Abstract

Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) has been used as a platform for near-infrared photonic devices for more than twenty years. Longer wavelengths, however, may be problematic for SOI due to higher absorption loss in silicon dioxide. In this paper we report propagation loss measurements for the longest wavelength used so far on SOI platform. We show that propagation losses of 0.6-0.7 dB/cm can be achieved at a wavelength of 3.39 µm. We also report propagation loss measurements for silicon on porous silicon (SiPSi) waveguides at the same wavelength.

© 2011 OSA

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2010

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, S. Messaoudène, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Real-time cancellation of temperature induced resonance shifts in SOI wire waveguide ring resonator label-free biosensor arrays,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22867–22879 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, A. Spott, R. Ilic, A. Spott, B. Penkov, W. Asher, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-on-sapphire integrated waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12127–12135 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Tsay, E. Mujagić, C. K. Madsen, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mid-infrared characterization of solution-processed As2S3 chalcogenide glass waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15523–15530 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, P. Yang, M. B. H. Breese, B. Q. Xiong, G. Z. Mashanovich, W. R. Headley, and G. T. Reed, “Fabrication of low-loss silicon-on-oxidized-porous-silicon strip waveguide using focused proton-beam irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 659–661 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared regions,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Milošević, P. S. Matavulj, P. Y. Yang, A. Bagolini, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Rib waveguides for mid-infrared silicon photonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(9), 1760–1766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

R. Soref, “Towards silicon-based longwave integrated optoelectronics (LIO),” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689809, 689809-13 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, and D. J. Blackwood, “Three-dimensional control of optical waveguide fabrication in silicon,” Opt. Express 16(2), 573–578 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, G. Mashanovich, P. E. Jessop, L. Rowe, S. McFaul, D. Bruce, and N. G. Tarr, “Sub-micron optical waveguides for silicon photonics formed via the local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS),” Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980R, 68980R-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

V. Raghunathan, D. Borlaug, R. R. Rice, and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a Mid-infrared silicon Raman amplifier,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14355–14362 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurements at 10.6 µm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, I. Gomez-Morilla, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, E. J. Teo, D. J. Blackwood, M. B. H. Breese, and A. A. Bettiol, “Free standing waveguides in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A 8, 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1982

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89(3), 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alic, N.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, C. B.

Asher, W.

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89(3), 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, A. Spott, R. Ilic, A. Spott, B. Penkov, W. Asher, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-on-sapphire integrated waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12127–12135 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagolini, A.

Bailey, R. C.

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bettiol, A. A.

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared regions,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, P. Yang, M. B. H. Breese, B. Q. Xiong, G. Z. Mashanovich, W. R. Headley, and G. T. Reed, “Fabrication of low-loss silicon-on-oxidized-porous-silicon strip waveguide using focused proton-beam irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 659–661 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, and D. J. Blackwood, “Three-dimensional control of optical waveguide fabrication in silicon,” Opt. Express 16(2), 573–578 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, I. Gomez-Morilla, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, E. J. Teo, D. J. Blackwood, M. B. H. Breese, and A. A. Bettiol, “Free standing waveguides in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blackwood, D. J.

E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, and D. J. Blackwood, “Three-dimensional control of optical waveguide fabrication in silicon,” Opt. Express 16(2), 573–578 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, I. Gomez-Morilla, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, E. J. Teo, D. J. Blackwood, M. B. H. Breese, and A. A. Bettiol, “Free standing waveguides in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boggio, J. M. C.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bonhomme, E.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurements at 10.6 µm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Borlaug, D.

Breese, M. B. H.

E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, P. Yang, M. B. H. Breese, B. Q. Xiong, G. Z. Mashanovich, W. R. Headley, and G. T. Reed, “Fabrication of low-loss silicon-on-oxidized-porous-silicon strip waveguide using focused proton-beam irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 659–661 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared regions,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, and D. J. Blackwood, “Three-dimensional control of optical waveguide fabrication in silicon,” Opt. Express 16(2), 573–578 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, I. Gomez-Morilla, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, E. J. Teo, D. J. Blackwood, M. B. H. Breese, and A. A. Bettiol, “Free standing waveguides in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Broquin, J.-E.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurements at 10.6 µm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bruce, D.

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, G. Mashanovich, P. E. Jessop, L. Rowe, S. McFaul, D. Bruce, and N. G. Tarr, “Sub-micron optical waveguides for silicon photonics formed via the local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS),” Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980R, 68980R-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Buchwald, W. R.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A 8, 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Crnjanski, J.

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared regions,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Divliansky, I. B.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Emelett, S. J.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A 8, 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J.-M.

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, G. Mashanovich, P. E. Jessop, L. Rowe, S. McFaul, D. Bruce, and N. G. Tarr, “Sub-micron optical waveguides for silicon photonics formed via the local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS),” Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980R, 68980R-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giusca, C.

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared regions,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C. F.

Gomez-Morilla, I.

P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, I. Gomez-Morilla, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, E. J. Teo, D. J. Blackwood, M. B. H. Breese, and A. A. Bettiol, “Free standing waveguides in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, L. C.

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Headley, W.

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared regions,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Headley, W. R.

Hochberg, M.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, A. Spott, R. Ilic, A. Spott, B. Penkov, W. Asher, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-on-sapphire integrated waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12127–12135 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilic, R.

T. Baehr-Jones, A. Spott, R. Ilic, A. Spott, B. Penkov, W. Asher, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-on-sapphire integrated waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12127–12135 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Janz, S.

Jessop, P. E.

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, G. Mashanovich, P. E. Jessop, L. Rowe, S. McFaul, D. Bruce, and N. G. Tarr, “Sub-micron optical waveguides for silicon photonics formed via the local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS),” Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980R, 68980R-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kern, P.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurements at 10.6 µm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knights, A. P.

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, G. Mashanovich, P. E. Jessop, L. Rowe, S. McFaul, D. Bruce, and N. G. Tarr, “Sub-micron optical waveguides for silicon photonics formed via the local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS),” Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980R, 68980R-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Labadie, L.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurements at 10.6 µm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lapointe, J.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R.

Madsen, C. K.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, G. Mashanovich, P. E. Jessop, L. Rowe, S. McFaul, D. Bruce, and N. G. Tarr, “Sub-micron optical waveguides for silicon photonics formed via the local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS),” Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980R, 68980R-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, P. Yang, M. B. H. Breese, B. Q. Xiong, G. Z. Mashanovich, W. R. Headley, and G. T. Reed, “Fabrication of low-loss silicon-on-oxidized-porous-silicon strip waveguide using focused proton-beam irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 659–661 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Milošević, P. S. Matavulj, P. Y. Yang, A. Bagolini, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Rib waveguides for mid-infrared silicon photonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(9), 1760–1766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared regions,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, and D. J. Blackwood, “Three-dimensional control of optical waveguide fabrication in silicon,” Opt. Express 16(2), 573–578 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, I. Gomez-Morilla, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, E. J. Teo, D. J. Blackwood, M. B. H. Breese, and A. A. Bettiol, “Free standing waveguides in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matavulj, P. S.

McFaul, S.

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, G. Mashanovich, P. E. Jessop, L. Rowe, S. McFaul, D. Bruce, and N. G. Tarr, “Sub-micron optical waveguides for silicon photonics formed via the local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS),” Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980R, 68980R-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Messaoudène, S.

Miloševic, M. M.

Mookherjea, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moro, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mujagic, E.

Osgood, R. M.

X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Post, E.

Pradel, A.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurements at 10.6 µm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Radic, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Raghunathan, V.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared regions,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, P. Yang, M. B. H. Breese, B. Q. Xiong, G. Z. Mashanovich, W. R. Headley, and G. T. Reed, “Fabrication of low-loss silicon-on-oxidized-porous-silicon strip waveguide using focused proton-beam irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 659–661 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, G. Mashanovich, P. E. Jessop, L. Rowe, S. McFaul, D. Bruce, and N. G. Tarr, “Sub-micron optical waveguides for silicon photonics formed via the local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS),” Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980R, 68980R-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, and D. J. Blackwood, “Three-dimensional control of optical waveguide fabrication in silicon,” Opt. Express 16(2), 573–578 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, I. Gomez-Morilla, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, E. J. Teo, D. J. Blackwood, M. B. H. Breese, and A. A. Bettiol, “Free standing waveguides in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rice, R. R.

Rowe, L.

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, G. Mashanovich, P. E. Jessop, L. Rowe, S. McFaul, D. Bruce, and N. G. Tarr, “Sub-micron optical waveguides for silicon photonics formed via the local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS),” Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980R, 68980R-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A 8, 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Stankovic, S.

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared regions,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tarr, N. G.

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, G. Mashanovich, P. E. Jessop, L. Rowe, S. McFaul, D. Bruce, and N. G. Tarr, “Sub-micron optical waveguides for silicon photonics formed via the local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS),” Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980R, 68980R-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Teo, E. J.

E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, P. Yang, M. B. H. Breese, B. Q. Xiong, G. Z. Mashanovich, W. R. Headley, and G. T. Reed, “Fabrication of low-loss silicon-on-oxidized-porous-silicon strip waveguide using focused proton-beam irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 659–661 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared regions,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, and D. J. Blackwood, “Three-dimensional control of optical waveguide fabrication in silicon,” Opt. Express 16(2), 573–578 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, I. Gomez-Morilla, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, E. J. Teo, D. J. Blackwood, M. B. H. Breese, and A. A. Bettiol, “Free standing waveguides in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D.

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared regions,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Vachon, M.

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C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurements at 10.6 µm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Washburn, A. L.

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Xu, D.-X.

Yang, P.

Yang, P. Y.

M. M. Milošević, P. S. Matavulj, P. Y. Yang, A. Bagolini, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Rib waveguides for mid-infrared silicon photonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(9), 1760–1766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared regions,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, and D. J. Blackwood, “Three-dimensional control of optical waveguide fabrication in silicon,” Opt. Express 16(2), 573–578 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, I. Gomez-Morilla, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, E. J. Teo, D. J. Blackwood, M. B. H. Breese, and A. A. Bettiol, “Free standing waveguides in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zlatanovic, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
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P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, I. Gomez-Morilla, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, E. J. Teo, D. J. Blackwood, M. B. H. Breese, and A. A. Bettiol, “Free standing waveguides in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurements at 10.6 µm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron.

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared regions,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 159–163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A 8, 840–848 (2006).
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G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
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S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
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F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, G. Mashanovich, P. E. Jessop, L. Rowe, S. McFaul, D. Bruce, and N. G. Tarr, “Sub-micron optical waveguides for silicon photonics formed via the local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS),” Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980R, 68980R-4 (2008).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross section of a Si on porous Si waveguide fabricated by proton beam irradiation over a large area [23].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup used for measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relatively high propagation losses of 4.6 ± 0.2 dB/cm (chip A), 4.5 ± 0.2 dB/cm (chip B), 4.5 ± 0.3 dB/cm (chip C) were measured for SOI samples with 1 µm BOX.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Lower propagation losses of 2.4 ± 0.2 dB/cm (chip 1), 2.0 ± 0.2 dB/cm (chip 2), and 1.9 ± 0.2 dB/cm (chip 3) were measured for SOI samples with 2 µm BOX.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SOI samples with 2 µm BOX that had around 2 dB/cm propagation loss before oxidation showed significantly lower losses after oxidation: 0.6 ± 0.2 dB/cm (chip 1), 0.7 ± 0.1 dB/cm (chip 2).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Propagation loss was similar for both TE and TM input polarizations.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Propagation loss for unoxidised 4 × 2 μm SiPSi waveguide fabricated by the direct write method was 5.6 ± 0.2 dB/cm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Propagation loss for oxidized 4 × 2 μm SiPSi waveguides fabricated by large area implantation: a) 2.1 ± 0.2 dB/cm at 1.55 µm, and b) 3.9 ± 0.2 dB/cm at 3.39 µm.

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