Abstract

Neutral points are specific directions in the light field where the three Stokes parameters Q, U, V, and thus the degree of polarization simultaneously go to zero. We have made the first measurement of non-principal-plane neutral points in the upwelling light field in natural waters. These neutral points are located at approximately 40°- 80° nadir angle and between 120° - 160° azimuth to the sun which is well off of the principal plane. Calculations show that the neutral point positions are very sensitive to the balance in the incident light between the partially polarized skylight and the direct solar beam.

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References

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    [Crossref]
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  5. M. J. L. Soret, “Influence des surfaces d’eau sur la polarisation atmospherique et observation de deux points neutres a droite et a gauche de Soleil,” Compt. Rend. 107, 867–870 (1888).
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    [Crossref]
  7. M. A. Cornu, “Observations relatives a la couronne visible actuellement autour du Soleil,” Compt. Rend. 99, 488–493 (1884).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Kawata and A. Yamazaki, “Multiple scattering analysis of airborne POLDER image data over the sea,” IEEE Trans. On Geoscience Remote Sens. 3611), 51–60 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. F. Bohren, and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, 1983).
  11. A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, “Elliptical polarization of submarine illumination,” J. Mar. Res. 16, 255–282 (1958).
  12. K. J. Voss and N. Souaidia, “POLRADS: polarization radiance distribution measurement system,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19672–19680 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. K. J. Voss and A. L. Chapin, “Upwelling radiance distribution camera system, NURADS,” Opt. Express 13(11), 4250–4262 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37(3), 491–500 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  15. P.-W. Zhai, G. W. Kattawar, and P. Yang, “Impulse response solution to the three-dimensional vector radiative transfer equation in atmosphere-ocean systems. I. Monte Carlo method,” Appl. Opt. 47(8), 1037–1047 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. P. M. Teillet, “Rayleigh optical depth comparisons from various sources,” Appl. Opt. 29(13), 1897–1900 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, B. G. Mitchell, J. L. Mueller, M. Kahru, J. Wieland, and M. Stramska, “Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4, Volume IV: Inherent Optical Properties: Instruments, Characterizations, Field Measurements, and Data Analysis Protocols,” NASA/TM-2003–21621/Rev4-Vol IV (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 2002).
  18. A. Morel and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30(30), 4427–4438 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23(23), 4427–4439 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” SIO Ref. 72–78 (University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Visibility Laboratory, 1972).
  21. L. G. Henyey and J. L. Greenstein, “Diffuse radiation in the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 93, 70–83 (1941).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. T. Adams, E. Aas, N. K. Hjøerslev, and B. Lundgren, “Comparison of radiance and polarization values observed in the Mediterranean Sea and simulated in a Monte Carlo model,” Appl. Opt. 41(15), 2724–2733 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. J. Lenoble and C. Broquez, “A comparitive review of radiation aerosol models,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 57, 1–20 (1984).
  24. C. Cox and W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).
  25. J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters,” Appl. Opt. 45(22), 5542–5567 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. J. T. Adams and D. J. Gray, “Neutral points in an atmosphere-ocean system. 2: Downwelling light field,” Appl. Opt. 50(3), 335–346 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2002 (2)

1998 (1)

Y. Kawata and A. Yamazaki, “Multiple scattering analysis of airborne POLDER image data over the sea,” IEEE Trans. On Geoscience Remote Sens. 3611), 51–60 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37(3), 491–500 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

1984 (2)

K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23(23), 4427–4439 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lenoble and C. Broquez, “A comparitive review of radiation aerosol models,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 57, 1–20 (1984).

1968 (1)

1958 (1)

A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, “Elliptical polarization of submarine illumination,” J. Mar. Res. 16, 255–282 (1958).

1954 (1)

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

1941 (1)

L. G. Henyey and J. L. Greenstein, “Diffuse radiation in the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 93, 70–83 (1941).
[Crossref]

1888 (1)

M. J. L. Soret, “Influence des surfaces d’eau sur la polarisation atmospherique et observation de deux points neutres a droite et a gauche de Soleil,” Compt. Rend. 107, 867–870 (1888).

1884 (1)

M. A. Cornu, “Observations relatives a la couronne visible actuellement autour du Soleil,” Compt. Rend. 99, 488–493 (1884).

1847 (1)

D. Brewster, “On the polarisation of the atmosphere,” Phil. Mag. J. Sci. 31, 444–454 (1847).

1840 (1)

J. Babinet, “Sur un nouveau point neutre dans l’atmosphere,” CR (East Lansing, Mich.) 11, 618–620 (1840).

Aas, E.

Adams, J. T.

Babinet, J.

J. Babinet, “Sur un nouveau point neutre dans l’atmosphere,” CR (East Lansing, Mich.) 11, 618–620 (1840).

Barta, A.

Bernath, B.

Brewster, D.

D. Brewster, “On the polarisation of the atmosphere,” Phil. Mag. J. Sci. 31, 444–454 (1847).

Broquez, C.

J. Lenoble and C. Broquez, “A comparitive review of radiation aerosol models,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 57, 1–20 (1984).

Cairns, B.

Chapin, A. L.

Chowdhary, J.

Cornu, M. A.

M. A. Cornu, “Observations relatives a la couronne visible actuellement autour du Soleil,” Compt. Rend. 99, 488–493 (1884).

Cox, C.

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

Ding, K.

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37(3), 491–500 (1992).
[Crossref]

Fraser, R. S.

Fry, E. S.

Gentili, B.

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37(3), 491–500 (1992).
[Crossref]

Gray, D. J.

Greenstein, J. L.

L. G. Henyey and J. L. Greenstein, “Diffuse radiation in the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 93, 70–83 (1941).
[Crossref]

Henyey, L. G.

L. G. Henyey and J. L. Greenstein, “Diffuse radiation in the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 93, 70–83 (1941).
[Crossref]

Hjøerslev, N. K.

Horvath, G.

Ivanoff, A.

A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, “Elliptical polarization of submarine illumination,” J. Mar. Res. 16, 255–282 (1958).

Kattawar, G. W.

Kawata, Y.

Y. Kawata and A. Yamazaki, “Multiple scattering analysis of airborne POLDER image data over the sea,” IEEE Trans. On Geoscience Remote Sens. 3611), 51–60 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lenoble, J.

J. Lenoble and C. Broquez, “A comparitive review of radiation aerosol models,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 57, 1–20 (1984).

Lundgren, B.

Morel, A.

Munk, W.

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

Soret, M. J. L.

M. J. L. Soret, “Influence des surfaces d’eau sur la polarisation atmospherique et observation de deux points neutres a droite et a gauche de Soleil,” Compt. Rend. 107, 867–870 (1888).

Souaidia, N.

Suhai, B.

Teillet, P. M.

Travis, L. D.

Voss, K. J.

Waterman, T. H.

A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, “Elliptical polarization of submarine illumination,” J. Mar. Res. 16, 255–282 (1958).

Wehner, R.

Yamazaki, A.

Y. Kawata and A. Yamazaki, “Multiple scattering analysis of airborne POLDER image data over the sea,” IEEE Trans. On Geoscience Remote Sens. 3611), 51–60 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yang, P.

Zhai, P.-W.

Appl. Opt. (8)

K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23(23), 4427–4439 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Teillet, “Rayleigh optical depth comparisons from various sources,” Appl. Opt. 29(13), 1897–1900 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Adams and G. W. Kattawar, “Neutral points in an atmosphere-ocean system. 1: upwelling light field,” Appl. Opt. 36(9), 1976–1986 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Morel and B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30(30), 4427–4438 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Adams, E. Aas, N. K. Hjøerslev, and B. Lundgren, “Comparison of radiance and polarization values observed in the Mediterranean Sea and simulated in a Monte Carlo model,” Appl. Opt. 41(15), 2724–2733 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters,” Appl. Opt. 45(22), 5542–5567 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-W. Zhai, G. W. Kattawar, and P. Yang, “Impulse response solution to the three-dimensional vector radiative transfer equation in atmosphere-ocean systems. I. Monte Carlo method,” Appl. Opt. 47(8), 1037–1047 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Adams and D. J. Gray, “Neutral points in an atmosphere-ocean system. 2: Downwelling light field,” Appl. Opt. 50(3), 335–346 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Astrophys. J. (1)

L. G. Henyey and J. L. Greenstein, “Diffuse radiation in the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 93, 70–83 (1941).
[Crossref]

Compt. Rend. (2)

M. A. Cornu, “Observations relatives a la couronne visible actuellement autour du Soleil,” Compt. Rend. 99, 488–493 (1884).

M. J. L. Soret, “Influence des surfaces d’eau sur la polarisation atmospherique et observation de deux points neutres a droite et a gauche de Soleil,” Compt. Rend. 107, 867–870 (1888).

Contrib. Atmos. Phys. (1)

J. Lenoble and C. Broquez, “A comparitive review of radiation aerosol models,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 57, 1–20 (1984).

CR (East Lansing, Mich.) (1)

J. Babinet, “Sur un nouveau point neutre dans l’atmosphere,” CR (East Lansing, Mich.) 11, 618–620 (1840).

IEEE Trans. On Geoscience Remote Sens. (1)

Y. Kawata and A. Yamazaki, “Multiple scattering analysis of airborne POLDER image data over the sea,” IEEE Trans. On Geoscience Remote Sens. 3611), 51–60 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Mar. Res. (2)

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, “Elliptical polarization of submarine illumination,” J. Mar. Res. 16, 255–282 (1958).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Limnol. Oceanogr. (1)

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37(3), 491–500 (1992).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Phil. Mag. J. Sci. (1)

D. Brewster, “On the polarisation of the atmosphere,” Phil. Mag. J. Sci. 31, 444–454 (1847).

Other (4)

K. L. Coulson, Polarization and intensity of light in the Atmosphere (A. Deepak Publishing, 1988).

S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, B. G. Mitchell, J. L. Mueller, M. Kahru, J. Wieland, and M. Stramska, “Ocean Optics Protocols For Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4, Volume IV: Inherent Optical Properties: Instruments, Characterizations, Field Measurements, and Data Analysis Protocols,” NASA/TM-2003–21621/Rev4-Vol IV (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 2002).

T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” SIO Ref. 72–78 (University of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Visibility Laboratory, 1972).

C. F. Bohren, and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, 1983).

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