Abstract

We report on the electric field dependent carrier dynamics and optical absorption in nonpolar a-plane GaN-based quantum heterostructures grown on r-plane sapphire, which are surprisingly observed to be opposite to those polar ones of the same materials system and similar structure grown on c-plane. Confirmed by their time-resolved photoluminescence measurements and numerical analyses, we show that carrier lifetimes increase with increasing external electric field in nonpolar InGaN/GaN heterostructure epitaxy, whereas exactly the opposite occurs for the polar epitaxy. Moreover, we observe blue-shifting absorption spectra with increasing external electric field as a result of reversed quantum confined Stark effect in these polar structures, while we observe red-shifting absorption spectra with increasing external electric field because of standard quantum confined Stark effect in the nonpolar structures. We explain these opposite behaviors of external electric field dependence with the changing overlap of electron and hole wavefunctions in the context of Fermi’s golden rule.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High power InGaN single-quantum-well-structure blue and violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(13), 1868–1870 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4056–4058 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031102–031104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, “Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blueshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 762 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Zhang, S. Lee, H. Yan, H.-J. Choi, and P. Yang, “Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes,” Nature 422(6932), 599–602 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. Monemar and G. Pozina, ““Group III-nitride based hetero and quantum structures,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 239–290 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Wetzel, M. Zhu, J. Senawiratne, T. Detchprohm, P. D. Persans, L. Liu, E. A. Preble, and D. Hanser, “Light-emitting diode development on polar and non-polar GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3987–3991 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, D. Hommel, P. P. Paskov, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, and M. Tutor, “Nonpolar a- and m-plane bulk GaN sliced from boules: structural and optical characteristics,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(7), 1610–1642 (2007).
  11. K. Okamoto, H. Ohta, D. Nakagawa, M. Sonobe, J. Ichihara, and H. Takasu, “Dislocation-Free m-Plane InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on m-Plane GaN Single Crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(45), L1197–L1199 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m-Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S.-M. Hwang, Y.-G. Seo, K.-H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J.-H. Baek, S.-K. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M.-W. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Tyagi, M. C. Schmidt, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Comparison of time-resolved photoluminescence from InGaN single quantum wells grown on nonpolar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S800–S803 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Häberlen, T. J. Badcock, M. A. Moram, J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, P. Dawson, C. J. Humphreys, and R. A. Oliver, “Low temperature photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of nonpolar GaN grown using epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033523–033529 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Lioudakis, A. Othonos, E. Dimakis, E. Iliopoulos, and A. Georgakilas, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in InxGa1−xN (0001) epilayers: Effects of high fluence excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121128 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, I.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, and H. V. Demir, “Electric field dependent radiative decay kinetics of polar InGaN/GaN quantum heterostructures at low fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211107 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. D. Jho, J. S. Yahng, E. Oh, and D. S. Kim, “Field-dependent carrier decay dynamics in strained InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 035334 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. D. Jho, Y. S. Yahng, E. Oh, and D. S. Kim, “Measurement of piezoelectric field and tunneling times in strongly biased InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(8), 1130 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

M. Häberlen, T. J. Badcock, M. A. Moram, J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, P. Dawson, C. J. Humphreys, and R. A. Oliver, “Low temperature photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of nonpolar GaN grown using epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033523–033529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, I.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, and H. V. Demir, “Electric field dependent radiative decay kinetics of polar InGaN/GaN quantum heterostructures at low fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-M. Hwang, Y.-G. Seo, K.-H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J.-H. Baek, S.-K. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M.-W. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Tyagi, M. C. Schmidt, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Comparison of time-resolved photoluminescence from InGaN single quantum wells grown on nonpolar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S800–S803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

C. Wetzel, M. Zhu, J. Senawiratne, T. Detchprohm, P. D. Persans, L. Liu, E. A. Preble, and D. Hanser, “Light-emitting diode development on polar and non-polar GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3987–3991 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031102–031104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, “Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blueshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, D. Hommel, P. P. Paskov, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, and M. Tutor, “Nonpolar a- and m-plane bulk GaN sliced from boules: structural and optical characteristics,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(7), 1610–1642 (2007).

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m-Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

K. Okamoto, H. Ohta, D. Nakagawa, M. Sonobe, J. Ichihara, and H. Takasu, “Dislocation-Free m-Plane InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on m-Plane GaN Single Crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(45), L1197–L1199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Lioudakis, A. Othonos, E. Dimakis, E. Iliopoulos, and A. Georgakilas, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in InxGa1−xN (0001) epilayers: Effects of high fluence excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Zhang, S. Lee, H. Yan, H.-J. Choi, and P. Yang, “Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes,” Nature 422(6932), 599–602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

Y. D. Jho, J. S. Yahng, E. Oh, and D. S. Kim, “Field-dependent carrier decay dynamics in strained InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 035334 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

Y. D. Jho, Y. S. Yahng, E. Oh, and D. S. Kim, “Measurement of piezoelectric field and tunneling times in strongly biased InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(8), 1130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

B. Monemar and G. Pozina, ““Group III-nitride based hetero and quantum structures,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 239–290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4056–4058 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High power InGaN single-quantum-well-structure blue and violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(13), 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badcock, T. J.

M. Häberlen, T. J. Badcock, M. A. Moram, J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, P. Dawson, C. J. Humphreys, and R. A. Oliver, “Low temperature photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of nonpolar GaN grown using epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033523–033529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J.-H.

S.-M. Hwang, Y.-G. Seo, K.-H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J.-H. Baek, S.-K. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M.-W. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, I.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, and H. V. Demir, “Electric field dependent radiative decay kinetics of polar InGaN/GaN quantum heterostructures at low fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baik, K.-H.

S.-M. Hwang, Y.-G. Seo, K.-H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J.-H. Baek, S.-K. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M.-W. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C. A.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chemla, D. S.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, I.-S.

S.-M. Hwang, Y.-G. Seo, K.-H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J.-H. Baek, S.-K. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M.-W. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, M.-W.

S.-M. Hwang, Y.-G. Seo, K.-H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J.-H. Baek, S.-K. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M.-W. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.-J.

J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Zhang, S. Lee, H. Yan, H.-J. Choi, and P. Yang, “Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes,” Nature 422(6932), 599–602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, D. A.

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m-Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Damen, T. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawson, P.

M. Häberlen, T. J. Badcock, M. A. Moram, J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, P. Dawson, C. J. Humphreys, and R. A. Oliver, “Low temperature photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of nonpolar GaN grown using epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033523–033529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Demir, H. V.

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, I.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, and H. V. Demir, “Electric field dependent radiative decay kinetics of polar InGaN/GaN quantum heterostructures at low fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031102–031104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, “Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blueshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Tyagi, M. C. Schmidt, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Comparison of time-resolved photoluminescence from InGaN single quantum wells grown on nonpolar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S800–S803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m-Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Detchprohm, T.

C. Wetzel, M. Zhu, J. Senawiratne, T. Detchprohm, P. D. Persans, L. Liu, E. A. Preble, and D. Hanser, “Light-emitting diode development on polar and non-polar GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3987–3991 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, J.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dimakis, E.

E. Lioudakis, A. Othonos, E. Dimakis, E. Iliopoulos, and A. Georgakilas, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in InxGa1−xN (0001) epilayers: Effects of high fluence excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, R. M.

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m-Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feezell, D. F.

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m-Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujito, K.

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m-Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, G. A.

G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Tyagi, M. C. Schmidt, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Comparison of time-resolved photoluminescence from InGaN single quantum wells grown on nonpolar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S800–S803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Georgakilas, A.

E. Lioudakis, A. Othonos, E. Dimakis, E. Iliopoulos, and A. Georgakilas, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in InxGa1−xN (0001) epilayers: Effects of high fluence excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goldberger, J.

J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Zhang, S. Lee, H. Yan, H.-J. Choi, and P. Yang, “Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes,” Nature 422(6932), 599–602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gossard, A. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Häberlen, M.

M. Häberlen, T. J. Badcock, M. A. Moram, J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, P. Dawson, C. J. Humphreys, and R. A. Oliver, “Low temperature photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of nonpolar GaN grown using epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033523–033529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, M.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hanser, A.

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, D. Hommel, P. P. Paskov, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, and M. Tutor, “Nonpolar a- and m-plane bulk GaN sliced from boules: structural and optical characteristics,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(7), 1610–1642 (2007).

Hanser, D.

C. Wetzel, M. Zhu, J. Senawiratne, T. Detchprohm, P. D. Persans, L. Liu, E. A. Preble, and D. Hanser, “Light-emitting diode development on polar and non-polar GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3987–3991 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, R.

J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Zhang, S. Lee, H. Yan, H.-J. Choi, and P. Yang, “Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes,” Nature 422(6932), 599–602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollander, J. L.

M. Häberlen, T. J. Badcock, M. A. Moram, J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, P. Dawson, C. J. Humphreys, and R. A. Oliver, “Low temperature photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of nonpolar GaN grown using epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033523–033529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hommel, D.

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, D. Hommel, P. P. Paskov, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, and M. Tutor, “Nonpolar a- and m-plane bulk GaN sliced from boules: structural and optical characteristics,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(7), 1610–1642 (2007).

Humphreys, C. J.

M. Häberlen, T. J. Badcock, M. A. Moram, J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, P. Dawson, C. J. Humphreys, and R. A. Oliver, “Low temperature photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of nonpolar GaN grown using epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033523–033529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S.-M.

S.-M. Hwang, Y.-G. Seo, K.-H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J.-H. Baek, S.-K. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M.-W. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ichihara, J.

K. Okamoto, H. Ohta, D. Nakagawa, M. Sonobe, J. Ichihara, and H. Takasu, “Dislocation-Free m-Plane InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on m-Plane GaN Single Crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(45), L1197–L1199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iliopoulos, E.

E. Lioudakis, A. Othonos, E. Dimakis, E. Iliopoulos, and A. Georgakilas, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in InxGa1−xN (0001) epilayers: Effects of high fluence excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4056–4058 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High power InGaN single-quantum-well-structure blue and violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(13), 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jho, Y. D.

Y. D. Jho, J. S. Yahng, E. Oh, and D. S. Kim, “Field-dependent carrier decay dynamics in strained InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 035334 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Jho, Y. S. Yahng, E. Oh, and D. S. Kim, “Measurement of piezoelectric field and tunneling times in strongly biased InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(8), 1130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S. X.

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S.-K.

S.-M. Hwang, Y.-G. Seo, K.-H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J.-H. Baek, S.-K. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M.-W. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kappers, M. J.

M. Häberlen, T. J. Badcock, M. A. Moram, J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, P. Dawson, C. J. Humphreys, and R. A. Oliver, “Low temperature photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of nonpolar GaN grown using epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033523–033529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

Y. D. Jho, J. S. Yahng, E. Oh, and D. S. Kim, “Field-dependent carrier decay dynamics in strained InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 035334 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Jho, Y. S. Yahng, E. Oh, and D. S. Kim, “Measurement of piezoelectric field and tunneling times in strongly biased InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(8), 1130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-C.

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m-Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. G.

S.-M. Hwang, Y.-G. Seo, K.-H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J.-H. Baek, S.-K. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M.-W. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kiyoku, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4056–4058 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kroeger, R.

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, D. Hommel, P. P. Paskov, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, and M. Tutor, “Nonpolar a- and m-plane bulk GaN sliced from boules: structural and optical characteristics,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(7), 1610–1642 (2007).

Kung, P.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, I.-H.

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, I.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, and H. V. Demir, “Electric field dependent radiative decay kinetics of polar InGaN/GaN quantum heterostructures at low fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Zhang, S. Lee, H. Yan, H.-J. Choi, and P. Yang, “Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes,” Nature 422(6932), 599–602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lioudakis, E.

E. Lioudakis, A. Othonos, E. Dimakis, E. Iliopoulos, and A. Georgakilas, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in InxGa1−xN (0001) epilayers: Effects of high fluence excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

C. Wetzel, M. Zhu, J. Senawiratne, T. Detchprohm, P. D. Persans, L. Liu, E. A. Preble, and D. Hanser, “Light-emitting diode development on polar and non-polar GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3987–3991 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4056–4058 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monemar, B.

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, D. Hommel, P. P. Paskov, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, and M. Tutor, “Nonpolar a- and m-plane bulk GaN sliced from boules: structural and optical characteristics,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(7), 1610–1642 (2007).

B. Monemar and G. Pozina, ““Group III-nitride based hetero and quantum structures,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 239–290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Monroy, E.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moram, M. A.

M. Häberlen, T. J. Badcock, M. A. Moram, J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, P. Dawson, C. J. Humphreys, and R. A. Oliver, “Low temperature photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of nonpolar GaN grown using epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033523–033529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Munkholm, A.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4056–4058 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High power InGaN single-quantum-well-structure blue and violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(13), 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, D.

K. Okamoto, H. Ohta, D. Nakagawa, M. Sonobe, J. Ichihara, and H. Takasu, “Dislocation-Free m-Plane InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on m-Plane GaN Single Crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(45), L1197–L1199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Tyagi, M. C. Schmidt, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Comparison of time-resolved photoluminescence from InGaN single quantum wells grown on nonpolar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S800–S803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m-Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4056–4058 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High power InGaN single-quantum-well-structure blue and violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(13), 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nizamoglu, S.

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, I.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, and H. V. Demir, “Electric field dependent radiative decay kinetics of polar InGaN/GaN quantum heterostructures at low fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031102–031104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, “Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blueshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oh, E.

Y. D. Jho, J. S. Yahng, E. Oh, and D. S. Kim, “Field-dependent carrier decay dynamics in strained InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 035334 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Jho, Y. S. Yahng, E. Oh, and D. S. Kim, “Measurement of piezoelectric field and tunneling times in strongly biased InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(8), 1130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, H.

K. Okamoto, H. Ohta, D. Nakagawa, M. Sonobe, J. Ichihara, and H. Takasu, “Dislocation-Free m-Plane InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on m-Plane GaN Single Crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(45), L1197–L1199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, H. Ohta, D. Nakagawa, M. Sonobe, J. Ichihara, and H. Takasu, “Dislocation-Free m-Plane InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on m-Plane GaN Single Crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(45), L1197–L1199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, R. A.

M. Häberlen, T. J. Badcock, M. A. Moram, J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, P. Dawson, C. J. Humphreys, and R. A. Oliver, “Low temperature photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of nonpolar GaN grown using epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033523–033529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Othonos, A.

E. Lioudakis, A. Othonos, E. Dimakis, E. Iliopoulos, and A. Georgakilas, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in InxGa1−xN (0001) epilayers: Effects of high fluence excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ozel, T.

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, “Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blueshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paskov, P. P.

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, D. Hommel, P. P. Paskov, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, and M. Tutor, “Nonpolar a- and m-plane bulk GaN sliced from boules: structural and optical characteristics,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(7), 1610–1642 (2007).

Paskova, T.

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, D. Hommel, P. P. Paskov, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, and M. Tutor, “Nonpolar a- and m-plane bulk GaN sliced from boules: structural and optical characteristics,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(7), 1610–1642 (2007).

Persans, P. D.

C. Wetzel, M. Zhu, J. Senawiratne, T. Detchprohm, P. D. Persans, L. Liu, E. A. Preble, and D. Hanser, “Light-emitting diode development on polar and non-polar GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3987–3991 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pozina, G.

B. Monemar and G. Pozina, ““Group III-nitride based hetero and quantum structures,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 239–290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Preble, E.

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, D. Hommel, P. P. Paskov, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, and M. Tutor, “Nonpolar a- and m-plane bulk GaN sliced from boules: structural and optical characteristics,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(7), 1610–1642 (2007).

Preble, E. A.

C. Wetzel, M. Zhu, J. Senawiratne, T. Detchprohm, P. D. Persans, L. Liu, E. A. Preble, and D. Hanser, “Light-emitting diode development on polar and non-polar GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3987–3991 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saito, M.

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m-Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, F. J.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sari, E.

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, I.-H. Lee, J.-H. Baek, and H. V. Demir, “Electric field dependent radiative decay kinetics of polar InGaN/GaN quantum heterostructures at low fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, “Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blueshift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M. C.

G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Tyagi, M. C. Schmidt, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Comparison of time-resolved photoluminescence from InGaN single quantum wells grown on nonpolar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S800–S803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m-Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Senawiratne, J.

C. Wetzel, M. Zhu, J. Senawiratne, T. Detchprohm, P. D. Persans, L. Liu, E. A. Preble, and D. Hanser, “Light-emitting diode development on polar and non-polar GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3987–3991 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4056–4058 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High power InGaN single-quantum-well-structure blue and violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(13), 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seo, Y.-G.

S.-M. Hwang, Y.-G. Seo, K.-H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J.-H. Baek, S.-K. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M.-W. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, J.

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Tyagi, M. C. Schmidt, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Comparison of time-resolved photoluminescence from InGaN single quantum wells grown on nonpolar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S800–S803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sonobe, M.

K. Okamoto, H. Ohta, D. Nakagawa, M. Sonobe, J. Ichihara, and H. Takasu, “Dislocation-Free m-Plane InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on m-Plane GaN Single Crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(45), L1197–L1199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Tyagi, M. C. Schmidt, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Comparison of time-resolved photoluminescence from InGaN single quantum wells grown on nonpolar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S800–S803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m-Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4056–4058 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takasu, H.

K. Okamoto, H. Ohta, D. Nakagawa, M. Sonobe, J. Ichihara, and H. Takasu, “Dislocation-Free m-Plane InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on m-Plane GaN Single Crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(45), L1197–L1199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tutor, M.

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, D. Hommel, P. P. Paskov, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, and M. Tutor, “Nonpolar a- and m-plane bulk GaN sliced from boules: structural and optical characteristics,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(7), 1610–1642 (2007).

Tyagi, A.

G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Tyagi, M. C. Schmidt, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Comparison of time-resolved photoluminescence from InGaN single quantum wells grown on nonpolar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S800–S803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walker, D.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, C.

C. Wetzel, M. Zhu, J. Senawiratne, T. Detchprohm, P. D. Persans, L. Liu, E. A. Preble, and D. Hanser, “Light-emitting diode development on polar and non-polar GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3987–3991 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, N. M.

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, D. Hommel, P. P. Paskov, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, and M. Tutor, “Nonpolar a- and m-plane bulk GaN sliced from boules: structural and optical characteristics,” Phys. Status Solidi 4(7), 1610–1642 (2007).

Wood, T. H.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wraback, M.

G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Tyagi, M. C. Schmidt, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Comparison of time-resolved photoluminescence from InGaN single quantum wells grown on nonpolar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6(S2), S800–S803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F. J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi, “High-speed, low-noise metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yahng, J. S.

Y. D. Jho, J. S. Yahng, E. Oh, and D. S. Kim, “Field-dependent carrier decay dynamics in strained InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 035334 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yahng, Y. S.

Y. D. Jho, Y. S. Yahng, E. Oh, and D. S. Kim, “Measurement of piezoelectric field and tunneling times in strongly biased InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(8), 1130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4056–4058 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Zhang, S. Lee, H. Yan, H.-J. Choi, and P. Yang, “Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes,” Nature 422(6932), 599–602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Zhang, S. Lee, H. Yan, H.-J. Choi, and P. Yang, “Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes,” Nature 422(6932), 599–602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zengin, G.

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031102–031104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Zhang, S. Lee, H. Yan, H.-J. Choi, and P. Yang, “Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes,” Nature 422(6932), 599–602 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, M.

C. Wetzel, M. Zhu, J. Senawiratne, T. Detchprohm, P. D. Persans, L. Liu, E. A. Preble, and D. Hanser, “Light-emitting diode development on polar and non-polar GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3987–3991 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized photoluminescence (PL) spectra of our InGaN/GaN based polar and nonpolar quantum heterostructures at room temperature. The dashed blue line shows the TRPL emission wavelength, 500 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized electroluminescence (EL) spectra of our devices based on polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum heterostructures, both measured at a constant driving current of 20 mA at room temperature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Room temperature time-resolved photoluminescence (RT-TRPL) traces and numerical fits of our device with polar InGaN/GaN quantum heterostructures under different bias levels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Room temperature time-resolved photoluminescence (RT-TRPL) traces and numerical fits of our device with nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum heterostructures under different bias levels.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Carrier lifetime (τ) vs external electric field (E) for the polar and nonpolar devices. Note that here E is taken to be positive for the forward bias and negative for the reverse bias.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photocurrent spectra of our device based on polar InGaN/GaN quantum heterostructures. The arrow indicates the blue shift of the absorption edge with the increasing reverse bias.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photocurrent spectra of our device based on nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum heterostructures. The arrow indicates the red shift of the absorption edge with the increasing reverse bias.

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