Abstract

The electron-electron correlation in nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) from aligned molecules by linearly polarized 800 nm laser pulses has been investigated with the three-dimensional classical ensemble model. The result shows that for the perpendicular alignment the two electrons involved in NSDI more likely exit the molecule into the opposite hemispheres as compared to the parallel alignment, which agrees well with the experimental result [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005)]. This alignment effect is qualitatively explained based on the suppressed potential barriers which are different for parallel molecules and perpendicular molecules. Additionally, the intensity dependence of the alignment effect is also explored.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. N. Fittingoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Rescattering Double Ionization of D2 and H2 by Intense Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. S. P. Bechcicki, K. Sacha, B. Eckhardt, and J. Zakrzewski, “Nonsequential double ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 033407 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, “Electron drift directions in strong-field double ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. B 42, 134009 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, Q. Zhang, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “Controlling nonsequential double ionization via two-color few-cycle pulses,” Opt. Express 18, 632–638 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Y. Zhou, C. Huang, A. H. Tong, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization by orthogonal two-color laser pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 2301–2308 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, Q. Zhang, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “Controlling nonsequential double ionization via two-color few-cycle pulses,” Opt. Express 18, 632–638 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liao and P. X. Lu, “Energy correlation in above-threshold nonsequential double ionization at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 021403(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

Q. Liao and P. X. Lu, “Manipulating nonsequential double ionization via alignment of asymmetric molecules,” Opt. Express 18, 15550–15557 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Emmanouilidou and A. Staudte, “Intensity dependence of strong-field double-ionization mechanisms: From field-assisted recollision ionization to recollision-assisted field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 053415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, “Electron drift directions in strong-field double ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. B 42, 134009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, “Anticorrelated electrons from weak recollisions in nonsequential double ionization,” J. Phys. B 41, 211002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Durr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schroter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, J. Chen, S. P. Yang, and J. Liu, “Alignment effect in nonsequential double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 023401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable Time Lag and Backward Ejection in Full-Dimensional Analysis of Strong-Field Double Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. S. P. Bechcicki, K. Sacha, B. Eckhardt, and J. Zakrzewski, “Nonsequential double ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 033407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, A. B. Bardon, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, “Controlling Attosecond Double Ionization Dynamics via Molecular Alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Rescattering Double Ionization of D2 and H2 by Intense Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of Helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707–4710 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of Momentum Distribution of Recoil Ions from Laser Induced Nonsequential Double Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3546–3549 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

D. N. Fittingoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alnaser, A. S.

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Rescattering Double Ionization of D2 and H2 by Intense Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardon, A. B.

D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, A. B. Bardon, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, “Controlling Attosecond Double Ionization Dynamics via Molecular Alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bechcicki, J. S. P.

J. S. P. Bechcicki, K. Sacha, B. Eckhardt, and J. Zakrzewski, “Nonsequential double ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 033407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of Momentum Distribution of Recoil Ions from Laser Induced Nonsequential Double Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3546–3549 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benis, E. P.

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Rescattering Double Ionization of D2 and H2 by Intense Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolton, P. R.

D. N. Fittingoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Breen, L.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable Time Lag and Backward Ejection in Full-Dimensional Analysis of Strong-Field Double Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, B.

D. N. Fittingoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Y. Li, J. Chen, S. P. Yang, and J. Liu, “Alignment effect in nonsequential double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 023401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cocke, C. L.

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Rescattering Double Ionization of D2 and H2 by Intense Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, A. B. Bardon, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, “Controlling Attosecond Double Ionization Dynamics via Molecular Alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Jesus, V. L. B.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schroter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deipenwisch, J.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiMauro, L. F.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorn, A.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dörner, R.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, A. B. Bardon, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, “Controlling Attosecond Double Ionization Dynamics via Molecular Alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreischuh, A.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durr, M.

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Durr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eberly, J. H.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable Time Lag and Backward Ejection in Full-Dimensional Analysis of Strong-Field Double Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckhardt, B.

J. S. P. Bechcicki, K. Sacha, B. Eckhardt, and J. Zakrzewski, “Nonsequential double ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 033407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Emmanouilidou, A.

A. Emmanouilidou and A. Staudte, “Intensity dependence of strong-field double-ionization mechanisms: From field-assisted recollision ionization to recollision-assisted field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 053415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Engel, V.

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of Helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707–4710 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eremina, E.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ergler, Th.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schroter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Faisal, F. H. M.

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of Momentum Distribution of Recoil Ions from Laser Induced Nonsequential Double Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3546–3549 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feuerstein, B.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schroter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, D.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fittingoff, D. N.

D. N. Fittingoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gross, E. K. U.

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of Helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707–4710 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haan, S. L.

S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, “Electron drift directions in strong-field double ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. B 42, 134009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, “Anticorrelated electrons from weak recollisions in nonsequential double ionization,” J. Phys. B 41, 211002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable Time Lag and Backward Ejection in Full-Dimensional Analysis of Strong-Field Double Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Höhr, C.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, W.

Huang, C.

Jagutzki, O.

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kammer, S.

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karim, A.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable Time Lag and Backward Ejection in Full-Dimensional Analysis of Strong-Field Double Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korn, G.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulander, K. C.

D. N. Fittingoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kulander, K.C.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lein, M.

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of Helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707–4710 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, J. Chen, S. P. Yang, and J. Liu, “Alignment effect in nonsequential double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 023401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Q.

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, A. H. Tong, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization by orthogonal two-color laser pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 2301–2308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, Q. Zhang, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “Controlling nonsequential double ionization via two-color few-cycle pulses,” Opt. Express 18, 632–638 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liao and P. X. Lu, “Energy correlation in above-threshold nonsequential double ionization at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 021403(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liao and P. X. Lu, “Manipulating nonsequential double ionization via alignment of asymmetric molecules,” Opt. Express 18, 15550–15557 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. D.

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Rescattering Double Ionization of D2 and H2 by Intense Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Y. Li, J. Chen, S. P. Yang, and J. Liu, “Alignment effect in nonsequential double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 023401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Durr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, P.

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, A. H. Tong, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization by orthogonal two-color laser pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 2301–2308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, Q. Zhang, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “Controlling nonsequential double ionization via two-color few-cycle pulses,” Opt. Express 18, 632–638 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P. X.

Q. Liao and P. X. Lu, “Energy correlation in above-threshold nonsequential double ionization at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 021403(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liao and P. X. Lu, “Manipulating nonsequential double ionization via alignment of asymmetric molecules,” Opt. Express 18, 15550–15557 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maharjan, C. M.

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meckel, M.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mergel, V.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Durr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moshammer, R.

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Durr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schroter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neumayer, P.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osipov, T.

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Rescattering Double Ionization of D2 and H2 by Intense Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, G. G.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plantinga, P. W.

S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, “Electron drift directions in strong-field double ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. B 42, 134009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ranitovic, P.

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayner, D. M.

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rottke, H.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudenko, A.

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Durr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schroter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz, C.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sacha, K.

J. S. P. Bechcicki, K. Sacha, B. Eckhardt, and J. Zakrzewski, “Nonsequential double ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 033407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sandner, W.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schätzel, M. G.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schöffler, M.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schössler, S.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schroter, C. D.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schroter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schröter, C. D.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shan, B.

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Rescattering Double Ionization of D2 and H2 by Intense Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheehy, B.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shomsky, K. N.

S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, “Electron drift directions in strong-field double ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. B 42, 134009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, “Anticorrelated electrons from weak recollisions in nonsequential double ionization,” J. Phys. B 41, 211002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, M.

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Durr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, Z. S.

S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, “Electron drift directions in strong-field double ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. B 42, 134009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, “Anticorrelated electrons from weak recollisions in nonsequential double ionization,” J. Phys. B 41, 211002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smolarski, M.

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielberger, L.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staudte, A.

A. Emmanouilidou and A. Staudte, “Intensity dependence of strong-field double-ionization mechanisms: From field-assisted recollision ionization to recollision-assisted field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 053415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, A. B. Bardon, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, “Controlling Attosecond Double Ionization Dynamics via Molecular Alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, A. H.

Tong, X. M.

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Rescattering Double Ionization of D2 and H2 by Intense Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trump, C.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tschuch, S.

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Durr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ullrich, J.

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Durr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schroter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulrich, B.

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urbasch, G.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, A. B. Bardon, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, “Controlling Attosecond Double Ionization Dynamics via Molecular Alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollmer, M.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voss, S.

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, B.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, H.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, Th.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wech, A.

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Rescattering Double Ionization of D2 and H2 by Intense Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weckenbrock, M.

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wittmann, M.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

WPlantinga, P.

S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, “Anticorrelated electrons from weak recollisions in nonsequential double ionization,” J. Phys. B 41, 211002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. P.

Y. Li, J. Chen, S. P. Yang, and J. Liu, “Alignment effect in nonsequential double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 023401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zakrzewski, J.

J. S. P. Bechcicki, K. Sacha, B. Eckhardt, and J. Zakrzewski, “Nonsequential double ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 033407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zeidler, D.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, A. B. Bardon, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, “Controlling Attosecond Double Ionization Dynamics via Molecular Alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, A. H. Tong, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization by orthogonal two-color laser pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 2301–2308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, Q. Zhang, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “Controlling nonsequential double ionization via two-color few-cycle pulses,” Opt. Express 18, 632–638 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zrost, K.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schroter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (2)

S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, “Anticorrelated electrons from weak recollisions in nonsequential double ionization,” J. Phys. B 41, 211002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, “Electron drift directions in strong-field double ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. B 42, 134009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. A (6)

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, J. Chen, S. P. Yang, and J. Liu, “Alignment effect in nonsequential double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 023401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. P. Bechcicki, K. Sacha, B. Eckhardt, and J. Zakrzewski, “Nonsequential double ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 033407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Emmanouilidou and A. Staudte, “Intensity dependence of strong-field double-ionization mechanisms: From field-assisted recollision ionization to recollision-assisted field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 053415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liao and P. X. Lu, “Energy correlation in above-threshold nonsequential double ionization at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 021403(R) (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (14)

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, M. G. Schätzel, A. Dreischuh, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Influence of molecular structure on double ionization of N2 and O2 by high intensity ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, S. Voss, X. M. Tong, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, T. Osipov, B. Shan, Z. Chang, and C. L. Cocke, “Effects of molecular structure on ion Disintegration patterns in ionization of O2 and N2 by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Fittingoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Rescattering Double Ionization of D2 and H2 by Intense Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schroter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Durr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of Helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707–4710 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of Momentum Distribution of Recoil Ions from Laser Induced Nonsequential Double Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3546–3549 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, A. B. Bardon, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, and P. B. Corkum, “Controlling Attosecond Double Ionization Dynamics via Molecular Alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable Time Lag and Backward Ejection in Full-Dimensional Analysis of Strong-Field Double Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The top row shows correlated electron momentum spectra in the direction parallel to the laser polarization for NSDI of nitrogen molecules at λ = 800 nm, I = 1.0 × 1014 W/cm 2. (a) molecules aligned parallel to the laser polarization, (b) molecules aligned perpendicular to the laser polarization. The second row displays the difference between the correlated electron spectra shown in the top row. Before taking their difference, the spectra have been normalized to the same number of events. (c) parallel minus perpendicular, (d) perpendicular minus parallel, and all negative values have been set to zero.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Final momenta of the first electron to ionize vs the second one for the same populations as in Fig. 1, with the forward direction (relative to the recollision direction) defined as positive. (a) molecules aligned parallel to the laser polarization, (b) molecules aligned perpendicular to the laser polarization.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Pulses of final ionization for DI trajectories vs time since beginning of the half-cycle bin in which recollision occurred. (ti − 2.0 for collisions occurring from 2.1c to 2.6c, ti − 2.5 for collisions occurring from 2.6c to 3.1c, and so forth). The solid blue curves: parallel molecules, dashed red curves: perpendicular molecules. (a) all DI trajectories, (b) anticorrelated trajectories. The green lines (0.75c and 1.25c) are drawn to guide the eye.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Combined Coulomb and laser field potential energy curves along the laser polarization with the laser intensity I = 1.0 × 1014 W/cm 2. Red curve: perpendicular molecules, blue curve: parallel molecules.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The intensity dependence of the increase of anticorrelated emissions from the perpendicular molecules as compared to the parallel molecules. The data is obtained when the DI events from the two cases are normalized to the same number. N 1 and N 2 represent anticorrelated emission numbers from the perpendicular molecules and the parallel molecules respectively. The squares are the calculated data. The solid line is drawn to guide the eye.

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