessho, Y. Hori, T. Inoue, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Serial measurements of higher-order aberrations after blinking in patients with dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 133–138 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jonnal, R. S.

King-Smith, P. E.

P. E. King-Smith, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, B. A. Fink, and R. J. Braun, “Contributions of evaporation and other mechanisms to tear film thinning and break-up,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 85(8), 623–630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, and R. M. Hill, “Interferometric imaging of the full thickness of the precorneal tear film,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(9), 2097–2104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kocaoglu, O. P.

Koh, S.

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hori, T. Inoue, H. Watanabe, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Effects of suppression of blinking on quality of vision in borderline cases of evaporative dry eye,” Cornea 27(3), 275–278 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, K. Bessho, Y. Hori, T. Inoue, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Serial measurements of higher-order aberrations after blinking in patients with dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 133–138 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh and N. Maeda, “Wavefront sensing and the dynamics of tear film,” Cornea 26(9Suppl 1), S41–S45 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, S. Ninomiya, K. Bessho, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Serial measurements of higher-order aberrations after blinking in normal subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(8), 3318–3324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mihashi, Y. Hirohara, S. Koh, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, and T. Fujikado, “Tear film break-up time evaluated by real-time Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensing,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 50(2), 85–89 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, T. Kuroda, Y. Hori, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, Y. Tano, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, “Effect of tear film break-up on higher-order aberrations measured with wavefront sensor,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134(1), 115–117 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuroda, T.

S. Koh, N. Maeda, T. Kuroda, Y. Hori, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, Y. Tano, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, “Effect of tear film break-up on higher-order aberrations measured with wavefront sensor,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134(1), 115–117 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, J.

Liu, H.

H. Liu, L. Thibos, C. G. Begley, and A. Bradley, “Measurement of the time course of optical quality and visual deterioration during tear break-up,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(6), 3318–3326 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorente, A.

C. Albarrán, A. M. Pons, A. Lorente, R. Montés, and J. M. Artigas, “Influence of the tear film on optical quality of the eye,” Cont. Lens Anterior Eye 20(4), 129–135 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maeda, N.

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, K. Bessho, Y. Hori, T. Inoue, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Serial measurements of higher-order aberrations after blinking in patients with dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 133–138 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hori, T. Inoue, H. Watanabe, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Effects of suppression of blinking on quality of vision in borderline cases of evaporative dry eye,” Cornea 27(3), 275–278 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh and N. Maeda, “Wavefront sensing and the dynamics of tear film,” Cornea 26(9Suppl 1), S41–S45 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, S. Ninomiya, K. Bessho, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Serial measurements of higher-order aberrations after blinking in normal subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(8), 3318–3324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mihashi, Y. Hirohara, S. Koh, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, and T. Fujikado, “Tear film break-up time evaluated by real-time Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensing,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 50(2), 85–89 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, T. Kuroda, Y. Hori, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, Y. Tano, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, “Effect of tear film break-up on higher-order aberrations measured with wavefront sensor,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134(1), 115–117 (2002).
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Mahajan, V. N.

Marechal, A.

A. Marechal, “Etude des effets combines de la diffraction et des aberrations geometriques sur l'image d'un point lumineux,” Rev. d'Opt 26, 257–277 (1947).

Marsack, J. D.

W. J. Donnelly, K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, E. J. Sarver, and R. A. Applegate, “Quantifying scatter in Shack-Hartmann images to evaluate nuclear cataract,” J. Refract. Surg. 20(5), S515–S522 (2004).
[PubMed]

Mihashi, T.

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hori, T. Inoue, H. Watanabe, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Effects of suppression of blinking on quality of vision in borderline cases of evaporative dry eye,” Cornea 27(3), 275–278 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, K. Bessho, Y. Hori, T. Inoue, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Serial measurements of higher-order aberrations after blinking in patients with dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 133–138 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mihashi, Y. Hirohara, S. Koh, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, and T. Fujikado, “Tear film break-up time evaluated by real-time Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensing,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 50(2), 85–89 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, S. Ninomiya, K. Bessho, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Serial measurements of higher-order aberrations after blinking in normal subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(8), 3318–3324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, T. Kuroda, Y. Hori, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, Y. Tano, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, “Effect of tear film break-up on higher-order aberrations measured with wavefront sensor,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134(1), 115–117 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. T.

Montés, R.

C. Albarrán, A. M. Pons, A. Lorente, R. Montés, and J. M. Artigas, “Influence of the tear film on optical quality of the eye,” Cont. Lens Anterior Eye 20(4), 129–135 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montés-Micó, R.

T. Ferrer-Blasco, S. García-Lázaro, R. Montés-Micó, A. Cerviño, and J. M. González-Méijome, “Dynamic changes in the air-tear film interface modulation transfer function,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 248(1), 127–132 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Montés-Micó, J. L. Alió, and W. N. Charman, “Dynamic changes in the tear film in dry eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(5), 1615–1619 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Montés-Micó, J. L. Alió, G. Muñoz, J. J. Pérez-Santonja, and W. N. Charman, “Postblink changes in total and corneal ocular aberrations,” Ophthalmology 111(4), 758–767 (2004).
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R. Montés-Micó, A. Cáliz, and J. L. Alió, “Wavefront analysis of higher order aberrations in dry eye patients,” J. Refract. Surg. 20(3), 243–247 (2004).
[PubMed]

R. Montés-Micó, A. Cáliz, and J. L. Alió, “Changes in ocular aberrations after instillation of artificial tears in dry-eye patients,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30(8), 1649–1652 (2004).
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Muñoz, G.

R. Montés-Micó, J. L. Alió, G. Muñoz, J. J. Pérez-Santonja, and W. N. Charman, “Postblink changes in total and corneal ocular aberrations,” Ophthalmology 111(4), 758–767 (2004).
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Nam, J.

Neal, D. R.

D. R. Neal, C. D. Baer, and D. M. Topa, “Errors in Zernike transformations and non-modal reconstruction methods,” J. Refract. Surg. 21(5), S558–S562 (2005).
[PubMed]

Nichols, J. J.

P. E. King-Smith, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, B. A. Fink, and R. J. Braun, “Contributions of evaporation and other mechanisms to tear film thinning and break-up,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 85(8), 623–630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, and R. M. Hill, “Interferometric imaging of the full thickness of the precorneal tear film,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(9), 2097–2104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nichols, K. K.

P. E. King-Smith, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, B. A. Fink, and R. J. Braun, “Contributions of evaporation and other mechanisms to tear film thinning and break-up,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 85(8), 623–630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, J. J. Nichols, K. K. Nichols, and R. M. Hill, “Interferometric imaging of the full thickness of the precorneal tear film,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(9), 2097–2104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ninomiya, S.

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, S. Ninomiya, K. Bessho, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Serial measurements of higher-order aberrations after blinking in normal subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(8), 3318–3324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mihashi, Y. Hirohara, S. Koh, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, and T. Fujikado, “Tear film break-up time evaluated by real-time Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensing,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 50(2), 85–89 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pérez-Santonja, J. J.

R. Montés-Micó, J. L. Alió, G. Muñoz, J. J. Pérez-Santonja, and W. N. Charman, “Postblink changes in total and corneal ocular aberrations,” Ophthalmology 111(4), 758–767 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pesudovs, K.

W. J. Donnelly, K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, E. J. Sarver, and R. A. Applegate, “Quantifying scatter in Shack-Hartmann images to evaluate nuclear cataract,” J. Refract. Surg. 20(5), S515–S522 (2004).
[PubMed]

Pons, A. M.

C. Albarrán, A. M. Pons, A. Lorente, R. Montés, and J. M. Artigas, “Influence of the tear film on optical quality of the eye,” Cont. Lens Anterior Eye 20(4), 129–135 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Price, H. C.

S. M. Rae and H. C. Price, “The effect of soft contact lens wear and time from blink on wavefront aberration measurement variation,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 92(3), 274–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rae, S. M.

S. M. Rae and H. C. Price, “The effect of soft contact lens wear and time from blink on wavefront aberration measurement variation,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 92(3), 274–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ridder, W. H.

L. C. Thai, A. Tomlinson, and W. H. Ridder, “Contact lens drying and visual performance: the vision cycle with contact lenses,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 79(6), 381–388 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubinstein, J.

Sarver, E. J.

W. J. Donnelly, K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, E. J. Sarver, and R. A. Applegate, “Quantifying scatter in Shack-Hartmann images to evaluate nuclear cataract,” J. Refract. Surg. 20(5), S515–S522 (2004).
[PubMed]

Sun, X.

Y. Wang, J. Xu, X. Sun, R. Chu, H. Zhuang, and J. C. He, “Dynamic wavefront aberrations and visual acuity in normal and dry eyes,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 92(3), 267–273 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tano, Y.

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hori, T. Inoue, H. Watanabe, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Effects of suppression of blinking on quality of vision in borderline cases of evaporative dry eye,” Cornea 27(3), 275–278 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, K. Bessho, Y. Hori, T. Inoue, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Serial measurements of higher-order aberrations after blinking in patients with dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 133–138 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, S. Ninomiya, K. Bessho, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Serial measurements of higher-order aberrations after blinking in normal subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(8), 3318–3324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, T. Kuroda, Y. Hori, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, Y. Tano, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, “Effect of tear film break-up on higher-order aberrations measured with wavefront sensor,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134(1), 115–117 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thai, L. C.

L. C. Thai, A. Tomlinson, and W. H. Ridder, “Contact lens drying and visual performance: the vision cycle with contact lenses,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 79(6), 381–388 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thibos, L.

H. Liu, L. Thibos, C. G. Begley, and A. Bradley, “Measurement of the time course of optical quality and visual deterioration during tear break-up,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(6), 3318–3326 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thibos, L. N.

N. L. Himebaugh, C. G. Begley, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “The spatial orrelation between tear break-up and optical aberrations,” in preparation (2011).

J. Nam, J. Rubinstein, and L. N. Thibos, “Wavelength adjustment using an eye model from aberrometry data,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27(7), 1561–1574 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, “Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations,” J. Vis. 4(4), 329–351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. H. Himebaugh, K. E. Thorn, L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, and C. G. Begley, “Temporal changes in visual acuity, optical aberrations and light scatter secondary to tear film break-up in soft contact lens wearers,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(12s), 5 (2003).

N. L. Himebaugh, L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, G. Wilson, and C. G. Begley, “Predicting optical effects of tear film break up on retinal image quality using the Shack-Hartmann aberrometer and computational optical modeling,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 506(Pt B), 1141–1147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Tutt, A. Bradley, C. Begley, and L. N. Thibos, “Optical and visual impact of tear break-up in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(13), 4117–4123 (2000).
[PubMed]

L. N. Thibos and X. Hong, “Clinical applications of the Shack-Hartmann aberrometer,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 76(12), 817–825 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorn, K. E.

N. H. Himebaugh, K. E. Thorn, L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, and C. G. Begley, “Temporal changes in visual acuity, optical aberrations and light scatter secondary to tear film break-up in soft contact lens wearers,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(12s), 5 (2003).

Timberlake, G. T.

G. T. Timberlake, M. G. Doane, and J. H. Bertera, “Short-term, low-contrast visual acuity reduction associated with in vivo contact lens drying,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 69(10), 755–760 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomlinson, A.

L. C. Thai, A. Tomlinson, and W. H. Ridder, “Contact lens drying and visual performance: the vision cycle with contact lenses,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 79(6), 381–388 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Topa, D. M.

D. R. Neal, C. D. Baer, and D. M. Topa, “Errors in Zernike transformations and non-modal reconstruction methods,” J. Refract. Surg. 21(5), S558–S562 (2005).
[PubMed]

Tutt, R.

R. Tutt, A. Bradley, C. Begley, and L. N. Thibos, “Optical and visual impact of tear break-up in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(13), 4117–4123 (2000).
[PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, J. Xu, X. Sun, R. Chu, H. Zhuang, and J. C. He, “Dynamic wavefront aberrations and visual acuity in normal and dry eyes,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 92(3), 267–273 (2009).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, S. Ninomiya, K. Bessho, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Serial measurements of higher-order aberrations after blinking in normal subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(8), 3318–3324 (2006).
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N. L. Himebaugh, L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, G. Wilson, and C. G. Begley, “Predicting optical effects of tear film break up on retinal image quality using the Shack-Hartmann aberrometer and computational optical modeling,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 506(Pt B), 1141–1147 (2002).
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Xu, J.

Y. Wang, J. Xu, X. Sun, R. Chu, H. Zhuang, and J. C. He, “Dynamic wavefront aberrations and visual acuity in normal and dry eyes,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 92(3), 267–273 (2009).
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Y. Wang, J. Xu, X. Sun, R. Chu, H. Zhuang, and J. C. He, “Dynamic wavefront aberrations and visual acuity in normal and dry eyes,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 92(3), 267–273 (2009).
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Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1)

N. L. Himebaugh, L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, G. Wilson, and C. G. Begley, “Predicting optical effects of tear film break up on retinal image quality using the Shack-Hartmann aberrometer and computational optical modeling,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 506(Pt B), 1141–1147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Koh, N. Maeda, T. Kuroda, Y. Hori, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, Y. Tano, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, “Effect of tear film break-up on higher-order aberrations measured with wavefront sensor,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 134(1), 115–117 (2002).
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S. M. Rae and H. C. Price, “The effect of soft contact lens wear and time from blink on wavefront aberration measurement variation,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 92(3), 274–282 (2009).
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Y. Wang, J. Xu, X. Sun, R. Chu, H. Zhuang, and J. C. He, “Dynamic wavefront aberrations and visual acuity in normal and dry eyes,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 92(3), 267–273 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Albarrán, A. M. Pons, A. Lorente, R. Montés, and J. M. Artigas, “Influence of the tear film on optical quality of the eye,” Cont. Lens Anterior Eye 20(4), 129–135 (1997).
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S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hori, T. Inoue, H. Watanabe, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Effects of suppression of blinking on quality of vision in borderline cases of evaporative dry eye,” Cornea 27(3), 275–278 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

T. Ferrer-Blasco, S. García-Lázaro, R. Montés-Micó, A. Cerviño, and J. M. González-Méijome, “Dynamic changes in the air-tear film interface modulation transfer function,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 248(1), 127–132 (2010).
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R. Tutt, A. Bradley, C. Begley, and L. N. Thibos, “Optical and visual impact of tear break-up in human eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(13), 4117–4123 (2000).
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S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, S. Ninomiya, K. Bessho, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Serial measurements of higher-order aberrations after blinking in normal subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(8), 3318–3324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, L. Thibos, C. G. Begley, and A. Bradley, “Measurement of the time course of optical quality and visual deterioration during tear break-up,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(6), 3318–3326 (2010).
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S. Koh, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, K. Bessho, Y. Hori, T. Inoue, H. Watanabe, T. Fujikado, and Y. Tano, “Serial measurements of higher-order aberrations after blinking in patients with dry eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 133–138 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Montés-Micó, J. L. Alió, and W. N. Charman, “Dynamic changes in the tear film in dry eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(5), 1615–1619 (2005).
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R. Montés-Micó, A. Cáliz, and J. L. Alió, “Wavefront analysis of higher order aberrations in dry eye patients,” J. Refract. Surg. 20(3), 243–247 (2004).
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T. Mihashi, Y. Hirohara, S. Koh, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, and T. Fujikado, “Tear film break-up time evaluated by real-time Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensing,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 50(2), 85–89 (2006).
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Ophthalmology (1)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Classification of wavefront aberrations according to the order of Zernike polynomials used to represent the wavefront. The magnitudes of the aberration coefficients are not shown here. LOA: low order aberrations, HOA: high order aberrations, VHOA: very high order aberrations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of an aberrated eye viewing (a) without a random screen, (b) through a random screen and sample spot images. Ocular sources of scatter are modeled by a thin random screen in the plane of the eye’s pupil. The lenslet arrays are colored in orange. Courtesy of John. R. Hoffman (Lockheed Martin) during the workshop at Institute for Mathematics and Its Applications (IMA) at University of Minnesota.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A schematic diagram for the double pass optical model for the human eye. R: the retinal beacon, h: PSF of the eye + the miniature optical system over each subaperture of the lenslet array. h is modeled as a convolution of PSF due to macro-aberrations (h0) and PSF due to micro-aberrations (hs). The SH spot image of R formed by each subaperture is denoted by g.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

An example of the simulated spot images h 0 generated by macro-aberrations. (a) the modal wavefront, (b) the zonal wavefront. When the wavefront slopes in two neighboring lenslets differ and therefore the local wavefront forms a cusp between them. A finite sampling of such zonal macro-aberrations may demonstrate double spots in one lenslet (Fig. 4(b)).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Graphical representation of scatter analysis in the double pass setup for Gaussian xerop. (a) PSF on the retina from the first pass is the object to be imaged on the second pass. Pixel size = 2.72 arcmin. (b) Beam location (1) and several Gaussian xerops (2-4). The Gaussian perturbation at location 3 is a drop of wetness that increases optical path length. The Gaussian xerops at locations 2 and 4 represent thinning of the tear film that shortens the optical path length. (c) PSFs for the second pass. Pixel size = 0.97 arcmin. (d) Double pass SH image. Pixel size = 0.97 arcmin. Note that the PSFs in (c) are computed for a point source on the retina. Since the retinal image formed from the first pass will contain blur to become an extended object for the second pass, the SH images in (d) are not strictly PSFs. For display, a square-root transformation was applied to the computed image.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The error of the additive rule of the radial variances with respect to the camera resolution. The error was calculated as the difference V(image) – V(object) – V(PSF). As the camera resolution decreases, the relative errors of the additive rule increase from less than 2% to above 16%. Note that the error was calculated relative to V(image). Since V(image) = V(object) + V(PSF), the error relative to V(object) or V(PSF) will be 2 times large as the current error curve.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The raw image of the SH spots encircled with a pupil of radius 3 mm. The diameter of each lenslet is 400 microns in the SH detector. We expect a 15x15 array of the spot images inside the pupil. The ' + ' sign indicates the pupil center, which does not necessarily coincide with a spot in a lenslet. The intensity of the raw images was boosted for the display purpose. (a) the baseline data when the tear film forms a smooth surface (soon after ablink), (b) the SH image after the tear break-up (following blink-suppression).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The Zernike coefficients for (a) the baseline data and (b) the TBU data. The colors represent the WFE. The saturation of the colors represents the magnitude of the Zernike aberration coefficients. The TBU data indicate an increase in the amount of HOA. RMS errors for the macro-aberrations were calculated with the modal wavefront: (a) 0.50 micron, (b) 1.97 micron.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of the radial variances V. The units are in arcmin2. The original radial variance maps contain one value for each lenslet forming maps of 15x15 blocks. We bilinearly interpolated the original images so that the patterns are more readily readable. The spot images g for the whole eye were acquired by a laboratory aberrometer with the wavelength 633 nm. We use the zonal wavefront for the macro-aberrations. The predicted spot images h0 for the resolved aberrations are obtained with the SH simulation program (section 3.3). The radial variances for the simulated SH images for the baseline data are close to the DL case. (a) V(g) for the base line data, (b) V(g) for the TBU data, (c) V(h0) for the base line data, (d) V(h0) for the TBU data.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The average radial variance maps for the light scatter for the second pass only based on Eq. (15). (a) V ( h s ) for the baseline data. The confidence interval UL is uniform across the pupil and is 63.3 arcmin2. (b) V ( h s ) for the TBU data. The confidence interval U−L is 75.06 arcmin2. The radial variances for the spot images for the TBU data are larger than those for the baseline data (e.g. Max = 130.4 arcmin2 for (a) and 175.3arcmin2 for (b)). For the baseline data, although the raw spot images in Fig. 7(a) appear to be well focused, as Fig. 10(a) indicates, there still remains light scatter that has not been resolved by the aberrometer.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The difference of the radial variance maps V ( h s ) for the light scatter between the baseline and TBU data. This map is computed by subtracting Fig. 10(a) from Fig. 10(b) in order to see the optical changes of light scatter caused by the event such as TBU. Some regions have become negative, which indicates that the light scatter could potentially be reduced during the TBU.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters and Results of the Virtual Validation using Gaussian Dry Spots (Xerops)

Equations (29)

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H ( ν 1 , ν 2 ) = P 0 ( x , y ) P 0 ( x λ f ν 1 , y λ f ν 2 ) t s ( x , y ) t s ( x λ f ν 1 , y λ f ν 2 ) d x d y | P 0 ( x , y ) | 2 | t s ( x , y ) | 2 d x d y .
H ¯ ( ν 1 , ν 2 ) = E [ numerator ] E [ denominator ] .
| P 0 ( x , y ) | 2 | t s ( x , y ) | 2 d x d y | P 0 ( x , y ) | 2 E [ | t s ( x , y ) | 2 ] d x d y .
H ¯ ( ν 1 , ν 2 ) = H 0 ( ν 1 , ν 2 ) H ¯ s ( ν 1 , ν 2 ) .
h ¯ = h 0 h ¯ s ,
V ( I ) = [ ( u u ¯ ) 2 + ( v v ¯ ) 2 ] I ( u , v ) d u d v ,
V ( Image ) = V ( Object ) + V ( PSF s y s t e m ) .
V ( h ) = V ( h 0 ) + V ( h s ) .
V ( R ) = V ( h P ) + S .
V ( g i j ) = V ( h i j ) + V ( R ) for each ( i , j ) .
V ( g ) U V ( h ) V ( g ) L ,
V ( h ) = V ( h 0 ) + V ( h s ) .
V ( h s ) = V ( h ) V ( h 0 ) .
V ( g ) U V ( h 0 ) V ( h s ) V ( g ) L V ( h 0 ) .
W ( x , y ) = C exp [ x 2 + y 2 2 σ 2 ] .
V ( h s ) = V ( g ) V ( h 0 ) ( L + U ) / 2.
X = X ( u , v ) , Y = Y ( u , v ) , Z = Z ( u , v ) .
p Z = p X p Y .
V ( p Z ) = [ ( u u ¯ z ) 2 + ( v v ¯ z ) 2 ] p Z ( u , v ) d u d v ,
u ¯ z = u p Z ( u , v ) d u d v , v ¯ z = v p Z ( u , v ) d u d v .
V ( p Z ) = V ( p X ) + V ( p Y ) .
V ( p Z ) = ( u u ¯ z ) 2 p Z ( u , v ) d u d v + ( v v ¯ z ) 2 p Z ( u , v ) d u d v = m 20 Z + m 02 Z u ¯ Z 2 v ¯ Z 2 = m 20 Z + m 02 Z ( m 10 Z ) 2 ( m 01 Z ) 2 .
Φ Z ( ω 1 , ω 2 ) = Φ X ( ω 1 , ω 2 ) Φ Y ( ω 1 , ω 2 ) .
2 ω 1 2 Φ Z ( 0 , 0 ) = j 2 m 20 Z , 2 ω 2 2 Φ Z ( 0 , 0 ) = j 2 m 02 Z .
2 Φ Z ω 1 2 = 2 Φ X ω 1 2 Φ Y + 2 Φ X ω 1 Φ Y ω 1 + Φ X 2 Φ Y ω 1 2 , 2 Φ Z ω 2 2 = 2 Φ X ω 2 2 Φ Y + 2 Φ X ω 2 Φ Y ω 2 + Φ X 2 Φ Y ω 2 2 .
2 Φ Z ω 1 2 = j 2 ( m 20 X + 2 m 10 X m 10 Y + m 20 Y ) , 2 Φ Z ω 2 2 = j 2 ( m 02 X + 2 m 01 X m 01 Y + m 02 Y ) .
m 20 Z = m 20 X + 2 m 10 X m 10 Y + m 20 Y , m 02 Z = m 02 X + 2 m 01 X m 01 Y + m 02 Y .
m 10 Z = m 10 X + m 10 Y , m 01 Z = m 01 X + m 01 Y .
V ( p Z ) = m 20 Z + m 02 Z ( m 10 Z ) 2 ( m 01 Z ) 2 = ( m 20 X + 2 m 10 X m 10 Y + m 20 Y ) + ( m 02 X + 2 m 01 X m 01 Y + m 02 Y ) ( m 10 X + m 10 Y ) 2 ( m 01 X + m 01 Y ) 2 = ( m 20 X + m 02 X ( m 10 X ) 2 ( m 01 X ) 2 ) + ( m 20 Y + m 02 Y ( m 10 Y ) 2 ( m 01 Y ) 2 ) = V ( p X ) + V ( p Y ) .

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