Abstract

We have demonstrated a traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator based on the hybrid silicon platform. For a device with a 100 μm active segment, the small-signal electro/optical response renders a 3 dB bandwidth of around 42 GHz and its modulation efficiency reaches 23 GHz/V. A dynamic extinction ratio of 9.8 dB with a driving voltage swing of only 2 V was demonstrated at a transmission rate of 50 Gb/s. This represents a significant improvement for modulators compatible with integration of silicon-based photonic integrated circuits.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. D. Liang, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and J. Bowers, “Hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics,” Materials 3(3), 1782–1802 (2010).
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  2. J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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  4. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Basak, L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, D. Samara-Rubio, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Developments in gigascale silicon optical modulators using free carrier dispersion mechanisms,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 1 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  13. C. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. Winzer, J. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, N. Sauer, and G. Raybon, “Compact High-Speed InP DQPSK Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1184–1186 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed hybrid silicon evanescent electroabsorption modulator,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9936–9941 (2008).
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  16. F. Devaux, S. Chelles, A. Ougazzaden, A. Mircea, and J. Harmand, “Electroabsorption modulators for high-bit-rate optical communications: a comparison of strained InGaAs/InAIAs and InGaAsP/InGaAsP MQW,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10(7), 887–901 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. Boudinov, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Electrical isolation of n-type and p-type InP layers by proton bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(10), 5343–5347 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and of chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(13), 1937–1940 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

D. Liang, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and J. Bowers, “Hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics,” Materials 3(3), 1782–1802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang and J. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

J. Basak, L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, D. Samara-Rubio, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Developments in gigascale silicon optical modulators using free carrier dispersion mechanisms,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed hybrid silicon evanescent electroabsorption modulator,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9936–9941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. Winzer, J. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, N. Sauer, and G. Raybon, “Compact High-Speed InP DQPSK Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1184–1186 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

Y. Chiu, T. Wu, W. Cheng, F. Lin, and J. Bowers, “Enhanced performance in traveling-wave electroabsorption modulators based on undercut-etching the active-region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2065–2067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

R. Lewén, S. Irmscher, U. Westergren, L. Thylén, and U. Eriksson, “Segmented transmission-line electroabsorption modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 172–179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

H. Boudinov, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Electrical isolation of n-type and p-type InP layers by proton bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(10), 5343–5347 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

F. Devaux, S. Chelles, A. Ougazzaden, A. Mircea, and J. Harmand, “Electroabsorption modulators for high-bit-rate optical communications: a comparison of strained InGaAs/InAIAs and InGaAsP/InGaAsP MQW,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10(7), 887–901 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and of chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(13), 1937–1940 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. Walker, “High-speed III-V semiconductor intensity modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(3), 654–667 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Adamiecki, A.

C. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. Winzer, J. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, N. Sauer, and G. Raybon, “Compact High-Speed InP DQPSK Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1184–1186 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

D. Liang, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and J. Bowers, “Hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics,” Materials 3(3), 1782–1802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Basak, J.

J. Basak, L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, D. Samara-Rubio, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Developments in gigascale silicon optical modulators using free carrier dispersion mechanisms,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boudinov, H.

H. Boudinov, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Electrical isolation of n-type and p-type InP layers by proton bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(10), 5343–5347 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J.

D. Liang, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and J. Bowers, “Hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics,” Materials 3(3), 1782–1802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang and J. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chiu, T. Wu, W. Cheng, F. Lin, and J. Bowers, “Enhanced performance in traveling-wave electroabsorption modulators based on undercut-etching the active-region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2065–2067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Jain, M. Sysak, G. Kurczveil, and J. Bowers, “Integrated Hybrid Silicon DFB Laser-EAM array using Quantum Well Intermixing, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. Submitted.

Bowers, J. E.

Chelles, S.

F. Devaux, S. Chelles, A. Ougazzaden, A. Mircea, and J. Harmand, “Electroabsorption modulators for high-bit-rate optical communications: a comparison of strained InGaAs/InAIAs and InGaAsP/InGaAsP MQW,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10(7), 887–901 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. W.

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W.

Y. Chiu, T. Wu, W. Cheng, F. Lin, and J. Bowers, “Enhanced performance in traveling-wave electroabsorption modulators based on undercut-etching the active-region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2065–2067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

J. Basak, L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, D. Samara-Rubio, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Developments in gigascale silicon optical modulators using free carrier dispersion mechanisms,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiu, Y.

Y. Chiu, T. Wu, W. Cheng, F. Lin, and J. Bowers, “Enhanced performance in traveling-wave electroabsorption modulators based on undercut-etching the active-region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2065–2067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ciftcioglu, B.

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, R.

J. Basak, L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, D. Samara-Rubio, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Developments in gigascale silicon optical modulators using free carrier dispersion mechanisms,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, F.

F. Devaux, S. Chelles, A. Ougazzaden, A. Mircea, and J. Harmand, “Electroabsorption modulators for high-bit-rate optical communications: a comparison of strained InGaAs/InAIAs and InGaAsP/InGaAsP MQW,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10(7), 887–901 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and of chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(13), 1937–1940 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C.

C. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. Winzer, J. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, N. Sauer, and G. Raybon, “Compact High-Speed InP DQPSK Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1184–1186 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, U.

Ge, Y.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harmand, J.

F. Devaux, S. Chelles, A. Ougazzaden, A. Mircea, and J. Harmand, “Electroabsorption modulators for high-bit-rate optical communications: a comparison of strained InGaAs/InAIAs and InGaAsP/InGaAsP MQW,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10(7), 887–901 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irmscher, S.

Izhaky, N.

J. Basak, L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, D. Samara-Rubio, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Developments in gigascale silicon optical modulators using free carrier dispersion mechanisms,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jagadish, C.

H. Boudinov, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Electrical isolation of n-type and p-type InP layers by proton bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(10), 5343–5347 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jain, S.

S. Jain, M. Sysak, G. Kurczveil, and J. Bowers, “Integrated Hybrid Silicon DFB Laser-EAM array using Quantum Well Intermixing, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. Submitted.

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamins, T. I.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerdiles, J. F.

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and of chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(13), 1937–1940 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y. H.

Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed hybrid silicon evanescent electroabsorption modulator,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9936–9941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurczveil, G.

S. Jain, M. Sysak, G. Kurczveil, and J. Bowers, “Integrated Hybrid Silicon DFB Laser-EAM array using Quantum Well Intermixing, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. Submitted.

Lee, Y. K.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewén, R.

Liang, D.

D. Liang and J. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and J. Bowers, “Hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics,” Materials 3(3), 1782–1802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

J. Basak, L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, D. Samara-Rubio, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Developments in gigascale silicon optical modulators using free carrier dispersion mechanisms,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, F.

Y. Chiu, T. Wu, W. Cheng, F. Lin, and J. Bowers, “Enhanced performance in traveling-wave electroabsorption modulators based on undercut-etching the active-region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2065–2067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

J. Basak, L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, D. Samara-Rubio, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Developments in gigascale silicon optical modulators using free carrier dispersion mechanisms,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mircea, A.

F. Devaux, S. Chelles, A. Ougazzaden, A. Mircea, and J. Harmand, “Electroabsorption modulators for high-bit-rate optical communications: a comparison of strained InGaAs/InAIAs and InGaAsP/InGaAsP MQW,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10(7), 887–901 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

J. Basak, L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, D. Samara-Rubio, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Developments in gigascale silicon optical modulators using free carrier dispersion mechanisms,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ougazzaden, A.

F. Devaux, S. Chelles, A. Ougazzaden, A. Mircea, and J. Harmand, “Electroabsorption modulators for high-bit-rate optical communications: a comparison of strained InGaAs/InAIAs and InGaAsP/InGaAsP MQW,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10(7), 887–901 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

J. Basak, L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, D. Samara-Rubio, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Developments in gigascale silicon optical modulators using free carrier dispersion mechanisms,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peters, J. D.

Pomerene, A.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raybon, G.

C. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. Winzer, J. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, N. Sauer, and G. Raybon, “Compact High-Speed InP DQPSK Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1184–1186 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ren, S.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roelkens, G.

D. Liang, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and J. Bowers, “Hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics,” Materials 3(3), 1782–1802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roth, J. E.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubin, D.

J. Basak, L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, D. Samara-Rubio, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Developments in gigascale silicon optical modulators using free carrier dispersion mechanisms,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 1 (2008).
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A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
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A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

J. Basak, L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, D. Samara-Rubio, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Developments in gigascale silicon optical modulators using free carrier dispersion mechanisms,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
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Sauer, N.

C. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. Winzer, J. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, N. Sauer, and G. Raybon, “Compact High-Speed InP DQPSK Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1184–1186 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
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Sinsky, J.

C. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. Winzer, J. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, N. Sauer, and G. Raybon, “Compact High-Speed InP DQPSK Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1184–1186 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sorel, Y.

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and of chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(13), 1937–1940 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
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S. Jain, M. Sysak, G. Kurczveil, and J. Bowers, “Integrated Hybrid Silicon DFB Laser-EAM array using Quantum Well Intermixing, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. Submitted.

Tan, H. H.

H. Boudinov, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Electrical isolation of n-type and p-type InP layers by proton bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(10), 5343–5347 (2001).
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Walker, R.

R. Walker, “High-speed III-V semiconductor intensity modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(3), 654–667 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Winzer, P.

C. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. Winzer, J. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, N. Sauer, and G. Raybon, “Compact High-Speed InP DQPSK Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1184–1186 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T.

Y. Chiu, T. Wu, W. Cheng, F. Lin, and J. Bowers, “Enhanced performance in traveling-wave electroabsorption modulators based on undercut-etching the active-region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2065–2067 (2005).
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Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

C. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. Winzer, J. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, N. Sauer, and G. Raybon, “Compact High-Speed InP DQPSK Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1184–1186 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

J. Basak, L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, D. Samara-Rubio, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Developments in gigascale silicon optical modulators using free carrier dispersion mechanisms,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Walker, “High-speed III-V semiconductor intensity modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(3), 654–667 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Jain, M. Sysak, G. Kurczveil, and J. Bowers, “Integrated Hybrid Silicon DFB Laser-EAM array using Quantum Well Intermixing, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. Submitted.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C. Doerr, L. Zhang, P. Winzer, J. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, N. Sauer, and G. Raybon, “Compact High-Speed InP DQPSK Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1184–1186 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chiu, T. Wu, W. Cheng, F. Lin, and J. Bowers, “Enhanced performance in traveling-wave electroabsorption modulators based on undercut-etching the active-region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2065–2067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Boudinov, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Electrical isolation of n-type and p-type InP layers by proton bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(10), 5343–5347 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and of chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(13), 1937–1940 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Lewén, S. Irmscher, U. Westergren, L. Thylén, and U. Eriksson, “Segmented transmission-line electroabsorption modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 172–179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Materials (1)

D. Liang, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and J. Bowers, “Hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics,” Materials 3(3), 1782–1802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang and J. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

F. Devaux, S. Chelles, A. Ougazzaden, A. Mircea, and J. Harmand, “Electroabsorption modulators for high-bit-rate optical communications: a comparison of strained InGaAs/InAIAs and InGaAsP/InGaAsP MQW,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10(7), 887–901 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic structure of a hybrid silicon TW-EAM. (b) Cross section of the modulation segment with a superimposed fundamental optical mode. (c) Top-view photograph of a fabricated TW-EAM.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Device loss of a hybrid silicon TW-EAM under different biases. The inset shows the schematic of the testing structure for the loss measurement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Small signal E/O response and (b) the microwave reflection to the RF source (S11) for a hybrid silicon TW-EAM with a 100 µm active segment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) E/O response with −3V bias for chirp measurement; (b) Chirp parameters at different biases. A 27.92 km single-mode fiber was used.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

50 Gb/s NRZ eye diagram at λ = 1550 nm with 231-1 PRBS pattern for a 100 μm long hybrid silicon TW-EAM. The modulator was biased at −3 V with a driving voltage swing of only 2 V.

Equations (1)

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L o s s ( d B ) = 10 log 10 ( P 2 P 1 ) = 10 log 10 ( I 2 I 1 ) ,

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