Abstract

In this preliminary study we present a depth resolved transmission image sequence of an object combined with the materials discriminating ability of angular dispersive X-ray diffraction. Volumes within the object giving rise to diffraction patterns matched to a library of specific materials have been encoded visually within the images. The intensity of these highlighted areas has been weighted based on the certainty of the match. Both the theory and experimental proof of principle have been demonstrated. Considerations pertaining to a “scaled up” version of this technique are also discussed.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (1)

M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(3), 515–534 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (8)

C. Kottler, V. Revol, R. Kaufmann, and C. Urban, “Dual energy phase contrast x-ray imaging with Talbot-Lau interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 114906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Loschke and W. L. Dunn, “Detection of chemical explosives using multiple photon signatures,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(4-5), 884–887 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Lowrey and W. L. Dunn, “Signature-based radiation scanning using radiation interrogation to detect explosives,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(4-5), 893–895 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sun, M. Li, F. Zhang, Y. Zhong, N. Kang, W. Lu, and J. Liu, “The performance of a fast testing system for illicit materials detection based on energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction technique,” Microchem. J. 95(2), 293–297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Pani, E. J. Cook, J. A. Horrocks, J. L. Jones, and R. D. Speller, “Characterization of breast tissue using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction computed tomography,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(10), 1980–1987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dicken, K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, and J. W. Chan, “The separation of X-ray diffraction patterns for threat detection,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(3), 439–443 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Dicken, K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, J. W. Chan, and X. Wang, “Position determination of scatter signatures--a novel sensor geometry,” Talanta 83(2), 431–435 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, J. W. Chan, and A. Dicken, “Focal construct geometry – a novel approach to the acquisition of diffraction data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 43(2), 264–268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

G. Harding, “X-ray diffraction imaging--a multi-generational perspective,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 67(2), 287–295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Harding, “X-ray diffraction imaging--a multi-generational perspective,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 67(2), 287–295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

R. J. Cernik, K. H. Khor, and C. Hansson, “X-ray colour imaging,” J. R. Soc. Interface 5(21), 477–481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. Singh, “Sensors--an effective approach for the detection of explosives,” J. Hazard. Mater. 144(1-2), 15–28 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vogel, “Search by X-rays applied technology,” Eur. J. Radiol. 63(2), 227–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

J. P. O. Evans, Y. Liu, J. W. Chan, and D. Downes, “View synthesis for depth from motion 3D X-ray imaging,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. 27(15), 1863–1873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, U. Lienert, J. Almer, S. D. Shastri, H. O. Sørensen, C. Gundlach, and W. Pantleon, “Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation,” Science 312(5775), 889–892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. J. Wilkinson, K. D. Rogers, C. J. Hall, R. A. Lewis, A. Round, S. E. Pinder, C. Boggis, and A. Hufton, “Small angle diffraction imaging for disease diagnosis,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 548(1-2), 135–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. Singh and M. Singh, “Explosive detection systems (EDS) for aviation security,” Signal Process. 83(1), 31–55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. P. O. Evans and H. W. Hon, “Dynamic stereoscopic X-ray imaging,” NDT Int. 35(5), 337–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Larson, W. Yang, G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. Z. Tischler, “Three-dimensional X-ray structural microscopy with submicrometre resolution,” Nature 415(6874), 887–890 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

C. H. Malden and R. D. Speller, “A CdZnTe array for the detection of explosives in baggage by energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction signature at multiple scatter angles,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 449(1-2), 408–415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Allison, B. J.

M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(3), 515–534 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Almer, J.

B. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, U. Lienert, J. Almer, S. D. Shastri, H. O. Sørensen, C. Gundlach, and W. Pantleon, “Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation,” Science 312(5775), 889–892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boggis, C.

S. J. Wilkinson, K. D. Rogers, C. J. Hall, R. A. Lewis, A. Round, S. E. Pinder, C. Boggis, and A. Hufton, “Small angle diffraction imaging for disease diagnosis,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 548(1-2), 135–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Budai, J. D.

B. C. Larson, W. Yang, G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. Z. Tischler, “Three-dimensional X-ray structural microscopy with submicrometre resolution,” Nature 415(6874), 887–890 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cernik, R. J.

R. J. Cernik, K. H. Khor, and C. Hansson, “X-ray colour imaging,” J. R. Soc. Interface 5(21), 477–481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J. W.

A. Dicken, K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, and J. W. Chan, “The separation of X-ray diffraction patterns for threat detection,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(3), 439–443 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Dicken, K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, J. W. Chan, and X. Wang, “Position determination of scatter signatures--a novel sensor geometry,” Talanta 83(2), 431–435 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, J. W. Chan, and A. Dicken, “Focal construct geometry – a novel approach to the acquisition of diffraction data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 43(2), 264–268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. O. Evans, Y. Liu, J. W. Chan, and D. Downes, “View synthesis for depth from motion 3D X-ray imaging,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. 27(15), 1863–1873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cook, E. J.

S. Pani, E. J. Cook, J. A. Horrocks, J. L. Jones, and R. D. Speller, “Characterization of breast tissue using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction computed tomography,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(10), 1980–1987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dicken, A.

A. Dicken, K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, J. W. Chan, and X. Wang, “Position determination of scatter signatures--a novel sensor geometry,” Talanta 83(2), 431–435 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dicken, K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, and J. W. Chan, “The separation of X-ray diffraction patterns for threat detection,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(3), 439–443 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, J. W. Chan, and A. Dicken, “Focal construct geometry – a novel approach to the acquisition of diffraction data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 43(2), 264–268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Downes, D.

J. P. O. Evans, Y. Liu, J. W. Chan, and D. Downes, “View synthesis for depth from motion 3D X-ray imaging,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. 27(15), 1863–1873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, W. L.

K. W. Loschke and W. L. Dunn, “Detection of chemical explosives using multiple photon signatures,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(4-5), 884–887 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Lowrey and W. L. Dunn, “Signature-based radiation scanning using radiation interrogation to detect explosives,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(4-5), 893–895 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, J. P. O.

J. P. O. Evans, Y. Liu, J. W. Chan, and D. Downes, “View synthesis for depth from motion 3D X-ray imaging,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. 27(15), 1863–1873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. P. O. Evans and H. W. Hon, “Dynamic stereoscopic X-ray imaging,” NDT Int. 35(5), 337–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Evans, P.

A. Dicken, K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, and J. W. Chan, “The separation of X-ray diffraction patterns for threat detection,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(3), 439–443 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Dicken, K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, J. W. Chan, and X. Wang, “Position determination of scatter signatures--a novel sensor geometry,” Talanta 83(2), 431–435 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, J. W. Chan, and A. Dicken, “Focal construct geometry – a novel approach to the acquisition of diffraction data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 43(2), 264–268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gundlach, C.

B. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, U. Lienert, J. Almer, S. D. Shastri, H. O. Sørensen, C. Gundlach, and W. Pantleon, “Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation,” Science 312(5775), 889–892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, C. J.

S. J. Wilkinson, K. D. Rogers, C. J. Hall, R. A. Lewis, A. Round, S. E. Pinder, C. Boggis, and A. Hufton, “Small angle diffraction imaging for disease diagnosis,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 548(1-2), 135–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hansson, C.

R. J. Cernik, K. H. Khor, and C. Hansson, “X-ray colour imaging,” J. R. Soc. Interface 5(21), 477–481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harding, G.

G. Harding, “X-ray diffraction imaging--a multi-generational perspective,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 67(2), 287–295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Harding, “X-ray diffraction imaging--a multi-generational perspective,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 67(2), 287–295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hon, H. W.

J. P. O. Evans and H. W. Hon, “Dynamic stereoscopic X-ray imaging,” NDT Int. 35(5), 337–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hooper, S. B.

M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(3), 515–534 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horrocks, J. A.

S. Pani, E. J. Cook, J. A. Horrocks, J. L. Jones, and R. D. Speller, “Characterization of breast tissue using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction computed tomography,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(10), 1980–1987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hufton, A.

S. J. Wilkinson, K. D. Rogers, C. J. Hall, R. A. Lewis, A. Round, S. E. Pinder, C. Boggis, and A. Hufton, “Small angle diffraction imaging for disease diagnosis,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 548(1-2), 135–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ice, G. E.

B. C. Larson, W. Yang, G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. Z. Tischler, “Three-dimensional X-ray structural microscopy with submicrometre resolution,” Nature 415(6874), 887–890 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jakobsen, B.

B. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, U. Lienert, J. Almer, S. D. Shastri, H. O. Sørensen, C. Gundlach, and W. Pantleon, “Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation,” Science 312(5775), 889–892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, J. L.

S. Pani, E. J. Cook, J. A. Horrocks, J. L. Jones, and R. D. Speller, “Characterization of breast tissue using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction computed tomography,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(10), 1980–1987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, N.

B. Sun, M. Li, F. Zhang, Y. Zhong, N. Kang, W. Lu, and J. Liu, “The performance of a fast testing system for illicit materials detection based on energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction technique,” Microchem. J. 95(2), 293–297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, R.

C. Kottler, V. Revol, R. Kaufmann, and C. Urban, “Dual energy phase contrast x-ray imaging with Talbot-Lau interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 114906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Khor, K. H.

R. J. Cernik, K. H. Khor, and C. Hansson, “X-ray colour imaging,” J. R. Soc. Interface 5(21), 477–481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kitchen, M. J.

M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(3), 515–534 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kottler, C.

C. Kottler, V. Revol, R. Kaufmann, and C. Urban, “Dual energy phase contrast x-ray imaging with Talbot-Lau interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 114906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Larson, B. C.

B. C. Larson, W. Yang, G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. Z. Tischler, “Three-dimensional X-ray structural microscopy with submicrometre resolution,” Nature 415(6874), 887–890 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, R. A.

M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(3), 515–534 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Wilkinson, K. D. Rogers, C. J. Hall, R. A. Lewis, A. Round, S. E. Pinder, C. Boggis, and A. Hufton, “Small angle diffraction imaging for disease diagnosis,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 548(1-2), 135–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

B. Sun, M. Li, F. Zhang, Y. Zhong, N. Kang, W. Lu, and J. Liu, “The performance of a fast testing system for illicit materials detection based on energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction technique,” Microchem. J. 95(2), 293–297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lienert, U.

B. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, U. Lienert, J. Almer, S. D. Shastri, H. O. Sørensen, C. Gundlach, and W. Pantleon, “Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation,” Science 312(5775), 889–892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

B. Sun, M. Li, F. Zhang, Y. Zhong, N. Kang, W. Lu, and J. Liu, “The performance of a fast testing system for illicit materials detection based on energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction technique,” Microchem. J. 95(2), 293–297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

J. P. O. Evans, Y. Liu, J. W. Chan, and D. Downes, “View synthesis for depth from motion 3D X-ray imaging,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. 27(15), 1863–1873 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Loschke, K. W.

K. W. Loschke and W. L. Dunn, “Detection of chemical explosives using multiple photon signatures,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(4-5), 884–887 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lowrey, J. D.

J. D. Lowrey and W. L. Dunn, “Signature-based radiation scanning using radiation interrogation to detect explosives,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(4-5), 893–895 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, W.

B. Sun, M. Li, F. Zhang, Y. Zhong, N. Kang, W. Lu, and J. Liu, “The performance of a fast testing system for illicit materials detection based on energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction technique,” Microchem. J. 95(2), 293–297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Malden, C. H.

C. H. Malden and R. D. Speller, “A CdZnTe array for the detection of explosives in baggage by energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction signature at multiple scatter angles,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 449(1-2), 408–415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paganin, D. M.

M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(3), 515–534 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pani, S.

S. Pani, E. J. Cook, J. A. Horrocks, J. L. Jones, and R. D. Speller, “Characterization of breast tissue using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction computed tomography,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(10), 1980–1987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pantleon, W.

B. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, U. Lienert, J. Almer, S. D. Shastri, H. O. Sørensen, C. Gundlach, and W. Pantleon, “Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation,” Science 312(5775), 889–892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavlov, K. M.

M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(3), 515–534 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinder, S. E.

S. J. Wilkinson, K. D. Rogers, C. J. Hall, R. A. Lewis, A. Round, S. E. Pinder, C. Boggis, and A. Hufton, “Small angle diffraction imaging for disease diagnosis,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 548(1-2), 135–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, H. F.

B. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, U. Lienert, J. Almer, S. D. Shastri, H. O. Sørensen, C. Gundlach, and W. Pantleon, “Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation,” Science 312(5775), 889–892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Revol, V.

C. Kottler, V. Revol, R. Kaufmann, and C. Urban, “Dual energy phase contrast x-ray imaging with Talbot-Lau interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 114906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J.

A. Dicken, K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, J. W. Chan, and X. Wang, “Position determination of scatter signatures--a novel sensor geometry,” Talanta 83(2), 431–435 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dicken, K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, and J. W. Chan, “The separation of X-ray diffraction patterns for threat detection,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(3), 439–443 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, J. W. Chan, and A. Dicken, “Focal construct geometry – a novel approach to the acquisition of diffraction data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 43(2), 264–268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, K.

K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, J. W. Chan, and A. Dicken, “Focal construct geometry – a novel approach to the acquisition of diffraction data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 43(2), 264–268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Dicken, K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, and J. W. Chan, “The separation of X-ray diffraction patterns for threat detection,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(3), 439–443 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Dicken, K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, J. W. Chan, and X. Wang, “Position determination of scatter signatures--a novel sensor geometry,” Talanta 83(2), 431–435 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, K. D.

S. J. Wilkinson, K. D. Rogers, C. J. Hall, R. A. Lewis, A. Round, S. E. Pinder, C. Boggis, and A. Hufton, “Small angle diffraction imaging for disease diagnosis,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 548(1-2), 135–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Round, A.

S. J. Wilkinson, K. D. Rogers, C. J. Hall, R. A. Lewis, A. Round, S. E. Pinder, C. Boggis, and A. Hufton, “Small angle diffraction imaging for disease diagnosis,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 548(1-2), 135–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shastri, S. D.

B. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, U. Lienert, J. Almer, S. D. Shastri, H. O. Sørensen, C. Gundlach, and W. Pantleon, “Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation,” Science 312(5775), 889–892 (2006).
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Singh, M.

S. Singh and M. Singh, “Explosive detection systems (EDS) for aviation security,” Signal Process. 83(1), 31–55 (2003).
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S. Singh, “Sensors--an effective approach for the detection of explosives,” J. Hazard. Mater. 144(1-2), 15–28 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Singh and M. Singh, “Explosive detection systems (EDS) for aviation security,” Signal Process. 83(1), 31–55 (2003).
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B. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, U. Lienert, J. Almer, S. D. Shastri, H. O. Sørensen, C. Gundlach, and W. Pantleon, “Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation,” Science 312(5775), 889–892 (2006).
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Speller, R. D.

S. Pani, E. J. Cook, J. A. Horrocks, J. L. Jones, and R. D. Speller, “Characterization of breast tissue using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction computed tomography,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(10), 1980–1987 (2010).
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B. Sun, M. Li, F. Zhang, Y. Zhong, N. Kang, W. Lu, and J. Liu, “The performance of a fast testing system for illicit materials detection based on energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction technique,” Microchem. J. 95(2), 293–297 (2010).
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B. C. Larson, W. Yang, G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. Z. Tischler, “Three-dimensional X-ray structural microscopy with submicrometre resolution,” Nature 415(6874), 887–890 (2002).
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M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(3), 515–534 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Kottler, V. Revol, R. Kaufmann, and C. Urban, “Dual energy phase contrast x-ray imaging with Talbot-Lau interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 114906 (2010).
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H. Vogel, “Search by X-rays applied technology,” Eur. J. Radiol. 63(2), 227–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Dicken, K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, J. W. Chan, and X. Wang, “Position determination of scatter signatures--a novel sensor geometry,” Talanta 83(2), 431–435 (2010).
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Wilkinson, S. J.

S. J. Wilkinson, K. D. Rogers, C. J. Hall, R. A. Lewis, A. Round, S. E. Pinder, C. Boggis, and A. Hufton, “Small angle diffraction imaging for disease diagnosis,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 548(1-2), 135–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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B. C. Larson, W. Yang, G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. Z. Tischler, “Three-dimensional X-ray structural microscopy with submicrometre resolution,” Nature 415(6874), 887–890 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

B. Sun, M. Li, F. Zhang, Y. Zhong, N. Kang, W. Lu, and J. Liu, “The performance of a fast testing system for illicit materials detection based on energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction technique,” Microchem. J. 95(2), 293–297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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B. Sun, M. Li, F. Zhang, Y. Zhong, N. Kang, W. Lu, and J. Liu, “The performance of a fast testing system for illicit materials detection based on energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction technique,” Microchem. J. 95(2), 293–297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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A. Dicken, K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, and J. W. Chan, “The separation of X-ray diffraction patterns for threat detection,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(3), 439–443 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Harding, “X-ray diffraction imaging--a multi-generational perspective,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 67(2), 287–295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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H. Vogel, “Search by X-rays applied technology,” Eur. J. Radiol. 63(2), 227–236 (2007).
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K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, J. W. Chan, and A. Dicken, “Focal construct geometry – a novel approach to the acquisition of diffraction data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 43(2), 264–268 (2010).
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C. Kottler, V. Revol, R. Kaufmann, and C. Urban, “Dual energy phase contrast x-ray imaging with Talbot-Lau interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 114906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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S. Singh, “Sensors--an effective approach for the detection of explosives,” J. Hazard. Mater. 144(1-2), 15–28 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. J. Cernik, K. H. Khor, and C. Hansson, “X-ray colour imaging,” J. R. Soc. Interface 5(21), 477–481 (2008).
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B. Sun, M. Li, F. Zhang, Y. Zhong, N. Kang, W. Lu, and J. Liu, “The performance of a fast testing system for illicit materials detection based on energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction technique,” Microchem. J. 95(2), 293–297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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J. P. O. Evans and H. W. Hon, “Dynamic stereoscopic X-ray imaging,” NDT Int. 35(5), 337–345 (2002).
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Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (2)

S. J. Wilkinson, K. D. Rogers, C. J. Hall, R. A. Lewis, A. Round, S. E. Pinder, C. Boggis, and A. Hufton, “Small angle diffraction imaging for disease diagnosis,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 548(1-2), 135–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Malden and R. D. Speller, “A CdZnTe array for the detection of explosives in baggage by energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction signature at multiple scatter angles,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 449(1-2), 408–415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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M. J. Kitchen, D. M. Paganin, K. Uesugi, B. J. Allison, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. M. Pavlov, “Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(3), 515–534 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

B. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, U. Lienert, J. Almer, S. D. Shastri, H. O. Sørensen, C. Gundlach, and W. Pantleon, “Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation,” Science 312(5775), 889–892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Singh and M. Singh, “Explosive detection systems (EDS) for aviation security,” Signal Process. 83(1), 31–55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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A. Dicken, K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, J. W. Chan, and X. Wang, “Position determination of scatter signatures--a novel sensor geometry,” Talanta 83(2), 431–435 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. J. Cook, J. A. Griffiths, M. Koutalonis, C. Gent, S. Pani, J. A. Horrocks, L. George, S. Hardwick, and R. Speller, “Illicit drug detection using energy dispersive X-ray diffraction”, Proc of SPIE Vol 7310 (2009).

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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (3864 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic illustrating the KDEX configuration (a) where the inspection volume is illustrated normal to the primary beam and a superposition at a given degree of rotation. The diffraction configuration (b) is also illustrated with the same detector positioned at differing distances along the primary beam path.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic illustrating the material composition of objects within the phantom.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A transmission image of the inspection volume at 0° rotation (a). The locations of the 28 interrogated positions that were illuminated by pencil beams (b). The tagged regions illustrating areas identified to contain threat materials (c). The end on projection of a ruler can be seen in the top left hand corner of each image, this can be better appreciated in the accompanying video.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Selected transmission images from a KDEX image sequence. Images are from −15° (a), −5° (b), +5° (c) and +15° (d) rotation of the inspection volume. Areas reported to have a target material based on their diffraction pattern have been colour encoded in red. The intensity of the red channel in the tagged areas reflects the certainty with which the area is believed to contain the target. (Media 1)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Four diffraction patterns obtained from a single interrogated point in the inspection volume collected at specified distances along the primary beam path.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Bragg maxima tracked to a single location in depth using the diffraction patterns illustrated in Fig. 3 and the peaking finding algorithm. The Bragg maxima correlate well with Al2O3.

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