Abstract

Shaping the ferroelectric domains as waveguide, grating, lens, and prism are key to the successful penetration of periodically-poled ferroelectrics on various wavelength conversion applications. The complicated structures are, however, difficult to be fully characterized, especially the unexpected index contrast at the anti-parallel domain boundaries are typical in the order of 10−4 or less. An ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography was employed to fully characterize the domain boundary and structure properties of a periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide with an axial resolution of 0.68 μm, an transversal resolution of 3.2 μm, and an index contrast sensitivity of 4x10−7. The anti-parallel domain uniformity can clearly be seen non-invasively. Dispersion of the ferroelectric material was also obtained from 500 to 750 nm.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (3)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86(1), 111–115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. Engelke, G. Ahrens, G. Gruetzner, and D. Stifter, “Transversal ultrahigh-resolution polarizationsensitive optical coherence tomography for strain mapping in materials,” Opt. Express 14(13), 5945–5953 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

J. Wang, J. Sun, C. Lou, and Q. Sun, “Experimental demonstration of wavelength conversion between ps-pulses based on cascaded sum- and difference frequency generation (SFG+DFG) in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7405–7414 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, “Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim and V. Gopalan, “Optical index profile at an antiparallel ferroelectric domain wall in lithium niobate,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 120(1-3), 91–94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Jach, S. Kim, V. Gopalan, S. Durbin, and D. Bright, “Long-range strains and the effects of applied field at 180° ferroelectric domain walls in lithium niobate,” Phys. Rev. B 69(6), 064113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Kim, V. Gopalan, K. Kitamura, and Y. Furukawa, “Domain reversal and nonstoichiometry in lithium tantalate,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(6), 2949–2963 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

T. J. Yang, V. Gopalan, P. Swart, and U. Mohideen, “Experimental study of internal fields and movement of single ferroelectric domain walls,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61(2), 275–282 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, V. Gopalan, and B. Steiner, “Direct x-ray synchrotron imaging of strains at 180° domain walls in congruent LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 2051–2053 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (3)

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahrens, G.

Anstett, G.

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86(1), 111–115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arie, A.

Bartschke, J.

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86(1), 111–115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Batchko, R. G.

Bauer, T.

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86(1), 111–115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Best, A.

Bi, Z.

Bosenberg, W. R.

Bright, D.

T. Jach, S. Kim, V. Gopalan, S. Durbin, and D. Bright, “Long-range strains and the effects of applied field at 180° ferroelectric domain walls in lithium niobate,” Phys. Rev. B 69(6), 064113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Butt, H. J.

Byer, R. L.

Chang, W.

C. C. Tsai, T. H. Chen, Y. S. Lin, Y. T. Wang, W. Chang, K. Y. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, P. K. Hsu, D. Y. Jheng, K. Y. Huang, E. Sun, and S. L. Huang, “Ce3+:YAG double-clad crystal-fiber-based optical coherence tomography on fish cornea,” Opt. Lett. 35(6), 811–813 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Y. H.

Chen, T. H.

Chiu, P. C.

Dierolf, V.

V. Gopalan, V. Dierolf, and D. A. Scrymgeour, “Defect-domain wall interactions in trigonal ferroelectrics,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37(1), 449–489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Durbin, S.

T. Jach, S. Kim, V. Gopalan, S. Durbin, and D. Bright, “Long-range strains and the effects of applied field at 180° ferroelectric domain walls in lithium niobate,” Phys. Rev. B 69(6), 064113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eckardt, R. C.

Engelke, R.

Fejer, M. M.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furukawa, Y.

S. Kim, V. Gopalan, K. Kitamura, and Y. Furukawa, “Domain reversal and nonstoichiometry in lithium tantalate,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(6), 2949–2963 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gahagan, K. T.

Goetzinger, E.

Gopalan, V.

V. Gopalan, V. Dierolf, and D. A. Scrymgeour, “Defect-domain wall interactions in trigonal ferroelectrics,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37(1), 449–489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim and V. Gopalan, “Optical index profile at an antiparallel ferroelectric domain wall in lithium niobate,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 120(1-3), 91–94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Jach, S. Kim, V. Gopalan, S. Durbin, and D. Bright, “Long-range strains and the effects of applied field at 180° ferroelectric domain walls in lithium niobate,” Phys. Rev. B 69(6), 064113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, V. Gopalan, K. Kitamura, and Y. Furukawa, “Domain reversal and nonstoichiometry in lithium tantalate,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(6), 2949–2963 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yang, V. Gopalan, P. Swart, and U. Mohideen, “Experimental study of internal fields and movement of single ferroelectric domain walls,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61(2), 275–282 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, V. Gopalan, and B. Steiner, “Direct x-ray synchrotron imaging of strains at 180° domain walls in congruent LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 2051–2053 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Gahagan, V. Gopalan, J. M. Robinson, Q. X. Jia, T. E. Mitchell, M. J. Kawas, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, “Integrated electro-optic lens/scanner in a LiTaO3 single crystal,” Appl. Opt. 38(7), 1186–1190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Gopalan and M. C. Gupta, “Origin and characteristics of internal fields in LiNbO3 crystals,” Ferroelectrics 198(1), 49–59 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruetzner, G.

Gupta, M. C.

V. Gopalan and M. C. Gupta, “Origin and characteristics of internal fields in LiNbO3 crystals,” Ferroelectrics 198(1), 49–59 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hsu, K. Y.

Hsu, P. K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, K. Y.

Huang, S. L.

Jach, T.

T. Jach, S. Kim, V. Gopalan, S. Durbin, and D. Bright, “Long-range strains and the effects of applied field at 180° ferroelectric domain walls in lithium niobate,” Phys. Rev. B 69(6), 064113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jheng, D. Y.

Jia, Q. X.

Jundt, D. H.

Kawas, M. J.

Kim, S.

S. Kim and V. Gopalan, “Optical index profile at an antiparallel ferroelectric domain wall in lithium niobate,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 120(1-3), 91–94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Jach, S. Kim, V. Gopalan, S. Durbin, and D. Bright, “Long-range strains and the effects of applied field at 180° ferroelectric domain walls in lithium niobate,” Phys. Rev. B 69(6), 064113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, V. Gopalan, K. Kitamura, and Y. Furukawa, “Domain reversal and nonstoichiometry in lithium tantalate,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(6), 2949–2963 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, V. Gopalan, and B. Steiner, “Direct x-ray synchrotron imaging of strains at 180° domain walls in congruent LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 2051–2053 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, K.

S. Kim, V. Gopalan, K. Kitamura, and Y. Furukawa, “Domain reversal and nonstoichiometry in lithium tantalate,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(6), 2949–2963 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T. L.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, “Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koynov, K.

Krolikowski, W.

Kung, A. H.

L’Huillier, J. A.

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86(1), 111–115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. M.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, D. F.

Lin, Y. S.

Liu, X.

Liu, X. H.

Lou, C.

McConnell, G.

Miller, G. D.

Mitchell, T. E.

Mohideen, U.

T. J. Yang, V. Gopalan, P. Swart, and U. Mohideen, “Experimental study of internal fields and movement of single ferroelectric domain walls,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61(2), 275–282 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Myers, L. E.

Nittmann, M.

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86(1), 111–115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Norris, G.

Pafchek, R. M.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, “Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paul, O.

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86(1), 111–115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pei, S. C.

Pircher, M.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quosig, A.

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86(1), 111–115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. M.

Schlesinger, T. E.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrymgeour, D. A.

V. Gopalan, V. Dierolf, and D. A. Scrymgeour, “Defect-domain wall interactions in trigonal ferroelectrics,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37(1), 449–489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Y.

Stancil, D. D.

Steiner, B.

S. Kim, V. Gopalan, and B. Steiner, “Direct x-ray synchrotron imaging of strains at 180° domain walls in congruent LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 2051–2053 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stifter, D.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sukumaran, G.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, “Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, D. H.

Sun, E.

Sun, J.

Sun, Q.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swart, P.

T. J. Yang, V. Gopalan, P. Swart, and U. Mohideen, “Experimental study of internal fields and movement of single ferroelectric domain walls,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61(2), 275–282 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tai, T. M.

Tsai, C. C.

Tsai, M. C.

Tulloch, W. M.

Wang, J.

Wang, K. M.

Wang, Y. T.

Webster, M. A.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, “Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weise, D. R.

Wiesauer, K.

Yang, T. J.

T. J. Yang, V. Gopalan, P. Swart, and U. Mohideen, “Experimental study of internal fields and movement of single ferroelectric domain walls,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61(2), 275–282 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. M.

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

V. Gopalan, V. Dierolf, and D. A. Scrymgeour, “Defect-domain wall interactions in trigonal ferroelectrics,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37(1), 449–489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

O. Paul, A. Quosig, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, J. Bartschke, G. Anstett, and J. A. L’Huillier, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation in the MIR for the extraordinary refractive index of 5% MgO doped congruent LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 86(1), 111–115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, “Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, V. Gopalan, and B. Steiner, “Direct x-ray synchrotron imaging of strains at 180° domain walls in congruent LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 2051–2053 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

V. Gopalan and M. C. Gupta, “Origin and characteristics of internal fields in LiNbO3 crystals,” Ferroelectrics 198(1), 49–59 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Kim, V. Gopalan, K. Kitamura, and Y. Furukawa, “Domain reversal and nonstoichiometry in lithium tantalate,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(6), 2949–2963 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

T. J. Yang, V. Gopalan, P. Swart, and U. Mohideen, “Experimental study of internal fields and movement of single ferroelectric domain walls,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61(2), 275–282 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

S. Kim and V. Gopalan, “Optical index profile at an antiparallel ferroelectric domain wall in lithium niobate,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 120(1-3), 91–94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

T. Jach, S. Kim, V. Gopalan, S. Durbin, and D. Bright, “Long-range strains and the effects of applied field at 180° ferroelectric domain walls in lithium niobate,” Phys. Rev. B 69(6), 064113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Profiles of z-face etched patterns of a PPLN bulk crystal by (a) OCT and (b) AFM. Top: 3D images, Bottom: Line scan profiles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Axial scan of a periodically poled congruent LiNbO3 crystal without etching. Inset shows the surface etched pattern by an optical microscope.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The cross-section scan with polarization-analytic OCT. The fine lines in axial position from 300 to 400 μm cannot be seen when the light polarization is normal to the c-axis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

3D image of domain boundary layers of a PPLN bulk crystal. The domain uniformity can clearly be seen in Media 1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dispersion of extraordinary wave of a 5 mol.% MgO-doped CLN by peaks 1 and 3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Axial scans of periodically poled congruent LiTaO3 and periodically poled near-stoichiometric LiTaO3 crystals.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical microscope images show the structure of a triple-layer planar ridge PPLN waveguide, WG-1, with a length of 1 mm. (a) end view and (b) top view. The yellow arrows in (a) indicate the OCT axial scan locations shown in Fig. 8. The red circle shows the scan area in Fig. 9.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Depth position of axial scan (a) with and (b) without through the ridge waveguide.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

3D tomographic images of a planar ridge PPLN waveguide. (a) The scan area is shown in Fig. 7(a). Markers (1) to (4) correspond to the interfaces (1) to (4) in Fig. 7(a). (b) A different viewing angle shows the poled pitches in the waveguiding region.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Waveguide thickness measurement

Equations (1)

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I i = I 0 T 1 2 T 2 i - 4 R . (for i>1, i: integer) T 1 = 4 n n 0 ( n + n 0 ) 2 , T = 4 n ( n + Δ n ) ( 2 n + Δ n ) 2 , R = ( Δ n 2 n + Δ n ) 2 , I 1 = I 0 ( n n 0 n + n 0 ) 2 .

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